Influences 1. Disillusionment: --loss of faith in the Enlightenment tradition --loss of faith in liberal-democratic values (which contributed to Fascist ideologies) 2. The Lost Generation: 9 million killed 3. A fascination with violence: Some veterans clung to an aggressive militarism and favored extremist political movements (Hitler and Mussolini)
After WWI: Era of Totalitarianism Communist Russia Fascist Italy Nazi Germany
Causes 1. 1919-1920 the Versailles treaty 2. the failure to create lasting, binding standards for peace and security (the League of Nations) 3. Economic conditions 4. Nationalism
1930s 3 tests for the League of Nations –China: Japanese invasion, the “Rape of Nanjing” (1937) –Ethiopia: Mussolini’s invasion (1935) –Spain: Civil War (1936-39), fascist Franco vs. divided Republicans
1939 Germany asked the Polish Corridor to be abolished. When Poland decided not to give in, Hitler attacked. WWII began.
The Holocaust -WWII=a racial war -4.1-5.7 million Jewish people died
1945 August 6 and 9 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. August 14 Japan surrendered.
1945 United Nations founded Eastern Europe occupied by Red Army 1947 Cold War started 1950 Korean War 1961 Berlin Wall built 1962 Cuban missile crisis 1963-73 Vietnam War 1989 Year of liberation in Eastern Europe 1990 Germany reunified; Cold War ended