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Bellwork Quiz What Spanish king married Mary Tudor (along with 3 other women) and also utilized the Inquisition to reinforce/build his empire? What Spanish.

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Presentation on theme: "Bellwork Quiz What Spanish king married Mary Tudor (along with 3 other women) and also utilized the Inquisition to reinforce/build his empire? What Spanish."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellwork Quiz What Spanish king married Mary Tudor (along with 3 other women) and also utilized the Inquisition to reinforce/build his empire? What Spanish king married Mary Tudor (along with 3 other women) and also utilized the Inquisition to reinforce/build his empire? What king is the most prominent example of absolute power? What king is the most prominent example of absolute power? What did he build that best symbolizes this Age of Absolutism? What did he build that best symbolizes this Age of Absolutism? Name 1 of 2 issues that was the root of most European wars in the 17 th /18 th centuries. Name 1 of 2 issues that was the root of most European wars in the 17 th /18 th centuries.

2 AGE OF ABSOLUTISM Lesson: “Parliament limits the English Monarchy” English Monarchy” Main Idea – In the 17 th century, absolute rulers in England were overthrown and Parliament gained power. Why It Matters Now – Many government reforms of the this era influenced American democratic traditions.

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4 The Stuart Dynasty James I ( ) James I ( ) Charles I ( ) Charles I ( ) –English Civil War ( ) –Cromwell/Commonwealth ( ) Charles II ( ) Charles II ( ) James II ( ) James II ( ) William and Mary (III; II) ( ) William and Mary (III; II) ( ) William III ( ) William III ( ) Anne ( ) Anne ( )

5 The Stuart Dynasty 1603 – Elizabeth I died after a 45 year reign with no heir – Elizabeth I died after a 45 year reign with no heir. Throne passed to her cousin James VI in Scotland = James I in England. Throne passed to her cousin James VI in Scotland = James I in England. Difficult to rule both countries; James was unpopular in both. Difficult to rule both countries; James was unpopular in both.

6 King James I Queen: Anne Queen: Anne Children: Children: –Henry d –Elizabeth –Charles I (r ) 1607: Jamestown, VA 1607: Jamestown, VA 1611: KJV of the Bible 1611: KJV of the Bible –Took 7 years to complete

7 James I Why so unpopular??? An outsider from Scotland An outsider from Scotland Tried to rule absolutely, disrespected Parliament (dissolved for a period) Tried to rule absolutely, disrespected Parliament (dissolved for a period) Detached from government, allowed it to be dominated by his “favorites” Detached from government, allowed it to be dominated by his “favorites” Lack of regal dignity Lack of regal dignity –drunkenness, appearance, extravagant court, spent too much money

8 King Charles I (r ) B in Scotland B in Scotland Sickly, did not walk until age 7 Sickly, did not walk until age 7 Became heir when brother Henry died Became heir when brother Henry died Queen: Henrietta Maria of France Queen: Henrietta Maria of France

9 Charles I Even more unpopular than his father. Even more unpopular than his father. –More civilized, but haughty and stubborn Clashed with Parliament over 2 main issues: MONEY and RELIGION. Clashed with Parliament over 2 main issues: MONEY and RELIGION. –Dissolved Parliament in 1629 and declared he would rule alone; imposed illegal taxes w/out P’s consent –Many MP’s – Puritans; feared Catholic influence (Henrietta Maria)

10 Leading Up to War… 1637 – Charles imposed the Book of Common Prayer in Scotland 1637 – Charles imposed the Book of Common Prayer in Scotland Forced to call Parliament in 1640 to raise $ for military action. Forced to call Parliament in 1640 to raise $ for military action. Long Parliament – in place until 1660 Long Parliament – in place until Charles tried to arrest ringleader MPs who opposed him Charles tried to arrest ringleader MPs who opposed him. They escaped…but the war began! They escaped…but the war began!

11 English Civil War King Charles and his supporters = Cavaliers King Charles and his supporters = Cavaliers Parliament and supporters = Roundheads Parliament and supporters = Roundheads Early battles won by the Cavaliers Early battles won by the Cavaliers Cavaliers suffered many defeats by the New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell Cavaliers suffered many defeats by the New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell Charles was captured and placed under house arrest Charles was captured and placed under house arrest.

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13 English Civil War Charles was stripped of his title and put on trial for treason. It lasted 8 days. Charles was stripped of his title and put on trial for treason. It lasted 8 days. –He refused to enter a plea or defend himself. Why? –Beheaded in First time a monarch had ever been tried and executed by his own people. The monarchy was abolished by Parliament and England became a republic known as the Commonwealth. The monarchy was abolished by Parliament and England became a republic known as the Commonwealth.

14 “Horrible Histories:” “Horrible Histories:” b0G_auKCI b0G_auKCI b0G_auKCI b0G_auKCI Charles’ Trial Charles’ Trial no5Y no5Y no5Y no5Y Charles’ Execution Charles’ Execution mSR--BktE mSR--BktE mSR--BktE mSR--BktE

15 Critical Thinking ? Only 59 of the 159 commissioners signed Charles’s death warrant. Why do you think many of the people presiding over Charles’s trial refused to sign his death warrant? Only 59 of the 159 commissioners signed Charles’s death warrant. Why do you think many of the people presiding over Charles’s trial refused to sign his death warrant?

16 The Restoration Oliver Cromwell dies Oliver Cromwell dies Charles II crowned king after Parliament votes to restore the monarchy Charles II crowned king after Parliament votes to restore the monarchy. Restoration of English culture, too. Theatres and taverns were reopened. Restoration of English culture, too. Theatres and taverns were reopened.

17 Charles II married Catherine of Braganza (Portuguese princess) married Catherine of Braganza (Portuguese princess) –She suffered many miscarriages, never produced an heir. –Charles did father several illegitimate children with his numerous mistresses. Nicknamed the “merry monarch” Nicknamed the “merry monarch” –Easy-going, love of sports, entertainment, collector of mistresses

18 Charles II A little too merry??? A little too merry??? –Not pious or very serious –1665- heat wave and outbreak of the Bubonic Plague (app. 70,000 died) –1666- Great Fire of London (destroyed most of city, left over 100,000 homeless) Legacy: Not overly significant, but 25 years of stable monarchy following a civil war and the Commonwealth. Legacy: Not overly significant, but 25 years of stable monarchy following a civil war and the Commonwealth.

19 Charles II (R ) m/watch?v=P2kyNbZc7 oc m/watch?v=P2kyNbZc7 oc m/watch?v=P2kyNbZc7 oc

20 James II (Charles’s brother) R *Problem: He was Catholic. Had 2 Protestant daughters from first marriage, Mary and Anne. In 1688, his wife had a son. Suddenly, the prospect of a Catholic line was very real. MP’s invited his daughter Mary (m. William of Orange) to overthrow King James.

21 King James II

22 The Glorious Revolution William of Orange invaded with 15,000 troops in William of Orange invaded with 15,000 troops in James II fled to France. James II fled to France. A “bloodless revolution” A “bloodless revolution” England became a constitutional monarchy. England became a constitutional monarchy. W & M had to accept the English Bill of Rights before they were crowned. W & M had to accept the English Bill of Rights before they were crowned.

23 William III and Mary II

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25 William and Mary She was popular; he was not She was popular; he was not She was 5’11’’; he was only 5’6’’ She was 5’11’’; he was only 5’6’’ She died in 1694 at age 32 from smallpox She died in 1694 at age 32 from smallpox He died from complications after a horse fall that broke his collar bone in 1702 He died from complications after a horse fall that broke his collar bone in 1702

26 English Bill of Rights ~ Assured superiority of Parliament Gave House of Commons the “power of the purse” Gave House of Commons the “power of the purse” Parliament had final authority on war, taxes, and passing laws. Parliament had final authority on war, taxes, and passing laws. Monarch – no standing army allowed Monarch – no standing army allowed MPs guaranteed free speech MPs guaranteed free speech People – right to petition the king People – right to petition the king No cruel/unusual punishment No cruel/unusual punishment

27 Queen Anne

28 Queen Anne The last Stuart monarch and younger sister of Mary II. (Father was James II) The last Stuart monarch and younger sister of Mary II. (Father was James II) 37 yrs old when she became queen. 37 yrs old when she became queen. -Suffered 6 miscarriages, 11 stillbirths or infant deaths, and her only surviving son died at Act of Union – England and Scotland became Great Britain Act of Union – England and Scotland became Great Britain. English throne passed to her second cousin, George of Hanover, who became King George I. English throne passed to her second cousin, George of Hanover, who became King George I.


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