Presentation on theme: "How are Elizabeth and Mary of Scots Related? Henry VII ArthurHenry VIII Margaret King James IV of Scotland James V Mary, Queen of Scots Anne Boleyn Elizabeth."— Presentation transcript:
How are Elizabeth and Mary of Scots Related? Henry VII ArthurHenry VIII Margaret King James IV of Scotland James V Mary, Queen of Scots Anne Boleyn Elizabeth I Mary was pushed from Scotland due to a revolt led by Calvinists. Mary fled to England Elizabeth executes Mary, Queen of Scots because Mary is plotting against her…
Heirs to the Throne Who were the mothers of these monarchs? Who succeeds Henry VIII first?, second? Mary ElizabethEdward
Edward VI (1547 – 1553) Was loved by his father, and so brought up Protestant Strengthened Protestant rule in England, and Protestant influence in the Church Followed by?
Queen Mary Tudor - Bloody Mary Restored Catholicism –Restored the Pope to rule over the Church in England –Cancelled Act of Supremacy Married Philip II, Son of Charles V of Spain Persecuted Protestants Persecuted Protestants (1553 – 1558)
Queen Elizabeth I Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Queen Elizabeth I The “Virgin Queen” never marries –But “marries England” Protestant - Anglican Gets Parliament to re-pass –Act of Uniformity –Act of Supremacy Executes her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Defeats Catholic Philip II and the Spanish Armada
Elizabeth I Major Problems: –Religious –Financial –Parliament –Mary Stuart –Spanish –An heir…. Questions… What kind of queen was she? What kind of queen was she? How do you know? How do you know? Why did she do what she did? Why did she do what she did? What could she have done differently? What could she have done differently?
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Major Problems: –Religious Act of Supremacy Act of Uniformity Compromises Puritans’s demands –Financial –Parliament –Mary Stuart –Spanish –An heir…
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Major Problems: –Religious –Financial – funds tight: no colonies, few taxes Elizabeth’s stinginess –Jt stock companies –Drake’s 1577 round the world voyage: 4600% profit! –Raleigh – “Virginia”/Roanoke –Sea dogs –Parliament –Spanish –Mary Stuart
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Major Problems: –Religious –Financial –Parliament Puritans were a growing, outspoken bunch Would not pass bills for new taxes –Mary Stuart –Spanish –An heir…
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Major Problems: –Religious –Financial –Parliament –Mary Stuart Scottish Presbyterians exiled Catholic monarch While in England she agreed to support a plot to overthrow Elizabeth –Spanish
Mary Queen of Scots Flees Presbyterian Uprising Elizabeth’s 2 nd cousin Conspired against Elizabeth, though she was Elizabeth’s 2 nd cousin Remember John Knox?
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Major Problems: –Religious –Financial –Parliament –Mary Stuart –Spanish – annoyed them greatly! 5 Ways Helped Dutch revolt Helped Dutch revolt Helped Henry IV in France Helped Henry IV in France Result: Protestants v Catholic Armada 1588
1588: A Historical Storm plus…? Spain: 8000 sailors, 20,000 soldiers, 130 ships England: Drake and Howards 65 ships and 10,000 soldiers
Thames River From the English Channel inland to London…
Ben Jonson on Shakespeare “He was not of an age, but for all time.”
London, 1588 Celtic village, then Roman: Londinium Built up by Anglo-Saxons in Middle Ages, inside 1 sq. mile walls –878AD, King Alfred def. Viking try at takeover Europe’s most populous city – 200,000 Will. Shakespeare (1564-1616) –Wrote 38 plays –Added about 1700 words –Bump, critic, courtship, dwindle and lots more… Before The Theatre was built…how was theater performed?
1600 - London was Bustling! Velvet-clad merchants and ragged poor Noise Fire and plague (16 major outbreaks 1348-1700) Elegant & raw –Boaters and Water carriers –Cappers and Barbers –Coneycatchers – slang for theft through trickery (today, a “con”) –Vagabonds –Criminals/Jailers 200 crimes punishable by execution London Bridge, Thames River Sir Francis Drake
Globe Theatre by James Burbages’ sons, 1599 Father built first in 1576, called simply “The Theater”
The rest of the chapter in a nutshell: 17 th Century England 1. Political Tension: Monarchy v. Parliament 1.Divine Right of Kings : James asserts 2.Demand for More Rights - Petition of Right 3.Major issues: Use of money 2. English Civil War : A new kind of war 1.– Charles I beheaded 1. Protestants v. Protestants Puritans v. Church of England Puritans v. Church of England 1. Roundheads v. Cavaliers 3. Puritan Victory: Commonwealth of England 1.Oliver Cromwell – assumes role of a Puritan dictator 4. Restoration of Monarchy – Charles II 1.Protestantism v. Catholicism Part II 2.Demand for more Rights (Writ of Habeas Corpus) 3.Fear of Catholicism in kings – James II 5. Glorious Revolution – James II overthrown 1.Power of Parliament v. King 2.Mary and William – limited monarchs 3.English Bill of Rights
James (Stuart) I 1603-1625 Elizabeth dies at 69 : Tudors… Protestant - Church of England, but… –Puritans and Presbyterians protested “Catholic Rituals” –Divine Right of Kings –His mother was? Parliament – he demanded money for wars –but politics was beneath him Major Accomplishments- –King James Bible –Jamestown, VA settled under his reign 1607
King of Scotland, James I of England (was also James VI of Scotland) Edinburgh Castle
Charles I (Stuart) 1625- 1649 Son of James I God’s annointed – very proud Worsened problems –Finance - –Finance - Wars (at first, w / Spain and France) Forced nobles to pay loans or imprisoned them Quartered troops in private homes –Religion – 1000s of Puritans flee Is Bishop Laud a secret Catholic? –Parliament A deal is struck in 1628 He signed the Petition of Right 1628 Not part of the deal: Then he did not call Parliament to meet for 12 years (1629-1640)
Petition of Right Ideas that later became part of the US Constitution The King May Not –Imprison people without due cause (6 th Amend. US Const.) –Tax without representation (Decl. of Indep.) –Quarter troops in private homes (3 rd Amend. US Const.) –Impose martial law in peacetime (US Constitution)
English Puritans and Scottish Presbyterians argued with Charles –Archbishop William Laud –Upset Scots created an army –Urges Charles to invade Calvinist Scotland! Need for money led to parliament passing laws limiting the King’s rights in 1641 Charles I v The Scots !!
King Decided to Arrest Parliament’s Leaders 400 Swordsmen “The birds are flown” Londoners are furious with the king’s attempt Charles goes north to raise an army Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658
English Civil War English Civil War 1642-1649 English Civil War Cromwell’s New Model Army v. King’s Forces –100,000 died in the war –Fought mainly with swords, simple muskets, cannons. Kings Army: Cavaliers –Nobles and Church Officials –(insult from Spanish)
The Roundheads Parliament's New Model Army was comprised of 22,000 men, mostly Puritans: –Twelve regiments on foot: 15,000 infantry 2/3 musketeers, 1/3 pikemen –Eleven regiments of cavalry –7,000 horsemen or dragoons –Artillery : 50 pieces
Cromwell’s Roundheads defeat the King’s Cavaliers Parliament seeks to disband the New Model Army; But Cromwell refuses –Cromwell defeats an army sent by Parliament Captures Charles I TRIAL
TRIAL Parliament v Royalists Question: Should King Charles I be executed? Your contentions and evidence??
Charles I ‘s End Charles I ‘s End A first: public trial and execution of a monarch (Jan 30, 1649) Charles I ‘s End “The season is so sharp as probably may make me shake, which some observers may imagine proceeds from fear.”
Oliver Cromwell 1649 – Commonwealth of England After four years, in 1653, Cromwell dissolved Parliament and the Constitution –Took title of LORD PROTECTOR, A Dutch political cartoon
The Commonwealth of England created good and bad laws Toleration Act; all may practice their faith Jews no longer banned Schools and universities open to all But, After Parliament was dismissed, strict Puritan laws were created by Cromwell No Sunday recreation Social restrictions: No dancing, no theater Sometimes dismissed habeas corpus Sometimes dismissed habeas corpus Invaded Ireland - Catholics – Drogheda!
Lord Protector Richard Cromwell 1658 - 60 Lacked charisma and support of people Forced out “Tumbledown Dick!”
A Puritan epic poem Why must man endure such suffering and pain? John Milton Paradise Lost
King Charles II and The Restoration (1660-1685) Charles I family had fled to France Reasonable ruler, sought to restore religious liberty –Upset Parliament - the Anglican Church –Makes a secret deal with French King, Louis XIV Habeas Corpus Act passed by Parliament Charles dies w/out an heir (childless) …uh oh!
James II (1685-1688) Brother to Charles II, son of Charles I Political parties form: Tories and Whigs What excited people’s fears? Converted to Catholic –But his oldest child is Mary, a Protestant lives in Holland –Then has another child –Appointed Catholics to high office –Puts an army outside London James II then suspended Parliament Whigs and Tories combined… They invited Mary and William (Prince of Orange) to rule on one condition…that they do what???________________
Trivia Jamestown is named for James I…. What American city was named for James II? Hint: Before he was King James II he was the Duke of_____. While Duke his forces seized this city from the Dutch. Because there was already a city with the same name in England this American city’s name begins with the word “New”.
“GLORIOUS REVOLUTION” 1688 William & Mary - agreed to less power than earlier kings Little bloodshed in England Main bloodshed is in Ireland – –James II flees there –Defending James II, Irish soldiers overwhelmingly defeated John Locke writes the English Bill of Rights. Winners – Parliament and Protestantism Losers - Monarchy, Catholicism, Irish and James II
General John Churchill deserted James II and joined William A Tory, he at first supported James. James II insulted him Offended, he switches sides No fighting in England, but in Ireland, yes His descendent was a prime minister of England _____________?
English Bill of Rights 1688 and American borrowings… King can’t suspend the laws of Parliament –(see Declaration of Independence) Parliament had to meet frequently –(US Constitution) Elections should be free and fair –(US Constitution) Debates in parliament should be subject to freedom of speech –(US Constitution) No Taxes without approval of Parliament –(US Constitution) No Standing Army without approval of Parliament –(See US Constitution) No excessive Bail –(see US 8 th Amendment)
How did Hobbes’ and Locke’s Views Differ? Where do we see each of their viewpoints in the world today?
Thomas Hobbes Political Writer and Philosopher 1651 Wrote Leviathan –Devised “The Social Contract” theory Leaders are given Power by the People But leaders must ensure lives and order – People are NASTY, BRUTISH AND GREEDY –Conclusion: Leaders need to be incredibly Powerful Hobbes saw people at their worst – The Civil War was a bloody time All Powerful Monarch Leviathan = Sea Monster
John Locke Political Writer and Philosophe Optimistic about Man and Society –In his life he experienced the Glorious Revolution where few people died. –Society did not need an Absolute Monarch, the best government is a limited Government. Wrote Essays on Government (1690) Agreed with Hobbes about the Social Contract, but –People have Natural Rights- Include Life and Liberty –Government must protect Life AND Liberty Property –Power of Government should be LIMITED –Revolution is justified if Government fails to properly Govern Wrote the English Bill of Rights (also called the Declaration of Rights)
Tower of London- Where the Kings and Queens lived Today, the crown jewels are kept there
Are people naturally inclined to Good or Bad? –Locke versus Hobbes Who deserved their punishment more: King Charles I or James II ?