Presentation on theme: "Wars of Louis XIV: The Peace of Utrecht, 1713"— Presentation transcript:
1 Wars of Louis XIV: The Peace of Utrecht, 1713 The Crossing of the Rhine by the Army of Louis XIV, PARROCEL, JosephSection 4.22
2 Questions to ConsiderDescribe Louis XIV’s foreign policy in the years prior to the War of Spanish Succession. Of what significance were the chambres de reunion in Alsace and Lorraine?What features of the War of Spanish Succession made it distinctive? Why was the war fought?Summarize the main developments of the war. What motives prompted each state to continue to fight?What were the major provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht? On what basis were differences between the great powers settled?
3 Terms to Know War of Devolution Dutch War Treaty of Nimwegen Chambres de reunionWar of the League of AugsburgPeace of RyswickCharles II of Spain“The Pyrenees exist no longer”William IIIJohn Churchhill, Duke of MarlboroughPhilip V of SpainGrand Alliance of 1701Prince Eugene of SavoyTreaties of Utrecht and RastadtAsiento“Dutch Barrier”
4 Introduction: Before 1700 France surrounded by Span Spain weakened state1667 Louis XIV invades the Spanish NetherlandsBlocked by the Triple Alliance of Dutch, English and Swedish interests1672 Louis XIV invades the Spanish Netherlands againAlliance with Charles II of England keeps British at bayWilliam of Orange formed an alliance with Habsburgs (Spanish and Austrian) blocks FranceTreaty of Nimwegen 1678 France takes the Franche-Comte’
5 Introduction: Before 1700 1679 Louis XIV invades Alsace and Lorraine Leopold I of Austria is engaged with Turks that are supported by the FrenchIn 1683 they had moved up the Danube and laid siege to ViennaWestern boarder of the HRE is eroding
6 League of Augsburg (1686) developed to respond to French threat HRE, Spain, Sweden, Dutch and EnglandHuguenots, Catholics, Lutherans, aligned with each other against FranceRevocation of Edict offended protestants1688 War of the League of Augsburg (Glorious Revolution)Louis XIV has a fight on several fronts and leans on the nobility for taxes1697 Peace of Ryswick leaves matters along original lines
7 The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) AKA Queen Anne’s War A Modern, formal war against states not against civiliansReligion counts for very little in the conflictEnglish are becoming noteworthy political forceFirst “world war” events on several continents are involved
8 The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) AKA Queen Anne’s War Charles II of Spain is without an heirLouis XIV is married to Charles II of Spain’s sisterLeopold I married Charles II of Spain’ s sisterEach could put a young family member on the throneGroups explored the idea of dividing French holdings to maintain the balance of power (Austria and France)1700 Charles II of Spain died and left everything to the grandson (17 yrs. Old) of Louis XIV (not a capable leader)French influence would run from Belgium to Gibraltar“the Pyrenees exist no longer”great threat to political balancePhilip V
9 The Grand Alliance William III organizes the “Grand Alliance” of 1701 War aimsEngland support Dutch, keep Stuarts off throne of England, keep France out of Spanish American tradeHolland keep France out of Belgium and keep Scheldt closed, France out of Spanish American tradeAustria put Habsburg back on Spain’s throne and crush BavariaBrandenburg, Italian duchy of Savoy: opportunistsPortugal, interests in Spanish territory
11 The Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714) Partitioned the world of SpainBritain’s Queen Anne raised 12 commoners to peerage so to give a Tory majority (the party in favor of signing a peace treaty)Britain gets Gibraltar and MinorcaSavoy gets SardiniaAustrian Habsburgs get Milan, Naples, Sicily, and Spanish (now Austrian) NetherlandsGrandson of Louis XIV was crowned Philip V of Spainkeeps new world territoriesCrowns of France and Spain can never be unitedAbsolutism comes to Spain (lasted until 1931)New World markets are available to French goodsDomination by France is prevented
12 Consequences of the war France is weakeneddepopulationfaminePeasant uprisings are brutally put downtaxesAristocratic and parliamentary opposition begin againNewfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay territory are BritishRetain Alsace and the Franch-Comte’Influence is strong in Spain
13 Consequences of the war Dutch are strengthened against France“Dutch Barrier”- a string of forts and garrisons in Belgium are grantedNever play a prominent role in European political affairsRulers of Brandenburg and Savoy are elevated to title of King
14 Consequences of the war BritishMajor presence in the Mediterranean (Gibraltar and Minorca)asiento opens the Spanish New World up to British trade (slaves and smuggling)right to supply Spanish America with African slaves (very lucrative)Assure Protestant monarchyLouis ceases to recognize the Stuart pretender as king
15 Consequences of the war Confirmation of the European systemPowers accepted each other as members of the systemRecognized each other as sovereign statesfree to negotiate, make war, and treatiesadjusted balance of power through exchange of territories (third party territories?)Leaves France and England as the two major powers to export Europe to the world
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