Presentation on theme: "Henry VIII Henry VIII (1491 –1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He succeed his father, Henry VII. Henry VIII is known for his."— Presentation transcript:
Henry VIII Henry VIII (1491 –1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He succeed his father, Henry VII. Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church: he asked for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon, but the Pope refused because Spain was the Roman Catholic Church’s main supporter. He abandoned her and married Anna Boleyn. Henry was excommunicated. This struggle led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and his own establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. He married six times for his desire to provide England with a male heir. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI, who died very young. Henry VIII”, “Henry VIII”, Hans Holbein, 1536
Her first foreign policy was against Scotland in order to oppose French. She knew that Mary, the Catholic Queen of Scots, wanted the crown of England, so Elizabeth chopped off her head. Then the Queen led several military compaigns in France and Ireland and defeated the Spanish Invincible Armada. In 1603 the queen felt sick and died after few days. Elizabeth I, "Darnley Portrait", c. 1575 Elizabeth I, called the Gloriana, was Queen of England and of Ireland from 1558 to 1603; with her death ended the Tudor dinasty. One of her first achievemnts as a queen was to support the establishment of an English Protestant Church. Elizabeth became famous as the Vergin Queen: she never married because she said she was married to England. Elizabeth I
English Madrigals A madrigal is a funny song for a small group of people to sing. Madrigals were already popular in Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries. The most important composer of madrigals in England were William Byrd, Thomas Morley and Orlando Gibbons. Also the Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn composed music mainly instrumental. MASQUE In the Tudor court a masque was an entertainment similar to the French assembled company was with musical accompaniment. Ben Jonson is one of the most famous composers of masque. But the greatest English composer of all times was Henry Purcell. He composed all types of music. He also wrote the first English opera; for this he became very famous. MUSIC
The first permanent theater was built in 1576 by James Burbage. It was outside the city walls because drama was considered guilty.It was called The Theater. Then a lot of others were built, for example Shakespeare’s ones were called The Globe and The Rose. The theatres were similar: round or octagonal, with two sets of balconies without a roof and the stage in the middle of the yard. Performances could be only during the good season from May to September and only in the afternoon for about two hours. The cost of the tickets varied, but however it was cheap and everyone could afford it. Everybody could interact with actors. There were no women actresses, so female characters were played by adolescents. There was no scenery, everything was imagined or narrated by actors. Costumes were rich, decorated with jewels, but contemporary. The Roman theatre influenced the Elizabethan one, especially Seneca: division into five acts, use of monologues, sanguinary plot. The action was continuous. Copyright did not exist : in fact it was considered a good thing to copy other ideas. The theater
Christopher Marlowe’s (1564-1593) first play performer onstage. On the London stage amburlaine (1587) about the conqueror Timur who rises from shepherd to warrior; If tooke respration by Thomas Kyd’s the Spanish Tragedy. The new of Malta, about a Maltese Jew’s barbarous revenge against the city authorities has a prologue delivered by a character represtenting Macchiavelli. Official documents tell us little about him. Marlowe has often been described as a spy, brawler, heretic homosexual as well as “ magician ” “ duelist ” “ tobacco- user ” “ rakehell ”. The Tragical History of doctor Faustus, was the first dramatized version of the Faust legend of a scholar ’ s dealing with the devil Tamburlaine The Great (1587) is about the conqueror Timur who rises from shepherd to warrior. He took respration by Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy. The Jew of Malta, about a Maltese Jew’s barbarous revenge against the city authorities has a prologue delivered by a character representing Macchiavelli.
Shakespeare’s identity... Shakespeare was poor, so how could he know the world and far towns as well as he did? To answer at this question, it is said someone else wrote his plays. Lots of nobles, courtiers and dramatists are belived so. Among these Christopher Marlowe, the great writer of the time, who maybe did not really die at the age of 29. William had a wife and three children, but he wrote about love between men and many of the sonnets are addressed to a young man.So there are legends in which Shakespeare was gay or bisexual. There is even one saying he was a woman. Another legend says his origin were Italian.
Shakespeare’s sonnets is a collection of poems in sonnet form and Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets about love, beauty, politics and mortality. Also he create a complex and troubling depiction of human love The sonnets are almost all constructed from three four- line stanzas, called quatrains, and a final couplet composed in iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. This form is known as The Shakespeare Sonnets In the sonnets there are three character: Fair Youth (an unnamed young man whom the poet wrote about in romantic language), Dark Lady (with black hairs, dun skin and a love affair with the poet) and The Rival Poet (seen as competition for fame and patronage)
The Capulets and the Montagues are two noble families of Verona, who have been feuding for a long time. During a Capulets party Romeo, Montagues son, fell in love with Juliet. They kiss and decide to get married the next day. The next day Romeo is challenged to a fight by Tybalt, Juliet’s cousin. Romeo refuses and Mercutio, his friend, fights Tybalt instead, and is killed. Romeo then kills Tybalt and the Prince banishes Romeo to Mantua Friar Lawrence gives Juliet a sleeping drug. She takes the sleeping drug and fall into a deep sleep like death. The letter that Friar Lawrence sends Romeo to tell him of the plan does not reach him. Romeo hears of Juliet’s death and goes to her tomb, drinks a potion and died. Juliet wakes and sees Romeo dead. She, desperate, stabs herself with Romeo’s dagger. Their parents arrive and agree to stop fighting. Romeo and Juliet
Romeo + Juliet By Baz Luhrmann (1996) By George Cukor (1936) By Jerome Robbins(1957) Sir Franck Dicksee
Macbeth, Thane of Glaimis, is coming back from battle with his friends Banquo. On the way they meet tree witches who predict Macbeth will be Thane of Cawdor and king while Banquo will become father of a dynasty of kings. Immediately a messenger comes and calls Macbeth Thane of Cawdor. When king Duncan decides to stay at Macbeth’s castle he kills him with the help of his wife. Duncan’s sons escape. Macbeth becomes king but, worried for the predictions about Bonquo, he orders two murders to kill Banquo and his son Fleance, but Felance escapes. Malcom with the help of Macduff organizes the war against Macbeth. There is duel between Macbeth and Macduff where Macduff kills Macbeth and Malcom becomes the new king. Johann Heinrich Fussli - Macbeth e Lady MacbethThéodore Chassériau: Macbeth e Banquo meet witches Macbeth Shakespeare took inspiration from the true story of King Macbeth of Scotland who killed Duncan I in battle and took the throne.
Macbeth Directed by Roman Polansk i Macbeth with the three witches John Singer Sargent: Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth, 1889
AS YOU LIKE IT France. Rosalind’s father, the duke is defeated by his brother Frederick and he escapes into the forest of Arden with some supporters. Rosalind and her best friend Celia, her cousin, Frederick’ s daughter are obliged to escape in the forest of Arden. They disguise as young men: Rosalind becomes Ganymede and Celia becomes Alien. In the forest among the supporters of the duke, there is Orlando, a boy Rosalind had met and which whom she had fallen in love. Now they meet again, but Rosalind is Ganymede. Phebe, a sheep keeper with whom Silvius is in love, falls in love with Ganymede. Ganymede says he could solve the problem: Orlando will marry Rosalind and Phebe will marry Silvius if she cannot marry Ganymede. The following day revels himself to be Rosalind. Orlando meets his brother Oliver in the forest who defeated him, and rescues him from a lioness, than Oliver repents for mistreating him. Finally Rosalind and Orlando, Celia and Oliver, Phebe and Silvius are married and Frederick, repented, restores his legitimate brother to the dukedom and adopts a religious life.
Othello is a tragedy by William Shakespeare probably written in 1603. The work revolves around four central characters: Othello, his wife Desdemona, Cassio and Iago. In the opening scene, Iago complans to Roderigo that Othello has passed him over to promote Cassio his lieutenant.Iago first asks Roderigo to tell Desdemona’s father, that his daughter has felt to marry Othello, Brobantio oppeses because Othello is a Moor. The Duke asks Othello to sail to Cyprus to stop to Turskin invasion. Iago manipulates Cassio to make him drunk and gets Roderigo to draw him into a street fight. Them Iago decides to make Othello belive his wife is unfaithfull. Iago suggest to Othello that Desdemona is Cassio’s lover and Othello asks Iago to help him kill Cassio and Desdemona.
Eugene Delacroix The plot of Othello was developed from the collection of novels by Cinzio Hecatommiti
Messina,. Two lovers, Claudio and Hero, are due to get married in a week. To pass the time before their wedding they conspire with Don Pedro the prince of Aragon, to trick their friends, Beatrice and Benedick, into confessing their love for one another. T he prince’s brother Don John, However, jealous of both Don Perdro’s power and this affection for Claudio, conspires to sabotage the coming wedding. Shakespeare probably took the inspiration from some italians works of the first half of the XVI century. He is also influenced by Roland for the drammatic plot of Claudio and Hero.
Hermia, a woman of high social class, refuses to marry demetrius. The man chosen by her father, because she is in love with Lysander. Hermia and Lysander escape through the forest and sleep in the woods. Helena, Hermia’s friend, who has recentely been rejected by Demetrius, reavels him the plan and they follow Hermia and her lover. To punish Titania, queen of fairies, the king Oberon recruits Puck to apply a magic juice which makes the victim fall in love with the first living thing seen upon awakening. Puck has to make Titania fall in love with a vile creature of the forest. But Puck spread the jouice on the wrong people: Lysander and Demetrius fall in love with Helena, instead the queen Titania fallas in love with Bottom, a strage-strunck weaver, whose head has been trasformed by Puck in a donkey’s head… A Midsummer Night’s Dream
Bassanio wants to marry Portia but he needs money. He asks his rich merchant friend Antonio for a loan. Unfortunately Antonio has got no liquid money and turns to Shylock. Shylock lends him the money, but warms him that if it is not returned in the agreed time he must give him a pounds of his own flesh. Bassanio marries Portia but misfortune strikes Antonio and all his ships are wrecked so he is no longer able to pay back Shylock. Shylock demands his pound of flesh. Secretly Portia and her maiden run to Antonio’s help by dressing up as advocates to plead his case in front of the duke. Portia astutely finds a good argument to win her case. She says he can have his pounds of flesh but if he draws so much as a drop of Antonio’s blood he’s a dead men. Antonio is safe, and accepts to pay back Shylock’ if he turns Christian and passes wealth over to his daughter Jessica whom she has disowned. Shylock agrees and the play ends with the news that Antonio’s ships are alright after all. The Merchant of Venice
William Shakespeare / Edward De Vere Performed by: The Royal Shakespeare Company Directed by Michael Radford
Vincentio, the Duke of Vienna, makes it known that he intends to leave the city on a diplomatic mission. He leaves the government in the hands of a strict judge, Angelo. Claudio, a young nobleman, fall in love with Juliet, having put off their wedding, he makes her pregnant. For this act of fornication he is punished by Angelo. Although he is willing to marry her, he is sentenced to death. Isabella, Claudio’s sister, obtains an audience with Angelo, that offers her a deal: Angelo will spare Claudio’s life if Isabella will yield him her virginity. Isabella refuses. She decided to submit to Angelo, making it a condition everything occurs in a perfect darkness. In fact, Mariana agrees to take Isabella’s place, and she has sex with Angelo, although he continues to believe he has enjoyed Isabella. Contrary to expectation Angelo goes back on his word, decided to have Claudio’s head. The main plot concludes with the “return” to Vienna of the Duke in his own person, but Angelo saved his life. Pre- Raphaelites Measure for Measure
Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It portrays the conspiracy against the Roman dictator of the same name, his assassination and its aftermath. It is one of several Roman plays that he wrote, based on true events from Roman history. Although the title of the play is Julius Caesar, he appears in only three scenes, and is killed at the beginning of the third act. The protagonist of the play is Marcus Brutus, and the central psychological drama is his struggle between the conflicting demands of honor, patriotism, and friendship. The play reflected the general anxiety of England over succession of leadership. Julius Caesar
The elderly King Lear wants to retire; he divides his kingdom into three parts and offers it to his three daughters. Unfortunately he divides the kingdom unfairly, disinheriting his loving daughter, Cordelia, allocating her share to the other two. Others get involved in the matter, and the King of France marries Cordelia for her character, not for her wealth. Unfortunately, very shortly after this positive turn of events, and under the pressures of the prevailing 'political' conflicts, Cordelia gets arrested, and executed. And King Lear dies of grief at the news of his ever-loyal and loving daughter's sudden and tragic demise. In the end King Lear's kingdom is in disarray. Fortunately, circumstances lead him to becoming reconciled to Cordelia, and he recognising her for her true self and for her honorable and enduring qualities. Shakespeare's most important source is thought to be the second edition of The Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande by Raphael Holinshed, published in 1587 King Lear
The climatic assassination of Cesar The ghost of Caesar appears to warn Brutus of his fate. From a painting by Allan Jackson. SOURCES The history is based on the conspiracy against Julio Cesar
Measure for measure English Pre-Raphaelite painter William Holman Hunt (1827-1910) Barrie Ingham as Duke Vincentio with Francesca Annis
Much Ado About Nothing Kenneth Branagh director
The Tempest William Hogarth (1735) Derek Jarman director
Othello Othello and Desdemona by Alexandre- Marie Colin Kenneth Branagh director
Hamlet John Barrymore as Hamlet Hamlet and Horatio in the Cemetery Artist: Eugene Delacroix Director: Franco Zeffirelli (2006)
Macbeth Directed by Roman Polanski Macbeth with the three witches John Singer Sargent: Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth, 1889
Julius Caesar Joseph L. Mankiewicz director Vincenzo Camuccini)