2015-4-243 Anglo-Saxon People ： The ethnically and linguistically related peoples living in the south and east of the island of Great Britain Time: From around the early 5th century AD to the Norman conquest of 1066. Language: closely related Germanic dialects. Ethnical groups: Identified by Bede as the descendants of three powerful Germanic tribes, the Angles and the Saxons from today ’ s northern Germany, and the Jutes from today ’ s Denmark.
2015-4-244 Angles, Saxons and Jutes from the Continent 0
2015-4-245 (600 – 800) Heptarchy (Seven Kingdoms) (600 – 800) Christianization of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom began around 600 and was essentially complete in the mid 8th century. Throughout the 7th and 8th centuries, power exchanged between the larger kingdoms. Bede records Aethelbert of Kent as being dominant at the close of the 6th century, but power seems to have shifted northwards to the kingdom of Northumbria. The so-called ‘ Mercian Supremacy ’ dominated the 8th century, though again it was not constant. The word Heptarchy arose on the basis that the seven kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, Kent, East Anglia, Essex, Sussex and Wessex were the main polities of south Britain.
2015-4-246 Heptarchy (600 – 800) 1. Northumberland 2. Mercia 3. East Anglia 4. Essex 5. Wessex 6. Kent 7. Sussex 中国战国七雄： 秦齐楚燕韩赵魏
2015-4-247 One day life of an Anglo-Saxon peasant Wood-splitting Summoned Quest Battle Reward Home(video)video
2015-4-249 Viking Invasion In the 9th century, the Viking challenge grew to serious proportions. Alfred the Great ’ s victory at Edington in 878 brought intermittent peace, but the Norsemen with the foundation of Jorvik gained a permanent foothold in Britain. An important development of the 9th century was the rise of the Kingdom of Wessex, and by the end of his reign Alfred was recognized as overlord by several southern kingdoms. Æ thelstan was the first king to achieve direct rulership of what is considered “ England. ” Near the end of the 10th century, there was renewed Scandinavian interest in England, with the conquests of Sweyn of Denmark.
2015-4-2417 Norman Conquest — An introduction The Norman conquest of England began in 1066 AD with the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), and his success at the Battle of Hastings resulted in Norman control of England. The Norman Conquest was a pivotal event in English history for several reasons: 1. This conquest linked England more closely with continental Europe through the introduction of a Norman aristocracy, thereby lessening Scandinavian influence. 2. It created one of the most powerful monarchies in Europe and engendered a sophisticated governmental system. 3. The conquest changed the English language and culture and set the stage for a rivalry with France that would continue intermittently until the 20th century.
2015-4-2418 Normandy: Composition Normandy (French: Normandie) 1. Basse-Normandie 2. Haute-Normandie 3. The Channel Islands a. Guernsey b. Jersey
2015-4-2420 Norman Conquest: Starting from Viking expansion Northmen Normandie Normandy
2015-4-2421 Norman Conquest: the cause What was happening in England? Viking attacks resumed in the late 10th century, and in 991 the King of England Aethelred II agreed to marry Emma, the daughter of the Duke of Normandy, to cement a blood-tie alliance for help against the raiders. When King Edward (son of Aethelred II ) died in 1066 with no child, and thus no direct heir to the throne, a power vacuum arose in which several competing interests laid claim to the throne of England. One was Harald III of Norway. Another claimant was William, Duke of Normandy because of his blood ties to Aethelrad through Aethelred ’ s wife Emma. A third was the Earl of Wessex Harold Godwinson who had been elected king by the Witenagemot of England.
2015-4-2422 Power vacuum after King Edward II Father Mother (daughter of Duke of Normandy) Son (No heir)
2015-4-2423 Preparation for the conquest William had assembled an invasion fleet of approximately 600 ships and an army of 7,000 men. William had recruited soldiers from all of northern France, the Low Countries and Germany. Many soldiers in his army were second- and third-born sons who had little or no inheritance under the laws of primogeniture ([praimə‘dʒenit ʃ ə ] 长子身份 ). William promised that if they brought their own horse, armour, and weapons to join him, they would be rewarded with lands and titles in the new realm. William also gathered over 2,000 horses, transported across the channel in specially adapted horse transports.
2015-4-2424 Preparation for the conquest Horse transport Bayeaux Tapestry (an animated video: Preparation, crossing the channel, landing, castle building, fighting, victory)
2015-4-2425 Crossing and Landing William gathered his ships at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme ready to cross by 12 August delayed by unfavourable weather landing at Pevensey in Sussex on 28 September, assembled a prefabricated wooden castle near Hastings A crucial delay: Just a few days after Harold ’ s victory over the Norwegians Bad weather had done William a great favor: Had William landed in August as originally planned, Harold would have been waiting with a fresh and numerically superior force.
2015-4-2426 Hasting Battle Rushing south at the news of William ’ s landing, Harold paused briefly at London to gather more troops, then advanced to meet William. They fought at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October. It was a close battle at first, but in the final hours William ’ s superiority in cavalry and archers proved decisive. Harold was killed, along with his brothers Earl Gyrth and Earl Leofwine, and the English army fled. (Hasting battle: a modern version video)video
2015-4-2427 Occupation of London William expected to receive the submission of the surviving English leaders, Edgar Atheling was proclaimed king by the Witenagemot, with the support of Earls Edwin and Morcar, Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Aldred, Archbishop of York. William, who had received reinforcements from across the English Channel, therefore advanced, marching through Kent to London. He was unable to storm London Bridge and therefore sought to reach the capital by a more circuitous route.
2015-4-2428 Occupation of London He marched west to link up with another Norman force near Dorking, Surrey. The combined armies then moved up the Thames valley to cross the river at Wallingford, Oxfordshire. While there, he received the submission of Stigand. William then travelled northeast along the Chilterns, before advancing towards London from the northwest. Having failed to muster an effective military response, Edgar ’ s leading supporters lost their nerve, and the English leaders surrendered to William at Berkhamstead. William was acclaimed King of England and crowned by Aldred on December 25, 1066, in Westminster Abbey. (Who was William the conqueror?)Who was William the conqueror
2015-4-2430 Control of England Soldiers rewarded: The Normans received from William lands and titles in return for their service in the invasion. All land was the king ’ s: William claimed ultimate possession of virtually all the land in England and asserted the right to dispose of it as he saw fit. Land confiscation: William confiscated the lands of all English lords who had fought and died with Harold and redistributed most of them to his Norman supporters. These initial confiscations led to revolts, which resulted in more confiscations, in a cycle that continued virtually unbroken for five years after the Battle of Hastings.
2015-4-2431 Control of England Fort and castle building: To put down and prevent further rebellions, the Normans constructed a variety of forts and castles on an unprecedented scale. Heir designation: If an English landholder died without issue, the King could designate the heir, and often chose a successor from Normandy. Inheritance control: William and his barons also exercised tighter control over inheritance of property by widows and daughters, often forcing marriages to Normans. No English in upper society: The Normans displaced the native aristocracy and took control of the upper ranks of society. By 1086, French names predominated even at the lower levels of the aristocracy.
2015-4-2432 Kings of House of Norman, Anjou, Plantagenet Henry II Witnessed a long period of peace Steady increase in trade and in population. Reformed the courts and law. Introduced the jury system made the law common Weakened the power of the lords and knights Cancelled the feudal services of forty days Asked the lords to pay a special tax. Hired professional soldiers. William I RobertHenryWilliam II MatildaStephen Henry II Richard I King John Henry III Edward I Edward II …
2015-4-2434 King John and the Great Charter (1) King John succeeded his nephew Richard I in 1199. 1)Defeated in a war with France and lost Normandy in 1204. Demanded more feudal taxes and army service to revenge himself on France. 2)The lords became angry, marched to London and forced him to sign a long document on June 17th, 1215. The document is known as the Great Charter. 3)torn up the Great Charter with the help of Pope. War broke out and finally John lost the war and died in 1216.
2015-4-2435 King John and the Greater Charter (2) The Great Charter had three sets of provisions: 1)that the king was not to exact extra payments from the feudal vassals (towns) without their consent; 2)that laws were not to be modified by the arbitrary action of the king; 3)that should the king attempt to free himself from law, the vassals had the right to force him to obey law, by civil war or otherwise. Significances of the Great Charter 1)Made in the interests of the feudal lords 2)Granted to the townspeople freedom of trade and self-government. 3)Political rise of merchants and craftsmen for the first time
2015-4-2436 King John and the Greater Charter (3) The Greater Charter was the first document forced onto an English King by his subjects in an attempt to limit his powers by law
2015-4-2438 Birth of Parliament (1) Henry III (reign 1216-1272) was crowned at the age of 9. He hoped that he could defeat the lords and their Charter with the help of the Pope: (advisers, church post) Rebellion broke out with Simon V de Montfort (6th Earl of Leicester) as the leader. The lords forced the king to dismiss his foreign advisers and to accept their own council of advisers, instead. de Montfort ’ s new council took control of the treasury and all state officials, and then settled down to work their reforms. Simon called a parliament in 1265 after a battle in which Henry III was defeated and taken prisoner. In addition to the older group, there were two knights from each shire and two citizens from each town. It was known as the “ All Estates Parliament ( 各级议会 ). ”
2015-4-2439 Birth of Parliament (2) Edward I succeeded his father, Henry III, in 1272 Conquered Wales and engaged in a long war with Scotland In constant need of money. In 1295, he summoned the “ All Estates Parliament ”— more than 400 members in all. As that Parliament was followed as a model, it became known in history as the “ Model Parliament ( 模范议会 ). ” Edward II succeeded his father in 1307 A weak and lazy king Left the work of government to his household favorites A party of lords formed against him. Parliament made a plan to demand the public appointment of all state officials. Parliament forced Edward II to hand over the crown to his son in 1327
2015-4-2440 de Montfort (1208 – 1265) (from the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives) the de facto (actual) ruler of England after 1263-1264 rebellion Regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy
2015-4-2442 Significances of Norman Conquest (1): Establishment of Feudalism Feudal Hierarchy: The king was the sole and ultimate owner of all land, which he gave to nobles and the Church in return for military and other services. The vassals could subdivide their fiefs into smaller fiefs and bestow them upon their own followers. The king was the lord to his vassals, who in turn were lords to their knights. Thus a new and more elaborate hierarchy of nobility came into being. Centralization of power The king required not only his vassals but also the vassals of his vassals to take an oath that they would be faithful to him against all other men. duke, marquis, viscount, earl, baron 公爵, 侯爵, 伯爵, 子爵, 男爵
2015-4-2443 Significances of Norman Conquest (2): Law reform and establishment of parliament Introduction of jury Making law common throughout England The Greater Charter Establishment of parliament
2015-4-2444 Significances of Norman Conquest (3): government system (1) Before the arrival of Normans, Anglo-Saxon England had one of the most sophisticated governmental systems in Western Europe. All of England had been divided into administrative units called shires of roughly uniform size and shape, which were run by officials known as “ shire reeve ” or “ sheriff ”. The shires tended to be somewhat autonomous and lacked coordinated control. This sophisticated form of government was handed over to the Normans and grew even stronger. The Normans centralised the autonomous shire system. The Domesday Book exemplifies the practical codification which enabled Norman assimilation of conquered territories through central control of a census.
2015-4-2445 Significances of Norman Conquest (3): government system (1) Domesday book ( 英国土地志 ) (1) also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester the record of the great survey of England completed in 1086 similar to a census by a government of today. William needed information about the country so he could administer it. One of the main purposes of the survey was to find out who owned what so they could be taxed on it. The name Domesday comes from the Old English word “ dom ”, meaning accounting or reckoning. Thus domesday, or dmsday, is literally a day of reckoning, meaning that a lord takes account of what is owed by his subjects.
2015-4-2446 Significances of Norman Conquest (3): government system (2)
2015-4-2447 Significances of Norman Conquest (4): Language (1) 牛的肉是 “ 牛肉 ” ，猪的肉就是 “ 猪肉 Old English Anglo-Norman pigpork (porc)oxbeef (boeuf) deervenison(venison)calf veal (veal) sheepmutton (mutton) Old English Anglo-Norman Modern English as the language of the ruling classes in England for nearly 300 years Words borrowed from Old French Language 1. Government and law: government, legislature, court 2. Art and culture: dance, language, art 3. Enjoyment of Life: leisure, fashion, cuisine
2015-4-2448 Significances of Norman Conquest (4): Language (2) Court and politics taxmayormercyaccusejustice Church diction praysaintfaith Military diction armynavybattle Clothing robecoatdress Food dinnerbiscuitcreamsaladpastry Furniture tableclosetporch Arts dancepaperengine Trade costpricemarket Emotion painjoyrage
2015-4-2449 Significances of Norman Conquest (4): Language (3) Anglo-Norman language: from a sociolinguistic perspective Upper class: French Middle class: Anglo-Norman Lower class: Old English In the end, English won the competition, with a systematic variation.
2015-4-2450 Significances of Norman Conquest (5): Anglo-Norman and French relations (1) Anglo-Norman and French political relations became very complicated and somewhat hostile after the Norman Conquest. The Normans still retained control of the holdings in Normandy and were thus still vassals to the King of France. At the same time, they were their equals as King of England. On the one hand they owed faith to the King of France, and on the other hand they did not, because they were peers. A crisis came in 1204 when French King Philip II seized all Norman and Angevin holdings in mainland France except Gascony. This led to the Hundred Years War when Anglo-Norman English kings tried to regain their dynastic holdings in France.
2015-4-2451 Significances of Norman Conquest (5): Anglo-Norman and French relations (2) The Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) The English kings ’ claims to the French throne. The war was a series of conflicts and is commonly divided into three or four phases: 1. the Edwardian War (1337 – 1360), 2. the Caroline War (1369 – 1389), 3. the Lancastrian War (1415 – 1429), and 4. the slow decline of English fortunes after the appearance of Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431). Results It finally ended in the expulsion of the English from France.
2015-4-2452 Significances of Norman Conquest (6): social and cultural relations (1) the near total elimination of the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy by the time of the Domesday Book, only two English landowners of any note had survived the displacement the loss of English control over the Church in England by 1096 no church Bishopric was held by any native Englishman; all were held by Normans. No other medieval European conquest of Christians by Christians had such devastating consequences for the defeated ruling class. Meanwhile, William ’ s prestige among his followers increased tremendously and his control was greatly consolidated He was able to award them vast tracts of land at little cost to himself.
2015-4-2453 Significances of Norman Conquest (6): social and cultural relations (2) Emigration to the Byzantine Empire Thousands of Anglo-Saxon nobles and soldiers ultimately found Norman domination unbearable and emigrated to Byzantium, placing themselves at the service of the Byzantine Emperor. Anglo-Saxon emigrants came to dominate an elite unit called the Varangian Guard ( 拜占庭皇帝的卫士 ), which served as the Byzantine Emperor ’ s own bodyguard and continued in existence until at least 1204.
2015-4-2455 QUIZ Please give a brief talk about “ the significances of Norman conquest ” Suggested points to be discussed Establishment of Feudalism Law reform Establishment of parliament Establishment of government system Language changes Anglo-Norman and French relations Social and cultural relations