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Vergil’s World, p. 1-13 Background of the Aeneid.

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Presentation on theme: "Vergil’s World, p. 1-13 Background of the Aeneid."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vergil’s World, p Background of the Aeneid

2 Brief History 753 BC: Founding of Rome –Monarchy with 7 Kings 509 BC: Republic 27 BC: Empire *This transition from Republic to Empire is when the Aeneid was written, NOT when it takes place

3 #1) The First Triumvirate Members: Caesar (broker) and Pompey & Crassus (power) Established in 60 B.C. This joining together of three men to form a control was created because each person wanted power and something individually Its ineffectiveness was a result of Caesar’s seizing control for himself

4 Timeline 60 BC: Formation of 1st Triumvirate 59 BC: Caesar & Bibulus (consuls) 58 BC: Caesar went to Gaul 55 BC: Pompey & Crassus are consuls 54 BC: Julia dies BC: Rioting in Rome; burning the Senate house 49 BC: Caesar crossed the Rubicon and violated the pomerium 44 BC: Caesar declared dictator for life

5 #2) Assassination of Julius Caesar Events leading up to the assassination… –Used Imperator as his name and the name of all his heirs –Wore purple - color from the King period –Carried in a golden sedan chair –Put up statues of himself –Named a month after himself: July –Had Mark Anthony try to put a crown on his head –Required magistrates to swear to protect the person of J. Caesar and his acta –Put up a temple to his “genius” (deification)

6 #2) Assassination of Julius Caesar Motivation of the conspirators: –Republicans: felt they owed loyalty to the Republic and the Senate –Jealous Men: wanted Caesar gone –Hangers-On: loved the excitement of the moment

7 #2) Assassination of Julius Caesar Results… –Confusion: the Senate did not reassert itself –Caesar’s party flourished after his death due to support from devoted officers, loyal veterans, and the city populace Led by Mark Anthony and Lepidus

8 Death of Caesar

9 #3) Caesar’s Will Mark Anthony: –Took possession of Caesar’s papers and expressed rage at the murder –Goes to Egypt: awaits the appointment as heir in Caesar’s will Lepidus: –Forced to Spain (concentrated the military power) and acquired Gaul Octavian (18 yrs old in 44 BC) –Named heir in the will (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) –Stayed in Rome, raised an army, cooperated with the Senate –Cicero’s Philippic Orations in favor of Octavian

10 Mark Antony

11 #4) 2nd Triumvirate Members: Octavian, Lepidus, and Mark Anthony 42 BC: Octavian marches on Rome, made consul, created Triumvirate, enforced a proscription list (Cicero) *PURPOSE: Create a Caesarian Party 42 BC: Triumvirate battles J. Caesar’s conspirators (Brutus and Cassius) at the Battle of Phillipi (Brutus and Cassius commit suicide)

12 #4) 2nd Triumvirate 40 BC: –Anthony - eastern provinces with Cleopatra –Octavian - western provinces in Rome –Lepidus - given promises of provinces 38 BC: Anthony marries Octavia

13 #5) 2nd Triumvirate (37-33 BCE) Breach between members widens –A) Octavian has Agrippa as his master general, Maecenas as his administrator –B) Hellenistic movement to give Eastern provinces to Cleopatra in Alexandria –C) Lepidus retired –D) Pompey killed

14 #6) Battle of Actium Leading up to the battle: –Oriental propaganda in Rome v. Anthony and Cleopatra in Egypt –14 years of Civil War since Caesar’s murder Battle: 31 BC –Octavian DEFEATS Mark Anthony and Cleopatra in a naval battle –Brings end to Civil War

15 Battle of Actium

16 #6) Aftermath of Battle of Actium 29 BC: Octavian celebrates victory triumphs and parade 28 BC: Octavian and Agrippa were censors and purged Senate of all Caesar’s party members ONE MAN RULE OF OCTAVIAN WAS CREATED

17 #7) Honors from the Senate Triumph (highest honor) Granted title of Augustus Protected by guards Carried in the curule chair - symbol of consulship Civic crown of oak leaves Month “Sextilis” renamed Augustus

18 Rule of Augustus: Pater Patriae Governmental reforms were concealed in the traditional form of the Republic –Closed the doors of Janus –Institutions retained –Soldiers demobilized –No Senator could leave town without the permission of the Princeps, the senior senator –Pontifex Maximus gave him control of religion

19 #8) Augustus “Revered One” or “Honored One” –Tiberius - step son –Marcellus - nephew * Both took this name too POWER: Army and Finances –Controlled the legal system with these

20 #10) mores majorum Manners or customs of one’s ancestors –STABILITY –Promote Romanization –Restore the former moral values –Bring back personal responsibility (esp. for leaders) –Revert back to the worship of ancient gods THESE SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS REFORMS WOULD SUPPORT THE POLITICAL GOALS OF AUGUSTUS

21 #13) CIVIL REFORMS Imperial Civil Service –Aqueducts, temples, highways Fire Service Police Service

22 #13) RELIGIOUS REFORMS Restore past in ethics and religion State Worship: holidays, ceremonies, festivals, religious rites, sacrifices (i.e. Troy Games) mores majorum Worship Genius Augusti Romanitas-Rome’s function in history as a stabilizing political and moral force *PIETAS: Proper subordination to the GODS, STATE, HOUSEHOLD

23 #13) LAW REFORMS Changed law Increased “personal responsibility” Made people feel safe, organized, and STABLE

24 #13) LITERATURE AND ART REFORMS Produced themes to inspire and conditions for writers –“Golden Age” of writing: writing was a profession (patrons) Themes: grandeur of the Roman past, religious and social revival, glorious destiny of the empire Produced art to dazzle Romans –Painters, portraits, busts, statues –Ara Pacis

25 #11) Other Authors Ovid Catullus Horace Propertius Tibullus Livy: History of Rome

26 #12) Ara Pacis Altar to Pax Romana VISUAL monument (illiterate) Epic art - tells a story/history of Rome Culminates in Augustus

27 RULE OF AUGUSTUS Achievements –Established a system of government for the Roman Empire which lasted 5 centuries (476AD) –Peace –Consolidation of the Roman Empire Weaknesses –Ruthlessness –Military control-use army to make or unmake leaders –Wealthy minority benefit from improved conditions while the gov. expenses hurt the poor) –People only looked to Augustus for rewards and advancement


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