Presentation on theme: "The European Reformation & it’s impact on the Americas 1. What was the Protestant Reformation & Counter-reformation? 2.When and what role did the key reformers."— Presentation transcript:
The European Reformation & it’s impact on the Americas 1. What was the Protestant Reformation & Counter-reformation? 2.When and what role did the key reformers play in the reformation in Continental Europe? 3.What was the resulting conflict & impact in the Americas?
Journal Write Have you ever disagreed with a belief or practice commonly used or held within your community, family, religion etc... How have you expressed your dissatisfaction with that belief or practice? Explain. To what lengths would you go to express your feelings? What would you do if you found your community, family, religion etc.... practicing a belief you did not agree with? Explain.
During the Middle Ages (400-1400 AD) the single most important power, politically, socially and culturally was the church- The Catholic Church. At almost the exact time that the New World was discovered, the Old World was changing. The men most responsible for this change are known as the Reformers- here are their stories. The Reformers: Setting the Stage
The Reformers: Johannes Gutenberg 1410 (?)- 1466 AD Germany Contribution: Invented a printing press capable of mass producing the printed word (books, leaflets, etc....). Significant Contributions: Printed 300 Gutenberg Bibles in both Latin and German. Increased literacy gave the common man access to the bible.
The Reformers: Martin Luther Born: 1483-1546 AD, Germany In 1506, he became a Catholic monk. In 1510, he visited Rome and was shocked by the spiritual laziness and the widespread sell of indulgences*. *Indulgences could be purchased for one's own salvation or to release a loved one from purgatory.
The Reformers: Martin Luther All his life, he felt a tremendous burden of guilt. Through prayer and bible study he came to believe men were saved by "grace" & "faith" not ordinances (baptism, marriage etc...). He argued against Papal authority. In 1517, he posted 95 problems with the church on the door of the Wittenberg castle church. In 1521, he was excommunicated by the Pope. His stand against the church made him the leader of the Protestant movement in Germany. The Door upon which Luther Posted his thesis
Think about it Watch the short film clip: “The Calm Before the Storm” & following the film clip write a short paragraph answering the question below: What was one concern written by Martin Luther on the 95 Thesis? Why do you think this concerned him? Be prepared to share your answer.
He studied both theology & law; he grew to appreciate humanistic & reforming movements. The Reformers: John Calvin Born: 1509-1564 AD, France
He reformed the church in Geneva, Switzerland. As a city/church official, he supported the development of public schools, hospitals, proper sewage system, and help for the poor and sick. The Reformers: John Calvin He underwent a personal religious experience and came to believe that the Bible, not the Pope, was in charge and people were saved by faith not works. His Protestant faith spread throughout Europe. Papal Authority Not necessary For salvation
The Reformers: Erasmus Born: 1469(?)-1536 AD, Italy Contribution: Catholic Scholar. He fought for a kinder and more humane approach towards religion. He worked to reform the Catholic Church. He criticized the leading classes and church dignitaries for their “unchristian behavior.”
Counter-Reformation A reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that arose in 16th-century Europe in response to the Protestant Reformation. It had two primary goals: 1. Reform theology Council of Trent 2. Stop the spread of the Protestant faith -Hapsburg Emperors (Charles I & Phillip II took military action to stop spread of Protestants) -Inquisitions, primarily in Spanish held lands 1 st Council 15452 nd Council 1551 - Clarify Catholic Doctrine- Dealt with issues - Reconfirmed the Nicene Creed raised by English - Canonize the Old and New Church (Henry VIII) Testaments & by French - Set the number of sacraments Calvinists at seven (Huguenots) - Defined original sin i.e. the Mass & - Ruled against Martin Luther transubstantiation.
12 The Habsburg (Spanish Empire) Charles I & Phillip II: The heirs of Ferdinand & Isabel Hernán Cortés (Baja California, 1532–1536) (Honduras, 1524) Francisco Pizarro (Peru 1509–1535 ) Hernán Cortés (Mexico, 1518–1522) United States Juan Ponce de Leon 1513-1521 Cornado1540–1542) Juan de Onate 1598-1608 Hernando De Soto 1539–1542 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Florida, 1565–1567 Juan Ponce de León ( Puerto Rico, 1508 Vasco Núñez de Balboa (Panamá, 1510–1519) Juan Pizarro (Perú, 1532–1536 Pedro de Valdivia (Chile, 1540–1552)
Counter-Reformation A reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that arose in 16th-century Europe in response to the Protestant Reformation. 3. Education and missionary work aimed at conversion & reconversion -Jesuits (often lay members mobility and adaptability)
Think about it What have we studied that shows the impact of the Counter-Reformation in the Americas? Did the church, through the Spanish, meet their goals? Explain your answer.
Consequences of Protestant Reformation in Germany The Thirty Year War
The Thirty Year War 1618-1648 Cause: Fought in the Germanic territories of the Holy Roman Empire. It was a religious conflict between Lutheran Protestants, some Calvinist Protestants and Catholics. The Habsburg monarchs, the heirs of Ferdinand & Isabel from Spain, were Catholic. The German Nobles were Protestant. The war was fought both to determine which religion would have power in Germany- Catholic or Protestant, and to determine who would reign: the Catholic Kings or the Protestant Nobles.
The Thirty Year War What Happened? 20 to 30 percent of the population died due to battle, famine and disease.
4. Many Germans fled war torn Germany for the Americas.... The New Netherlands (New York). The Thirty Year War Consequences 1. Germany divided into many different States. 2. Broke the power of the Hapsburg Empire (Catholics) in Northern Europe. 3. Gave the “State” power over the church.
Think about it Watch the short film clip: “The Thirty Year War” & following the film clip write a short paragraph answering the question below: What might it have been like to live in Germany, or even Rothenburg, during the 30 year war?
War in France The Huguenots were French Calvinists. Huguenots became known for their criticisms of the form of worship found in the Mass
War in France Religious wars, followed by brief periods of peace, continued for nearly fifty years. In 1598 the Edict of Nantes established Catholicism as the state religion of France, but granted the Protestants equality with Catholics and some religious and political freedom in France & their colonies An eyewitness depiction of St. Barthelemy in 1572, in which up to 70,000 Huguenots were massacred.
War in France In 1685, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes and declared Protestantism to be illegal Some two million Huguenots fled to surrounding Protestant countries (including those countries ravaged by the Thirty year war), and eventually throughout the world Thousands of French Protestants eventually fled to the Americas. Brazil 1555 Florida 1562 Nova Scotia 1628 All 13 colonies
War in France A group of Huguenots under the leadership of Jean Ribault in 1562 established the small colony of Fort Caroline in 1564, on the banks of the St. Johns River, in what is today Jacksonville, Florida The colony was the first attempt at any permanent European settlement in the present- day continental United States, the group survived only a short time. In 1565 they were slaughterd by the Spanish. The Spanish remained in Florida until 1819 Note the strategic location of Fort Carolina in the West Indies near the Spanish treasure fleet.
Mapping Activity Use the map provided in your workbook identify regions within the North and South America impacted by the French Huguenots and German Protestants. On the map provided in your workbook, label those Western European countries impacted most by the Protestant Reformation. In the summary on the next page, be sure to write down who was involved in the reformations and where did the reformations take place.
The Reformation & Counter-Reformation Who were the reformers that impacted the Catholic Church in Europe? When did they reform? Where did they live and complete their work? 1. 2 3. 4. What were the primary beliefs of the primary European reformers? 1. 2 3. 4. What were the causes of the Counter- Reformation in both Europe and the Americas? 1. 2 3. 4. What were the long term results of the reformation & counter-reformation in Europe and the Americas? 1. 2 3. 4.
The English Reformation & it’s impact on the Americas 1. How did the English Reformation differ from the European Reformation? 2. What happened and why with England’s first failed attempts at colonization? 3. How did English Religious Conflict and the resulting political philosophies impact the developing political ideas of the Americas?
Henry VII flirts with America Or England’s first voyages to America Who did Henry hire to sail in search of Asia? Where was the sailor from? Where did he arrive? What did he think he had found? What happened on his second voyage? What was the result? John Cabot, 1497 Italy Asia Four ships disappeared Cabot’s fate is still a mystery Henry VII stopped further voyages Newfoundland, Canada
Henry VII flirts with America Or England’s first voyages to America Newfoundland Canada Asia
Marriage as a Political Tool Catherine (daughter of The Catholic Monarchs- Ferdinand & Isabel) Arthur (son of Henry VII & Elizabeth of York)
Marriage I Henry VIII was crowned King in 1509, at the age of 19. Henry VIII jousting while Catherine of Aragon looks on Henry VIII allied England with Spain and as part of the Counter- Reformation declared war on France to ensure the victory of Catholicism over Protestants (during the French Religious wars) The Pope gave him the title, Defender of the Faith.
Marriage II Catherine & Henry VIII were married 24 years. After a number of miscarriages and several dead infants, Henry came to believe that he was being punished for marrying his dead brothers wife. Additionally he was in love with Anne Boleyn, a lady in waiting (or secretary) to his wife. Henry & Catherine’s only living heir Mary Tudor
Anne Boleyn The mistress that changed the course of history Anne studied the writing of Calvin evidence suggests she may have met him personally. She owned and studied the Calvinist Bible.
All this for an Heir!?! It pays to be the King! Henry appealed to the Pope for a divorce. During the course of Henry’s marriage to Catherine, Spain’s power over the Pope had increased. By now the most powerful person in Europe was Catharine’s nephew, Charles V -the Holy Roman Emperor.* The Pope was dependent on Charles V. Charles would not allow the divorce of Catherine (his aunt) from Henry VIII. Charles V was the son of Juana the Loca (the grandson of Ferdinand & Isabel)
A New Church Political Reformation When the Pope refused to grant Henry a divorce, (drawing on the title the Pope had earlier given him of Defender of the Faith), he named himself the head of the church in England and granted himself a divorce.
Marriage II A New World Henry married Anne. Anne gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth I.
They passed an “Act of Succession” which gave Anne’s Protestant children the right to inherit the throne over Catherine’s. The Church of England So... forget about Anne what about this new Church? An Act was written which proclaimed the King had total authority in England. The king was head of the church in England and the Pope could not pass judgments or excommunications that were valid in England. They passed “An Act of Submission of the Clergy” which forced all church leaders to swear allegiance to the King over the Pope. The breach between the king and the Pope forced believers to choose their allegiance - the most famous being Sir Thomas More, who was executed for treason in 1535. The King took over the Monasteries and Cathedrals. Crown revenues doubled for a few years.
King Henry and Anne had been together seven years- four as sweethearts, three as spouses. And the romance... at least for the King.... was beginning to die. The end of Queen Anne Out with the old - in with the new... The King's fancy for one of Anne’s ladies-in-waiting, Jane Seymour, began to grow. Anne's enemies at court began to plot against her. They persuaded the King to sign a document calling for an investigation of Anne, that would possibly result in charges of treason. On May 2, Queen Anne was arrested at Greenwich and was informed of the charges against her: adultery, incest and plotting to murder the King (witchcraft). She was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Jane Blink and you will miss her In October, a prince was born. Jane died from complications during the birth Within two days of Anne’s death, Henry married Jane Seymore.
The heirs are in place But just for the fun of it.... Lets finish the story of Henry’s wives. Anne of Cleves Married1540 Jan. -July Divorced Why: Too ugly She outlived them all. The arranged marriage led to Cromwell’s end Kathryn Howard Married:1540 - 1542 Executed Why: Adultery-Really! She was Anne’s cousin, and 20 years younger than the King. Katherine Parr Married: 1543 - 1547 Widowed She outlived Henry. Raised Elizabeth I
Summary English Reformation List 5-10 key individuals/ events/ ideas Summarize the English Reformation in 35- 50 words.
The Heirs of King Henry VIII Mary (Daughter of Catherine) Edward (Son of Jane) Elizabeth (Daughter of Anne) Mary (Catholic) Edward (Protestant) Elizabeth (Protestant) Each of Henry VIII children eventually came to the throne. Each brought Religious changes to England. None had any heirs (children)
…and why the Reformation changed America…. The English Come to America Comes to America Plymouth,Pilgrims: 1620 King Charles Jamestown: 1607 King James Roanoke: 1584 Queen Elizabeth I America was born during a period of great revolutionary change in England. These changes drastically altered the social, religious and political perspective of the new American people. St. Augustine: 1564 Founded by the French in 1564, Taken over by the Spanish in 1565
Henry’s heirs the next generation Read pages 115-118 1. Complete the Main Idea summary on pg 118. 2. Complete the readings and textbook questions on page 116 3. Complete the mapping activity on page 115 4. Skip the film clip on the bottom of page 117 *These are exit cards and must be completed prior to leaving class.
Elizabeth & Roanoke Sir Walter Raleigh 1585-1587 Raleigh returned to England, to get supplies & colonists. While in England the Spanish Armada sailed, he was forced to stay and fight the Spaniards. On his return he found the colonists had disappeared…