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MUTATIONS. Weird Genetics Mutations A change in genetic information Can occur randomly (naturally) Or can be deliberately.

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Presentation on theme: "MUTATIONS. Weird Genetics Mutations A change in genetic information Can occur randomly (naturally) Or can be deliberately."— Presentation transcript:

1 MUTATIONS

2 Weird Genetics

3 Mutations A change in genetic information Can occur randomly (naturally) Or can be deliberately caused in the laboratory by scientists Inherited Not always harmful

4 Natural Mutations

5 These are not albinos; they have pigmented eyes.

6 White Bengal Tiger

7 ALBINOS Little or no pigmentation in the eyes, skin, and hair (or in some cases in the eyes alone).Little or no pigmentation in the eyes, skin, and hair (or in some cases in the eyes alone). Inherited an altered copy of a gene that does not work correctly.Inherited an altered copy of a gene that does not work correctly. The altered gene does not allow the body to make the usual amounts of a pigment called "melanin".The altered gene does not allow the body to make the usual amounts of a pigment called "melanin". True albinos have pink eyes and skin.True albinos have pink eyes and skin.

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9 White Bluebonnets

10 Pink Bluebonnets

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16 HUMAN INTERVENTION

17 SELECTIVE BREEDING The selection of certain seeds or animals for reproduction in order to influence the traits inherited by the next generation.

18 SELECTIVE BREEDING The Liger is the result of breeding a female Tiger to a male Lion.The Liger is the result of breeding a female Tiger to a male Lion. The liger has both stripes and spots. The stripes are inherited from its tiger parent and the spots from the lion parent.The liger has both stripes and spots. The stripes are inherited from its tiger parent and the spots from the lion parent. On their hind legs, ligers stand approximately 12 feet tall. At most, ligers may weigh up to 1,000 pounds.On their hind legs, ligers stand approximately 12 feet tall. At most, ligers may weigh up to 1,000 pounds.

19 The Cama is the result of breeding a Llama to a Camel. Parents in background of picture.

20 The Zebroid is the result of breeding a female Horse and a male Zebra. The Zedonk / Zonkey is the result of breeding a female Donkey and male Zebra.

21 Geep - These are the result of a sheep and a goat.

22 The Mule is the result of breeding a female horse (mare) to a male donkey (jack). The mule is superior to the horse in strength, endurance, intelligence and disease resistance.

23 Maroon & Red Bluebonnets

24 GENETIC ENGINEERING The selective, deliberate change of genes (genetic material) by man. The technique of removing, modifying or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains.

25 Bright face of genetically modified corn plant: pest-infected non-GM (left) and pest-free GM plant (right) planted side-by- side in a field trial. (photo: Dr. Yu Jialin, China Agricultural University)

26 French genetic researchers created Alba for artist Eduardo Kac. Thanks to genes borrowed from a jellyfish, the albino rabbit glows green when placed under special lighting. In regular light, Alba appears like any other furry white rabbit. But place her under a black light, and her eyes, whiskers and fur glow a otherworldly green.

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28 "Glow in the dark" fish. these genetically modified fish were developed by a Taiwanese aquatic firm, Taikong Group. They are planning to reproduce these fish in numbers and sell them for pets.

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30 Scientists in the agriculture department of the Hebrew University in Rehovot have genetically engineered a chicken that has no feathers.

31 Who Gets the Money?? $$’ s

32 Purpose: To solve a mystery using genetics. Las Vegas Sun Times: Mr. and Mrs. Jones died in a tragic farm accident when the tractor they were riding on overturned in a ditch. Authorities found one million dollars hidden in a feed bin in the chicken coop. The couple is known to have a son, from whom they are estranged. This man is the sole heir to the Jones fortune. Mr. and Mrs. Jones died in a tragic farm accident when the tractor they were riding on overturned in a ditch. Authorities found one million dollars hidden in a feed bin in the chicken coop. The couple is known to have a son, from whom they are estranged. This man is the sole heir to the Jones fortune.

33 The Mystery Five men show up, each claiming to be the Jones’s long lost son who had run away to become a circus clown. You are called in as a genetics expert to decide who is the rightful heir. This mystery will be solved in three parts.Five men show up, each claiming to be the Jones’s long lost son who had run away to become a circus clown. You are called in as a genetics expert to decide who is the rightful heir. This mystery will be solved in three parts.

34 Punnet Squares Female genotype always goes on top.Female genotype always goes on top. Male genotype always goes on the side.Male genotype always goes on the side.

35 Part One: Monohybrid Cross Brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes, free earlobes are dominant over attached earlobes.Brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes, free earlobes are dominant over attached earlobes. Use “B” for dominant eyes, “b” for recessiveUse “B” for dominant eyes, “b” for recessive Use “E” for dominant earlobes, “e” for recessive earlobesUse “E” for dominant earlobes, “e” for recessive earlobes

36 Mr. Jones Homozygous free earlobes and homozygous brown eye Mrs. Jones Heterozygous free earlobes and heterozygous brown eyes Carl Homozygous brown eyes and homozygous attached earlobes Ray Homozygous free earlobes and homozygous blue eyes Dale Heterozygous free earlobes and homozygous brown eyes Earl Heterozygous free earlobes and heterozygous brown eyes Robert Homozygous free earlobes, homozygous blue eyes

37 Punnet Squares – for offspring Earlobes Eyes Earlobes Eyes E E Ee e e EE ee Ee BB B b BB Bb 75% free earlobes 25% attached 100% Brown eyes +

38 Genotypes for each person Person Eye Color Earlobes Mr. Jones BBEe Mrs. Jones BbEe CarlBbee RaybbEE DaleBBEe EarlBbEe RobertbbEE Which men can be eliminated by these traits?

39 Ray & Robert Eliminated Both Ray & Robert have blue eyes which is homozygous recessive (bb). This is not a genotype possible for any offspring of Mr. and Mrs. Jones.Both Ray & Robert have blue eyes which is homozygous recessive (bb). This is not a genotype possible for any offspring of Mr. and Mrs. Jones. Now the lawyers order blood tests. The lawyers also read that hair texture is inherited.Now the lawyers order blood tests. The lawyers also read that hair texture is inherited.

40 Part Two: Co-dominance & Incomplete dominance Type “A” and type “B” are co-dominant over type “O”Type “A” and type “B” are co-dominant over type “O” Rh+ blood is dominant over Rh- bloodRh+ blood is dominant over Rh- blood Hair texture exhibits incomplete dominance. Homozygous dominants (HH) have curly hair, homozygous recessives (hh) have straight hair, & heterozygotes (Hh) have wavy hair.Hair texture exhibits incomplete dominance. Homozygous dominants (HH) have curly hair, homozygous recessives (hh) have straight hair, & heterozygotes (Hh) have wavy hair.

41 Blood Type, Rh Type, & Hair Symbols I A denotes dominant type AI A denotes dominant type A I B denotes dominant type BI B denotes dominant type B I A I B denotes type AB bloodI A I B denotes type AB blood i denotes the recessive blood type Oi denotes the recessive blood type O R+ denotes dominant Rh+R+ denotes dominant Rh+ r denotes recessive Rh-r denotes recessive Rh- H denotes dominant hair textureH denotes dominant hair texture h denotes recessive hair textureh denotes recessive hair texture

42 Mr. Jones Homozygous type A blood, heterozygous Rh+, straight hair Mrs. Jones Heterozygous type B blood, homozygous Rh+, wavy hair Carl Heterozygous type A blood, heterozygous Rh+, wavy hair Dale Heterozygous type A blood, homozygous Rh+, wavy hair Earl Type O blood, Rh-, straight hair

43 Punnet Squares – for offspring Blood Rh factor Hair Blood Rh factor Hair IBIB i IAIA IAIA IAIBIAIB IAiIAi IAIBIAIB AiIAiAiIAi R+ r R+R+ R+r Hh h h Hh hh AB or ARh+ 50% straight 50% wavy

44 Genotypes for Blood type, Rh, & hair Person Blood Type Rh Type Hair Texture Mr. Jones IAIAIAIAIAIAIAIAR+rHh Mrs. Jones IBiIBiIBiIBiR+R+Hh Carl IAiIAiIAiIAiR+rHh Dale IAiIAiIAiIAiR+R+Hh Earliirrhh Can anyone be eliminated with this information?

45 Earl eliminated! Earl has the wrong blood type and the wrong Rh type to be an offspring of Mr. & Mrs. Jones.Earl has the wrong blood type and the wrong Rh type to be an offspring of Mr. & Mrs. Jones. The lawyers now order a vision test to check for red-green color blindness. Red-green color blindness is a sex linked inheritance.The lawyers now order a vision test to check for red-green color blindness. Red-green color blindness is a sex linked inheritance.

46 Part Three: Sex-linked Inheritance Mr. Jones Color blind Mrs. Jones Homozygous for normal vision Carl Color blind Dale Normal vision Use X C to denote color blindness on the X chromosome.

47 Punnet Squares for offspring XX XCXC Y XCXXCXXCXXCX XY 100% of the daughters will be carriers for color blindness – heterozygotes 100% of all sons will have normal vision

48 Genotypes PersonVision Mr. Jones XCYXCYXCYXCY Mrs. Jones XX Carl XCYXCYXCYXCY DaleXY So, who gets the money??????????

49 Dale Wins!!!! Dale has all of the genotypes that prove that he is the sole heir of Mr. & Mrs. Jones.Dale has all of the genotypes that prove that he is the sole heir of Mr. & Mrs. Jones. He has brown eyes and free earlobesHe has brown eyes and free earlobes He has type A blood, is Rh+, & has wavy hairHe has type A blood, is Rh+, & has wavy hair He has normal vision.He has normal vision. He is rich!!He is rich!!


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