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CICERO © 2008 1 Second Iraq War 2003 to 2008 End Show
CICERO © 2008 2 Table of Contents Invasion of Iraq Leading up to the War Operation Desert Fox 2000 Presidential Election September 11 Attacks Al-QaedaIraq & Al-Qaeda End Show Preparing for Invasion Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom Cont’d Post-Invasion Iraq Iraqi Resistance The Heir Apparent The Deaths of Uday and Qusay Operation Red Dawn Trial of Saddam Hussein Execution of Saddam Hussein War in Iraq 2008
CICERO © 2008 3 Invasion of Iraq March 20–May 1, 2003 The Coalition Forces, led by the United States, invaded the country of Iraq on March 20, 2003. This event started the United States war with the Iraqi government. This war pitted the United States and the Coalition Forces against Iraq and the Ba’ath Party. According to U.S. President George W. Bush, the purpose of going to war with Iraq was to “disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction, to end Saddam Hussein’s support for terrorism, and to free the Iraqi people.” End Show
CICERO © 2008 4 Leading Up to the War Following the Gulf War Invasion of 1991, the world tried to contain the country of Iraq. The new policies established were economic sanctions, and the implementation of United States and United Kingdom patrols of Iraqi no-fly zones, designed to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and the Shiites in southern Iraq. However, toward the end of the millennium, the United States’ policy switched from containment to a regime change. President Bill Clinton signed the “Iraq Liberation Act.” This act was signed in response to Iraq ending its cooperation with the United Nations weapons inspection. The act provided Iraq with $97 million to establish a democracy in Iraq. A month after the act was passed, the United States and United Kingdom launched a bombing campaign on various Iraqi targets in response to violations of the U.N. sanctions. That campaign was called Operation Desert Fox. End Show
CICERO © 2008 5 Operation Desert Fox December 16–19, 1998 Operation Desert Fox was a four-day bombing campaign on the country of Iraq, by the United States and United Kingdom. This was in response to Iraq’s unwillingness to comply with the United Nations Security Council resolutions, and for not cooperating with United Nations Special Commission Inspectors. This was the start to the Iraqi disarmament crisis. The United States was also looking to disrupt Saddam Hussein’s grip on the Iraqi government. The result of the bombardment was the destruction of much of Iraq’s infrastructure, and close to 2,000 deaths. End Show
CICERO © 2008 6 2000 Presidential Election The Republican Party Campaign During the 2000 presidential election, George W. Bush and the Republican Party moved toward a more active policy. That policy was “regime change” in Iraq. The Republican Party wanted to fully implement the Iraq Liberation Act and remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. A couple of Bush’s advisers already had dealings with Hussein Vice President Dick Cheney was the Secretary of Defense during the First Gulf War. In 1983, Bush’s Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld met with Hussein during the Iran-Iraq War. At that time, the United States provided weapons to Iraq. By 2000, Cheney and Rumsfeld were strong advocates for the invasion of Iraq. Former Secretary of the Treasury Paul O’Neill said the Bush administration had plans to invade Iraq since the presidential inauguration. End Show
CICERO © 2008 7 September 11 Attacks On September 11, 2001, four commercial airplanes were hijacked. American Airlines Flight 11 was the first to crash into the North Tower of the World Trade Center. The second plane, United Airlines Flight 175, crashed into the South Tower. The third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, crashed into the Pentagon. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was expected to head toward the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. Passengers onboard, however, prevented that from happening, but the plane crashed in a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. United 175 crashing into the South Tower After American Airlines Flight 77 crash End Show
CICERO © 2008 8 Al-Qaeda Almost 3,000 people died that day, and more than 6,000 people were injured. It was the largest attack on American soil since Pearl Harbor. The Sunni Islamic militant organization known as al-Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, claimed responsibility. It is also assumed that the Taliban organization in Afghanistan cooperated with al-Qaeda’s planned attacks. A U.S.-led coalition invaded Afghanistan after the Taliban refused to turn over Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda members. Coalition forces overthrew the Taliban, with help from the Afghan opposition to the Taliban, the Northern Alliance. A new government was set up that was favorable to the United States, but bin Laden and many of his men escaped into the mountains of Pakistan. End Show
CICERO © 2008 9 Iraq and Al-Qaeda The reasoning for invading Iraq as a response to the September 11 attacks has been highly debated. Prior to the attacks, there were no direct links between Iraq, Saddam Hussein, Osama bin Laden, and al-Qaeda. However, on September 20, President Bush addressed Congress, and formally announced the United States newly established War on Terrorism. Many of Bush’s advisers wanted to invade Iraq. Bush went in another direction and decided the best course of action was to form a coalition and get U.N. authorization to invade Iraq unilaterally. Bush began making his push for the invasion of Iraq in late 2002. The new resolution, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441, was passed in November 2002. This was Iraq’s final chance to comply with United States Weapons inspection. Throughout this time, the Bush administration claimed it had intelligence proving that Iraq still had weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including a nuclear weapons program. It also claimed that Saddam Hussein was directly supporting al-Qaeda terrorists. End Show
CICERO © 2008 10 Preparing for Invasion March 2003 End Show In March 2003, the coalition, led by the United States and United Kingdom, began its preparations for the impending invasion of Iraq. In the middle of March, President Bush demanded that Saddam Hussein, along with his two sons Uday and Qusay, surrender and leave Iraq. He gave the men a 48-hour deadline. After the deadline expired, the bombing of Iraq by the coalition began on March 18, 2003. Unlike the first Iraq War in 1991, the United Nations did not back this coalition and questioned the accuracy of U.S. intelligence information. President Bush referred to the coalition he had assembled as the “Coalition of the Willing.” President Bush meeting with his advisers right before the invasion of Iraq
CICERO © 2008 11 Operation Iraqi Freedom March 20–April 30, 2003 End Show The invasion of Iraq, codenamed Operation Iraqi Freedom, began at 5:24 a.m. on March 20, 2003 in Baghdad. In the invasion, there were eight military objectives. Each of the eight dealt with key points laid out in President Bush’s National Security Strategy: Remove Saddam Hussein from power. Search, discover, and eliminate weapons of mass destruction. Capture and drive out the terrorist element. Obtain intelligence related to terrorist networks. Accumulate intelligence that is related to the illicit network of weapons of mass destruction. Distribute humanitarian aid to those in need. Secure Iraqi oil fields. Transition Iraq to a democratic government.
CICERO © 2008 12 Operation Iraqi Freedom Continued End Show Operation Iraqi Freedom was the largest Special Operations mission since the Vietnam War. The “special ops” team found a possible chemical weapons plant, and also the possible location of a number of al-Qaeda officials. The Iraqi Army did not stand a chance against the coalition military. The Saddam Hussein regime officially fell on April 9, 2003. This ended Hussein’s rule over Iraq after twenty-four years. Symbolically, American troops helped the civilians tear down the statue of the dictator. When American Marines took control of Hussein’s hometown of Tikrit, the invasion was over. The statue of Saddam Hussein being pulled down by United States troops
CICERO © 2008 13 Post-Invasion Iraq On May 1, 2003, President Bush landed in a Lockheed S-3 Viking aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln operating off the coast of San Diego. On board the Abraham Lincoln, Bush gave his famous “Mission Accomplished” speech. In the speech, Bush declared victory over Iraq’s military forces, but Saddam Hussein was still in hiding and coalition forces were still being met with insurgent forces. Since the fall of the Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi government was in disarray. There was massive looting of government buildings, museums, banks and military facilities. According to the Pentagon, 250,000 tons of Iraqi ammunition were stolen as well. These provided much support for a rise in Iraqi insurgency. Millions of dollars in U.S. currency were also missing. President Bush addresses sailors aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln End Show
CICERO © 2008 14 Iraqi Resistance End Show Iraqi insurgent The coalition referred to the Iraqi resistance as “Anti-Iraqi Forces.” Most of the original Iraqi resistance came from the loyalists of Saddam Hussein and Baath Party. Since the invasion, however, many religious radicals and Iraqi civilians were angered over the occupation of Coalition troops. Baghdad, Al Anbar, and Salah Ad Din were the provinces hit the hardest by insurgent attacks. These insurgents were known for their guerrilla tactics, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs), and suicide bombings.
The Heir Apparent CICERO © 2008 15 Uday Hussein Qusay Hussein Uday and Qusay Hussein were the two oldest sons of Saddam Hussein and his heir apparent. Qusay, Saddam’s number two, was a quiet family man who kept a low profile, and Uday, Saddam’s oldest son, was a ruthless rapist and murderer who took joy in brutalizing people. Uday was thought to be the first heir apparent, but do to his ruthlessness and extravagant lifestyle, he was passed over for Qusay. End Show
The Deaths of Uday and Qusay Hussein July 22, 2003 CICERO © 2008 16 U.S. Special Forces watch as a TOW Missile strikes the side of the house occupied by Uday and Qusay Hussein. With the help of United States Army 101 st Airborne Division, the Task Force 20 raided the home occupied by Uday, Qusay, and Qusay’s 14-yearold son, Mustapha, located in the northern Iraqi city known as Mosul. The 101 st Airborne provided cover, while Task Force 20 apprehended the brothers. To draw out Uday, the troops took his Lamborghini. Uday came out firing, and the troops retreated back outside. U.S. forces began firing on the house. After four hours, the shooting stopped. The troops entered the house to find four bodies, one being the brothers’ bodyguard. The troops proceeded through the rooms and were fired upon by Qusay’s son Mustapha. The soldiers had no other choice, but to shoot back, killing Mustapha. They believe he was protecting the bodies of his father and uncle. The brothers bodies were identified a day later with the use of dental records. Iraqi civilians openly celebrated in the streets. End Show
Operation Red Dawn December 13, 2003 CICERO © 2008 17 Saddam Hussein being pulled from a spider hole by an Iraqi-American translator This was a military operation set by the United States military in the early morning of December 13, 2003 in the small town of ad-Dawr, near Saddam Hussein’s hometown of Tikrit. The operation resulted in the capture of former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein, based upon a tip to his whereabouts. He was discovered hiding in a small mud-walled compound, known as a “spider hole.” Hussein did not resist when captured, but he was armed with a pistol and a AK-47 rifle. They, also, found in his possession, $750,000 in $100 bills. Saddam’s brother and his former cook were also taken into custody. End Show
Trial of Saddam Hussein CICERO © 2008 18 Saddam Hussein at the Iraqi Special Tribunal Saddam Hussein’s trial began on October 19, 2005 in front of the Special Iraqi Tribunal. He was tried alongside seven other defendants. They were being tried for crimes against humanity, specifically the events that transpired after an assassination attempt on him. Hussein accused one hundred and forty-eight Iraqi Shiites for the attempt on his life and had them executed. During the trial, Hussein maintained that he was still president of Iraq, and he was unjustly overthrown. Hussein was convicted and on November 5, 2006, was sentenced to death. End Show
Execution of Saddam Hussein December 30, 2006 CICERO © 2008 19 Hussein appealed the sentencing of death, but on December 26, the appeal was rejected and sentencing was upheld. Hussein was set to executed within thirty days. Days before his execution, he wrote a letter to the Ba’ath Party, advising the party not to be angry with the people who invaded Iraq, but to hate the decision-makers. He explained he was proud to die as a martyr, and he was ready to die. He was executed at 6 a.m. on December 30, 2006. End Show
War in Iraq 2008 CICERO © 2008 20 Operation Phantom Phoenix As of mid-2008, it had been five years since President George W. Bush gave his “Mission Accomplished” speech aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln, and the United States was still occupying Iraq. American troops were fighting in Iraq, years after the capture and execution of the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. More than 4,000 American troops had been killed. A new Iraqi government had been set up, but sectarian conflicts between Shiite and Sunni Muslim factions, terrorist groups who had come into the country and resistance against U.S. occupation forces resulted in years of urban guerrilla insurgency verging on civil war. Approaching the 2008 Presidential elections in the United States, President Bush anticipated U.S. forces remaining in Iraq for an indefinite time. The Democratic candidate, Barack Obama, promised to seek an end to the war and withdrawal of U.S. troops. Republican candidate John McCain accused the Bush administration of gross mismanagement of the war, but felt it necessary to follow it through to victory. The outcome of the War in Iraq in 2008 was still quite unclear. End Show
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