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Liberation efforts of 1914- 1921. Revival of the Ukrainian state. Plan 1. World War I 1. World War I 2.Ukrainians in the First World War. 2.Ukrainians.

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Presentation on theme: "Liberation efforts of 1914- 1921. Revival of the Ukrainian state. Plan 1. World War I 1. World War I 2.Ukrainians in the First World War. 2.Ukrainians."— Presentation transcript:

1 Liberation efforts of Revival of the Ukrainian state. Plan 1. World War I 1. World War I 2.Ukrainians in the First World War. 2.Ukrainians in the First World War. 3. Revolution in Ukraine. 3. Revolution in Ukraine. 4. Bolshevik’s intervention in Ukraine. 4. Bolshevik’s intervention in Ukraine. 5. Soviet Union 5. Soviet Union 6.Ukraine in the first years of USSR. 6.Ukraine in the first years of USSR.

2 World War I World War I was a global war which took place primarily in Europe from 1914 to World War I was a global war which took place primarily in Europe from 1914 to 1918.globalwarEuropeglobalwarEurope The act which is considered to have triggered the succession of events which led to war was the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb citizen. The act which is considered to have triggered the succession of events which led to war was the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb citizen.assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandAustro-Hungarian Gavrilo PrincipBosnian Serbcitizenassassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandAustro-Hungarian Gavrilo PrincipBosnian Serbcitizen The war was fought between two major alliances. The war was fought between two major alliances. The Entente Powers initially consisted of France, the United Kingdom, Russia, and their associated empires and dependencies. The Entente Powers initially consisted of France, the United Kingdom, Russia, and their associated empires and dependencies.Entente PowersFranceUnited KingdomRussiaEntente PowersFranceUnited KingdomRussia

3 Numerous other states joined these allies, most notably Italy and the United States. Numerous other states joined these allies, most notably Italy and the United States.ItalyUnited StatesItalyUnited States The Central Powers, so named because of their central location on the European continent, initially consisted of Germany and Austria-Hungary and their associated empires. The Central Powers, so named because of their central location on the European continent, initially consisted of Germany and Austria-Hungary and their associated empires.Central PowersGermany Austria-HungaryCentral PowersGermany Austria-Hungary The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, followed later by Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, followed later by Bulgaria.Ottoman EmpireBulgariaOttoman EmpireBulgaria Only The Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain and the Scandinavian nations remained officially neutral among the European countries Only The Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain and the Scandinavian nations remained officially neutral among the European countriesNetherlandsSwitzerlandSpainScandinavian nationsNetherlandsSwitzerlandSpainScandinavian nations

4 One of the most striking results of the war was a large redrawing of the map of Europe. One of the most striking results of the war was a large redrawing of the map of Europe.results of the warresults of the war All of the Central Powers lost territory, and many new nations were created. All of the Central Powers lost territory, and many new nations were created. Austria-Hungary was carved up into several successor states including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Austria-Hungary was carved up into several successor states including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.AustriaHungary CzechoslovakiaYugoslaviaAustriaHungary CzechoslovakiaYugoslavia The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it. The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it.October RevolutionEstonia FinlandLatviaLithuaniaPolandOctober RevolutionEstonia FinlandLatviaLithuaniaPoland

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7 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife some minutes before they were assassinated

8 dental ambulance

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10 Ukrainians in the First World War One of the underlying themes of Ukrainian history of the early 20th century has been the quest for an independent nation. Many attempts were made in the early 20th century, but both World War I and the Russian Civil War disrupted such attempts. One of the underlying themes of Ukrainian history of the early 20th century has been the quest for an independent nation. Many attempts were made in the early 20th century, but both World War I and the Russian Civil War disrupted such attempts. Ukrainianhistory World War IRussian Civil War Ukrainianhistory World War IRussian Civil War The consequences of the First World War of for Ukrainians were tragic. The consequences of the First World War of for Ukrainians were tragic. The great amount of Ukrainians fought and died for empires, which ignored their nation interests The great amount of Ukrainians fought and died for empires, which ignored their nation interests

11 When the First World War began in 1914, Ukrainians were split into two separate and opposing armies. When the First World War began in 1914, Ukrainians were split into two separate and opposing armies.First World War UkrainiansFirst World War Ukrainians 3.5 million fought with the Imperial Russian Army, while 250,000 fought for the Austro- Hungarian Army. 3.5 million fought with the Imperial Russian Army, while 250,000 fought for the Austro- Hungarian Army.Imperial Russian ArmyAustro- Hungarian ArmyImperial Russian ArmyAustro- Hungarian Army Many Ukrainians thus ended up fighting each other. Many Ukrainians thus ended up fighting each other. Also, many Ukrainian civilians suffered as armies shot and killed them after accusing them of collaborating with opposing armies. Also, many Ukrainian civilians suffered as armies shot and killed them after accusing them of collaborating with opposing armies.

12 Russian empire at the beginning of September 1914 occupied the big part of eastern Galychina. Russian empire at the beginning of September 1914 occupied the big part of eastern Galychina. Hundreds of Ukrainians were arrested and put to death without a court. Hundreds of Ukrainians were arrested and put to death without a court. All Ukrainian cultural establishments, cooperative and periodic editions were closed by order of tsar authority of Russia. All Ukrainian cultural establishments, cooperative and periodic editions were closed by order of tsar authority of Russia. There were implemented restrictions to use Ukrainian language and made attempts to apply Russian language at schools. There were implemented restrictions to use Ukrainian language and made attempts to apply Russian language at schools. The Austrians, up to the May 1915, retook the most part of eastern Galychina. The Austrians, up to the May 1915, retook the most part of eastern Galychina.

13 Revolution in Ukraine News about the collapse of Russian tsar regime reached Kyiv on March News about the collapse of Russian tsar regime reached Kyiv on March On March 17 Ukrainians founded Central Rada. On March 17 Ukrainians founded Central Rada. Myhaylo Grushevskiy – well known, authoritative figure was elected the president of the Central Rada. Myhaylo Grushevskiy – well known, authoritative figure was elected the president of the Central Rada. On November in Petrograd the Bolsheviks took authority in their hands. On November in Petrograd the Bolsheviks took authority in their hands.

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15 As most of Russians the Bolsheviks with enmity attituded to the Ukrainian movement. As most of Russians the Bolsheviks with enmity attituded to the Ukrainian movement. The Central Rada declared, that it took the supreme power in all nine provinces, where the Ukrainians amounted the majority. The Central Rada declared, that it took the supreme power in all nine provinces, where the Ukrainians amounted the majority. Formally it was confirmed by its Third universal dated July , which declared the establishment of autonomous Ukrainian Republic. Formally it was confirmed by its Third universal dated July , which declared the establishment of autonomous Ukrainian Republic. Still not dare to break off relations with Russia, the Central Rada declared about the creation of federation of free nation. Still not dare to break off relations with Russia, the Central Rada declared about the creation of federation of free nation.

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17 Bolshevik’s intervention in Ukraine From northern east 12 thousand Bolshevik forces moved to Ukraine. From northern east 12 thousand Bolshevik forces moved to Ukraine. Against them the Ukrainian military Minister Symon Petlyura had scattered several hundreds of Kyiv gymnasia pupils, which went to front straight from the school. Against them the Ukrainian military Minister Symon Petlyura had scattered several hundreds of Kyiv gymnasia pupils, which went to front straight from the school. To the east from the city Kruty 300 of gymnasium pupils got into encirclement, they all died. To the east from the city Kruty 300 of gymnasium pupils got into encirclement, they all died.

18 Soviet Union The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991.constitutionallysocialist stateEurasiaconstitutionallysocialist stateEurasia The Soviet Union was officially established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties. The Soviet Union was officially established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties.Russian UkrainianBelarusianTranscaucasianBolshevikRussian UkrainianBelarusianTranscaucasianBolshevik The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 200 distinct ethnic groups within its borders. The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 200 distinct ethnic groups within its borders.

19 Flag of the Soviet Union Coat of arms of the Soviet Union

20 Ukraine in the first years of USSR Till 1923 soviet government of Ukraine maintained foreign relations,had foreign trade and even began to initiate the ground of separate Ukrainian army. Till 1923 soviet government of Ukraine maintained foreign relations,had foreign trade and even began to initiate the ground of separate Ukrainian army. Lenin suggested to give each republic consisting Russia the right of free exit from it. Lenin suggested to give each republic consisting Russia the right of free exit from it. Some operations remained exclusively in the area of Ukraine’s responsibilities, others were divided between Ukrainian and Russian ministers Some operations remained exclusively in the area of Ukraine’s responsibilities, others were divided between Ukrainian and Russian ministers

21 Joining to the structure of Soviet Union, Ukrainian republic became the second its component in size. Joining to the structure of Soviet Union, Ukrainian republic became the second its component in size. The first facilities of Ukrainian government in the field of culture had the purpose to extend the use of Ukrainian language. The first facilities of Ukrainian government in the field of culture had the purpose to extend the use of Ukrainian language. Similar rebirth felt Ukrainian press, which was oppressed by tsar regime. Similar rebirth felt Ukrainian press, which was oppressed by tsar regime. Up to 1927 more than a half of books published in Ukrainian, in 1933 from 433 newspapers of the republic 373 were issued in Ukrainian. Up to 1927 more than a half of books published in Ukrainian, in 1933 from 433 newspapers of the republic 373 were issued in Ukrainian.

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25 References : 1. Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1988). 1. Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1988).Subtelny 2. Andrew Wilson. The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation. Yale University Press; 2nd edition (2002). 2. Andrew Wilson. The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation. Yale University Press; 2nd edition (2002).Andrew WilsonAndrew Wilson 3. Anna Reid. Borderland: A Journey Through the History of Ukraine. London, Orion Books; 4th impression (1998, preface 2003). 3. Anna Reid. Borderland: A Journey Through the History of Ukraine. London, Orion Books; 4th impression (1998, preface 2003). 4. Paul Robert Magocsi. A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1996). 4. Paul Robert Magocsi. A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1996). 5. Mykhailo Hrushevsky. History of Ukraine-Rus’ in 9 volumes. 5. Mykhailo Hrushevsky. History of Ukraine-Rus’ in 9 volumes.Mykhailo HrushevskyMykhailo Hrushevsky


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