Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation"— Presentation transcript:
1The Protestant Reformation Essential QuestionHow did the Protestant Reformation impact the European continent and lead to conflicts within and against the Roman Catholic Church?SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation.Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation; include the ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin.Describe the Counter Reformation at the Council of Trent and the role of the Jesuits.Describe the English Reformation and the role of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.
2Setting the Stage Roman Catholic Church (10th Century) Dominated religious life in Northern and Western EuropeStill, the church does NOT have universal approval, as over the centuries, people begin to criticize the practices of the churchChurch leaders too interested in worldly pursuits (gaining wealth/political power)Prompted by ONE MAN, the criticisms would lead to REBELLION!!
3Causes of the Reformation Brainstorm: What are some of the aspects of the Church from the Middle Ages/Renaissance that could cause rebellion against the church?SocialPoliticalEconomicReligiousThe Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led people to question the ChurchPowerful kings challenged the Church as the supreme power in EuropeEuropean princes and kings were jealous of the Church’s wealthSome Church leaders had become worldly and corruptThe printing press helped spread ideas critical of the Church.Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authorityMerchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the ChurchMany people found Church practices such as sale of indulgences unacceptable
4Luther Starts the Reformation LIST FOUR PROBLEMS that existed in the Catholic Church during the time of Martin Luther that heand others criticized and wished to reform:
5Criticism of the Catholic Church Corrupt LeadershipPopes who ruled during the Renaissance patronized the arts, spent extravagantly on personal pleasure, and fought wars.Many popes were too busy with worldly affairs to take care of the spiritual duties(Pope Alexander VI: admitted to fathering many children)Many kings/princes challenged the pope’s authorityIssues in the Lower ClergyMany priests were poorly educated - they could scarcely read,let alone TEACH people!!Some broke priestly vows by marryingSome drank to excess or gambledCalls for reform met with harsh punishment
6Martin Luther Who was Martin Luther? 1483-1546 A monk and a teacher of scripture at the University of WittenbergAll he wanted to be was a good Christian, not lead a religious revolutionHe wrote a document called the 95 Thesis which launched a movement against the Catholic Church
795 THESES: formal statements attacking these “pardon-merchants” Martin LutherLuther went against the actions of a friar Johann Tetzel (who rebuilt St Paul’s Cathedral with money from indulgences)INDULGENCES: a pardon that released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins (buying their way into heaven!!)95 THESES: formal statements attacking these “pardon-merchants”
8Martin LutherOctober 31, Luther posted these statements on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate him!Luther’s Actions begin the REFORMATION (movement for religious reform, leading to the creation of churches NOT under the pope’s authority)
9Luther’s Teachings Three Main Ideas People could win salvation only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness (the Church taught that faith and “good works” were needed for salvation)All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible (both the pope and Church traditions were false authorities)All people with faith are equal (therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them)
10Luther Starts the Reformation CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSLuther attacks a monk named Tetzel for selling indulgences.In 1517, Luther postshis 95 Theses on thechurch doors atWittenberg.Luther’s words are printed and spread all over Germany and attract many followers.Above: The church doorsAt Luther’s church in Wittenberg. Other pics, Wittenberg, 2002.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
11Reaction to Luther1520 – Pope Leo X – excommunicated Martin Luther from the Catholic Church. (or cut him off from the Church and salvation)1521 – Holy Roman Emperor Charles V summoned Luther to the Diet of Worms to stand trial for heresy (going against the church). Luther was asked to denounce his beliefs, but Martin Luther refused.
12Reaction to LutherEdict of Worms – Charles V declares Luther an Outlaw and a Heretic.No one could feed or house Martin Luther within the Holy Roman Empire.Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony hid Luther in his castle for a year.1522 – Luther returns to Wittenberg and saw that his teachings in practice -Lutheranism
13Response to Luther The Pope’s Threat Pope Leo X issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statementsInstead, his students at Wittenberg gathered around a bonfire and cheered as he threw the pope’s decree into the fireLeo excommunicated Luther
14Response to Luther The Emperor’s Opposition Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (devout Catholic) called Luther to the town of Worms in 1521 to stand trial, where Luther refused to recant his teachingsCharles issued an imperial order (The Edict of Worms) that declared Luther a heretic, and that no one was to give him food or shelter; all Luther’s books were also burnedHowever, Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony disobeys the emperor’s orders and gives Luther shelter and food (this is where Luther translates the New Testament into German)
15Response to LutherLutherans: a religious group who broke away from the Catholic Church completely to follow Luther’s ideas and teachingsThe Peasant’s RevoltGerman peasants, excited by reformers’ talk of Christian freedom, demanded an end to serfdomBands of angry peasants went about the countryside raiding monasteries, pillaging, and burningLuther horrified - wrote a pamphlet to the princes of Germany not to show rebels any mercyPrinces respond, crushing the rebellion by killing around 100,000 peopleMany peasants rejected Luther's religious leadership
16Luther Starts the Reformation; CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS2. In 1520, Lutherrefuses to recant atWorms and isexcommunicated.In 1521, he is declaredan outlaw and heretic.The Pope realizes Luther is a threat to papal authority.The H.R.E., is a devout Catholic, and also feels threatened by the uproar.Luther is sheltered by the prince of Saxony where he translates Bible into German.When he returns to Wittenberg, his followers have become a separate religious group – the Lutherans.Charles VHoly Roman EmperorSAXONYFrederick,Prince of Saxonyofferedprotection to LutherMartin LutherPope Leo X
17Germany at WarMany northern German princes supported Lutheranism (some for selfish reasons)Saw teachings as good excuse to seize Church property and assert independence from Charles VGerman princes who remained loyal to the pope agreed to join forces against Luther’s ideasThe princes who supported Luther signed a protest against the agreementThese protesting princes came to be known as PROTESTANTS!!PROTESTANT: would eventually be applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches
18Germany at WarCharles V defeats the Protestant princes, but is unable to force them back to the Catholic ChurchTired of war, he calls princes (both Catholic and Protestant) to assemble in the city of AugsburgPEACE OF AUGSBURG: religious settlement in which each prince would decide the religion of his state
19Luther Starts the Reformation CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSExcited by Luther’s talk about “religious freedom,” peasants revolt hoping forsocial / economic freedom (an end to serfdom).When the armies of German princes (at Luther’s request) brutally crush this revolt (killing thousands), previous supporters now turn against Luther.The Germanpeasants revoltin 1524.Religious Wars begin betweenCatholics and Protestants.
21John CalvinGrew up to study law and philosophy at the University of Paris1530’s - was influenced by French followers of LutherWhile Calvinism is seen to be strict and grim, Calvin taught that people should enjoy God’s giftsit should not be “forbidden to laugh, or to enjoy food, or to add new possessions to old”
22John Calvin 1536 - published Institutes of the Christian Religion Expressed ideas about God, salvation, and human natureSummary of Protestant Theology (religious beliefs)Believed men and women are sinful by natureHumans cannot earn salvation, and God chooses a very few people to saveIdea of PREDESTINATION (God knowing since the beginning of time who will be saved…the “elect”)CALVINISM: religion based on Calvin’s teachings
23John Calvin’s IdealBelieved that the ideal government was a THEOCRACY (government controlled by religious leaders)NOTE: Many Protestant churches today trace their roots to Calvin (though many have softened his strict teachings over the years)CrimesRejecting the TrinityRejecting the eternal Sonship of ChristRejecting infant BaptismEndorsing Astrology
24John CalvinJohn Calvin's theology was in most respects similar to Luther's. Both reformers gave primary importance to the authority of the Bible and to the idea of predestination. This portrait of John Calvin is attributed to the German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (ca ). It was painted around 1538, when the 29-year-old reformer was at the beginning of his career in Geneva, where he stayed to participate in the reform of the city, and then remained for the rest of his life. (H. Henry Meeter Center for Calvin Studies, Calvin College and Calvin Theological Semnary)
25Calvinist worshipThis painting, the Temple of Lyons, was attributed to Jean Perrissin (ca. 1565). The temple was constructed in 1564 on land near the town hall and paid for by the Protestant community of Lyons. This picture of a simple Calvinist service was probably brought to Geneva by a refugee, for the temple disappeared after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Although Calvin's followers believed in equality and elected officials administered the church, here men and women are segregated. Beside the pulpit an hourglass hangs to time the preacher's sermon.
26Pierre Virer preaching before Calvin Another great reformer, the Swiss Pierre Viret ( ) exercised his ministry at Orbe, Payerne, and Lausanne before taking refuge in Geneva. In this Limoges enamel plaque, Viret preaches before Calvin and others on the fourth petition of the Lord's Prayer, "Give us this day our daily bread." (Louvre/R.M.N./Art Resource, NY)
27Legacy of John Calvin John Knox Admiring visitor of Calvin’s Geneva (Scottish preacher)Created a Scottish theocracy where each community church was governed by a group of laymen called elders or presbytersPRESBYTERIANS followers of Knox
28Legacy of John Calvin Huguenots: Calvin’s followers in France Hatred between French Catholics and Huguenots would frequently lead to violenceMost violent clash (August 24, 1572) - Catholic feast of St. Bartholomew’s DayCatholics began hunting for Huguenots and murdering themMassacred spread to other cities and lasted six months (almost 12,000 Huguenots believed to be killed)
29Other Protestant Reformers Ulrich ZwingliSwiss priestStrongly influenced by Christian humanismCity Council in Zurich supported Zwingli’s Reformation:Stated that the Bible was the sole authorityCondemned corruption of Roman Catholic Churchrelics and images removed from churchesTraditional mass was replaced by scripture readings, prayer, and sermonsMusic was eliminated from church servicesclerical celibacy and pope’s authority abolished.1531 war erupted between the Swiss Protestant regions and Swill Catholic regions.Zwingli killed on battlefield
30& The Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli& The Swiss Reformation
31Other Protestant Reformers As Christians interpret the Bible for themselves, new Protestant groups form over differences in beliefsAnabaptists: “baptize again”Baptized only those who were old enough to decide to be Christian on their ownThose baptized as children would need to be baptized again as adultsChurch and state should be separate (they refused to fight in wars)Shared their possessions with one anotherRefused to swear oaths and bear armsAnabaptists were persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants, but survived and became forerunners of the Mennonites and the Amish (influenced Quakers and Baptists - split from the Anglican Church)
32England Becomes Protestant King Henry VIII: In the Beginning…In 1521, Henry VIII writes an attack on Luther’s ideas, leading the pope to give Henry the title “Defender of the Faith”Political Need: Henry VIII needed a male heir in order to prevent a civil war that took place when his own father had taken over the throneHenry VIII becomes king of England in 1509
33King Henry VIII Wants a SON!! Catherine of AragonHad a daughter Mary - but no woman had successfully claimed the English throne1527: Henry VIII convinced Catherine would have no more children, and thus wanted to divorce her and marry a younger womanANNUL: setting aside the marriage as long as proof could be found it was never legal in the first place
34The Reformation Parliament 1527: Henry VIII asks Pope Clement VII for annulment of marriage to Catherine of Aragon, but the pope refusedThe pope did not wish to offend Catherine’s powerful nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VHenry VIII solved the problem himself - in 1529, he called parliament into session to pass a set of laws that ended the pope’s power in EnglandThis Parliament was called the REFORMATION PARLIAMENT!!
35The 1534 Act of SupremacyPassed by Parliament, calling on people to take an oath recognizing King Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England…NOT the POPE!Treasons Act 1534 was passed along with the Act of Supremacy, making it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as the head of the Church of England (i.e. Sir Thomas More)By the way…Henry VIII was excommunicated from the Catholic Church…in case you’re wondering…
36Holbein, portrait of Henry VIII This portrait of Henry VIII, painted by Hans Holbein the Younger in 1540, is the best known of all of Henry's portraits. Although the king is painted half-length, Holbein has successfully captured Henry's regal bearing, finely detailed dress, the impact of his 6′2" frame, and his imperturbable, aloof expression.
37The Story of Henry’s Wives… Anne Boleyn (Second Wife)One living daughter - Elizabeth - and had several false pregnancies and miscarriages, one of a male child at 15 weeksHer inability to bear Henry a male heir was seen as betrayal, and she was eventually imprisoned in the Tower of London, then beheaded on the morning of May 19, 1536 at 8:00amJane Seymour (Third Wife)The only Queen to bear a living male heir - Edward VI - but difficulties caused her to die in childbirthHenry VIII considered Jane his “true wife” and would be buried beside her at his death in on January
38The Story of Henry’s Wives… Anne of Cleaves (4th Wife)When Henry wished to marry again to secure his succession, Anne Cleves was suggestedHolbein the Younger was told to paint her portrait, which with complimentary descriptions given by courtiers, led to Henry’s agreement to marry herWhen she arrived, Henry found her unattractive, and never consummated the marriage, leading to an annulment of the marriageCatherine Howard (5th Wife)Married Henry VIII on July 28, 1540Was said to have had an affair with a courtier she had been informally engaged to even before HenryWhen found out, she was executed on February 13, 1542 (she was between the ages of 17 and 22 at the time of her death)
39The Story of Henry’s Wives… Catherine Parr (6th Wife)Wealthy widow Henry VIII married in 1543Helped reconcile Henry with his first two daughters, the Princess Mary and the Lady Elizabeth1544, an Act of Parliament put the daughters back in the line of succession after Edward, Prince of WalesSo as the saying goes…"King Henry the Eighth, to six wives he was wedded: One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded.”Misleading: Henry never divorced from any of his wives (his marriages to them were annulled…and four marriages ended in annulments!)
40Henry VIII on death-bed In this allegorical painting by an unknown artist, Henry VIII, on his deathbed, points to his heir, Edward, who is surrounded by Protestant worthies, as the wave of the future. The pope collapses, monks flee, and through the window iconoclasts knock down statues, symbolizing terror and superstition. Since the new order lacked broad popular support, propagandistic paintings like this were meant to sway public opinion. (Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees, National Portrait Gallery, London)
41Consequences of Henry’s Changes Edward VI - became king at 9 years oldBeing too young to rule, was guided by adult advisors (devout Protestants that introduced Protestant reforms to the English Church)Reigned for 6 years before he died (constantly sick)Mary - daughter of Catherine of AragonTook the throne in 1553Catholic - returned the English Church to the popeHad many Protestants executed (thus, known as “Bloody Mary”)Died in 1558
42Restored Protestantism Queen Elizabeth IRestored ProtestantismParliament follows her wishes and set up the Church of England, or ANGLICAN CHURCH, with Elizabeth as the headDecided to establish a state church that moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants might both acceptBrought a level of religious peace to EnglandQueen Elizabeth I“The Most Dread Sovereign Lady”
43Queen Elizabeth I Religion still remained a problem Money Problems Protestants wanted further reformsCatholics tried to overthrow her and replace her with her cousin, Catholic Mary Queen of ScotsAlso faced threats from Philip II, the Catholic King of SpainMoney ProblemsLate 1500’s - England begins to think about an American colony to build a new source of incomeWould strengthen England economically, but did not enrich Elizabeth directly - led to to bitter arguments with Parliament
444England and the ChurchIn 1528, King Henry VIII asked the pope to annul, or cancel, his marriage.The pope refused Henry’s request.Henry took the Church from the pope’s control and created the Church of England.Protestant King Edward VI brought Protestant reforms to England.Queen Mary wanted to restore Catholicism to England. She had English Protestants burned at the stake.Queen Elizabeth forged a compromise betweenProtestants and Catholics.
45Daughter will be “Bloody” Mary I 1553-1558 (Catholic). England becomes ProtestantHenry’s Six Wives :Daughter will be “Bloody” Mary I(Catholic).Catherine of Aragon(divorced)Daughter Elizabeth I(Protestant).Anne Boleyn(beheaded)Son Edward VI(sickly)King Henry VIII of England[ ]He broke England’s ties to the Roman Catholic Church for political and personal reasons, not religious ones like Luther.Henry needed a male heir and his Catholic Spanish QueenCatherine of Aragonwas not able to produce one.Jane Seymour(died)Anne of Cleves1540(divorced)Kathryn Howard(beheaded)Kathrine Parr(survived)
46England becomes Protestant - CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSEnglish Parliament approves the Act of Supremacy in 1534.Henry VIII needed to annul his marriage to Catherine so he could remarry in order to get a male heir.The Pope would not allow.So Henry calls Parliament into session and passes the Act of Supremacy.Henry closes all English monasteries; seizes their lands and other Catholic holdings in England;thereby increasing his royal power, as well as his own personal wealth.The Act of Supremacy made the ruler of England the official head of the Church of England – no longer the Catholic Pope.Today, the Act of Supremacy remains in effect –Queen Elizabeth II of England is officially the headof the Anglican Church.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
47England becomes Protestant - CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSParliament establishes the Anglican Churchin 1559.Henry’s daughter Mary had tried to restore Catholicism in England after her father’s break with the Pope.Elizabeth I restores Protestantism and asks Parliament to create a national Church of England.The Anglican church becomes the only legal church in England and people were required to attend. Elizabeth tried to create a church that both moderate Catholics and Protestants could accept.After everything her father went through trying to get a male heir –even executing her own mother – it is ironic then that his daughter Elizabeth would turn out to be one of the most politically skilledand well-remembered monarchs in England’s history.She was a master at diplomacy with other European powersand at achieving compromises in her own kingdomin order to maintain peace among squabbling religious groups.Elizabeth IThe “Virgin” QueenRuled England for 45 years!PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
48England becomes Protestant tries to invade England. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSPhilip II of Spain had been married toMary I of England. A loyal Catholic,The Spanish Armadatries to invade England.Elizabeth Igives arallying speechto Britishtroops instilling confidence in her ability to rule as a woman.Bad weather and English “fire ships” destroy theSpanish Armada.The “Protestant” Wind ?he did not think Elizabeth was a legitimate heir to the English throne.He also believes Elizabeth is condoning her English navy’s piracy of his Spanish galleys.When England sides with the Dutch against Philip’s rule in the Netherlandsand Elizabeth has her cousin Mary (Queen of Scots) executed for treason, Philip decides to invade England.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
51The Legacy of the Reformation What were some effects of theReformation?Religion no longer unites Europe.Church power declines; while thepower of kings increased –paving the way for unifiednation-states.More people questioned theteachings of the Church they hadalways simply been indoctrinatedinto and began to pursue insteadtheir own independent thinking,scientific study and otherintellectual interests.