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Unit 3/4 Colonization of Georgia. James Edward Oglethorpe  Founder of the Georgia colony (13 th )  Activist who wanted to reform the prisons of England,

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3/4 Colonization of Georgia. James Edward Oglethorpe  Founder of the Georgia colony (13 th )  Activist who wanted to reform the prisons of England,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3/4 Colonization of Georgia

2 James Edward Oglethorpe  Founder of the Georgia colony (13 th )  Activist who wanted to reform the prisons of England, as well as the laws affecting people in jail who owed debts  Proposed a colony to give them a fresh start

3 Why did Oglethorpe settle Georgia?  Conflict and change Defend from Spanish FloridaDefend from Spanish Florida Defend from French in Mississippi regionDefend from French in Mississippi region Religion: freedom and sanctuary for Protestants escaping Church of EnglandReligion: freedom and sanctuary for Protestants escaping Church of England  Production, distribution, and consumption Trade with the IndiansTrade with the Indians Production of silk, cotton, dyes, wine, spicesProduction of silk, cotton, dyes, wine, spices A new market for English goodsA new market for English goods

4 Georgia’s Charter  Charter: legal document that grants special rights and privileges to a group for a certain area (which explorer lost all of his money, and was the impetus for the idea of charters?) Boundaries: Savannah and Altamaha RiversBoundaries: Savannah and Altamaha Rivers Atlantic to Pacific OceanAtlantic to Pacific Ocean  Charter outlined 3 purposes for the new colony: CharitableCharitable EconomicEconomic DefensiveDefensive

5 New Rules for the New Colony  Rules established by the trustees made Georgia different from other colonies: Trustees could not own landTrustees could not own land Trustees could not make a profit from the colonyTrustees could not make a profit from the colony This helped prevent social class issues that plagued other colonies.This helped prevent social class issues that plagued other colonies. Trustees were not allowed to drink rum or other hard liquor (drinking would interfere with their working)Trustees were not allowed to drink rum or other hard liquor (drinking would interfere with their working) Slavery was banned, as Oglethorpe believed that white settlers became lazy when they let slaves to do their work.Slavery was banned, as Oglethorpe believed that white settlers became lazy when they let slaves to do their work.

6 Georgia’s Charter  What was included: Catholics, blacks, liquor dealers, and lawyers could not become colonists.Catholics, blacks, liquor dealers, and lawyers could not become colonists. The colony belonged to England and nothing could be done with the King’s permission (which economic principle does this relate to?)The colony belonged to England and nothing could be done with the King’s permission (which economic principle does this relate to?)  Regulations Each man was to defend the colonyEach man was to defend the colony Land could not be soldLand could not be sold Land must be given to a male heirLand must be given to a male heir Land must be cultivated with the seeds providedLand must be cultivated with the seeds provided Plant Mulberry trees (silk)Plant Mulberry trees (silk) Obey regulationsObey regulations

7 Setting out for Georgia  November 1732:Oglethorpe and the new colonists set out for the New World aboard the ship “Ann”.  February 1733: Arrived in South Carolina—met with Royal Governor who asked for protection from attacks by the Yamasee Indians and the Spanish

8 Georgia’s First Days  After docking the colonists, Oglethorpe sailed south looking for a site for the new colony— selected Yamacraw Bluff, a site beside the Savannah River (location)  John and Mary Musgrove had a trading monopoly in this area and served as translators between Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians, and Oglethorpe  Musgroves urged Oglethorpe to sign a treaty with Tomochichito settle at Yamacraw Bluff.  Treaty of Savannah: Signed by the Creek and the colonists— Creek agreed to give the land to the colonists, who in turn, agreed to trade with the Creek at set prices  Why was Savannah such an important settlement (location!)?

9 Tomochichi  Chief of the Yamacraw (part of the Creek Confederacy)  An important ally to Oglethorpe. He was so respected that he accompanied Oglethorpe (and the Musgroves) to England in There, Tomochichi met the King while he was in London. Impressed with what he saw, King George II was convinced that the Creek Confederacy should be allies of England  1739: Oglethorpe signed the Treaty of Coweta, in which the chiefs reaffirmed their loyalty to King George II.

10 The First Year  Oglethorpe was an accepted leader…duties: He got land grantsHe got land grants Treaties with IndiansTreaties with Indians Built fortBuilt fort Trained a militiaTrained a militia  Citizen Army Advice and encouragementAdvice and encouragement  Battled sickness, climate, poor sanitation, and hard labor July Dr. Nunis: Jewish doctor who came over on a ship carrying 42 other settlers.July Dr. Nunis: Jewish doctor who came over on a ship carrying 42 other settlers. Artisans: craftspeople…Georgia’s first settlers were mostly skilled laborers.Artisans: craftspeople…Georgia’s first settlers were mostly skilled laborers. Early Colonial Savannah

11 Ebenezer  March German Protestants, forced to leave their homeland by the Catholics, formed a town 25 miles north of Savannah…1736 moved away from the river wetlands and called this New Ebenezer. Diagram of Ebenezer

12 Colonial Unrest in Georgia  While Oglethorpe was in England with Tomochichi and 5 other Indians, Georgia’s colonists were voicing their displeasure of the regulations that Oglethorpe enforced: No SlavesNo Slaves No Rum (alcohol)No Rum (alcohol) Only male heirs could keep landOnly male heirs could keep land

13 Battle of Bloody Marsh  War broke out between England and Spain…also Known as the “War of Jenkin’s Ear” The war was named after Robert Jenkins, captain of the ship Rebecca, who claimed Spanish guards had cut off his ear in He exhibited the ear in the British House of Commons, inflaming public opinion against the Spanish. The government of the British Prime Minister Robert Walpole reluctantly declared war on 23 October Oglethorpe prepared his borders with FloridaOglethorpe prepared his borders with Florida June, Oglethorpe led a group of Georgian and South Carolinian settlers, as well as friendly Indians, to attack the Spanish fort at St. Augustine, Florida.June, Oglethorpe led a group of Georgian and South Carolinian settlers, as well as friendly Indians, to attack the Spanish fort at St. Augustine, Florida.  Beaten back by a well- trained Spanish Army  July, Spanish attack St. Simon’s Island Oglethorpe drove them back without either side being hurtOglethorpe drove them back without either side being hurt “Battle of Bloody Marsh”“Battle of Bloody Marsh” Fort St. Augustine

14 Oglethorpe’s Final Days  Oglethorpe left Georgia to defend himself in England about his loss at St. Augustine…proven innocent…never returned to Georgia.  With Oglethorpe gone, the colonists began to allow alcohol, slaves, and the sale of land.  Georgia time of control by the Trustees ended and was returned to the authority of King George II.

15 Colonial Georgia People  George Whitfield: evangelist who established the Bethesda Orphans Home in Ebenezer  John and Charles Wesley: founders of the Methodist Church…established first Sunday School  Reverend John Martin Bolzius: leader of the German Protestants from Salzburg  Peter Gordon: kept a journal describing his trip on the ship “Ann” Provided earliest view of SavannahProvided earliest view of Savannah The Wesleys

16 The role of the Salzburgers  Salzburgers: A group of German Protestants that were forced to leave Salzburg, Germany by Catholics.  Led by John Martin Bolzius  Oglethorpe allowed them to settle 25 miles north of Savannah, and they began the town of Ebenezer (which means “The Rock of Help”.  Land was marshy and poor for crops; Salzburgs asked Oglethorpe for a better site, and in 1736, they moved to Red Bluff on the Savannah River (New Ebenezer)  When Oglethorpe returned to Georgia from a trip to England (February 1736), he helped the Salzburgs move to Frederica on St. Simons Island. (© The Georgia Salzburger Society)

17 Highland Scots  Georgia was a buffer colony and Oglethorpe wanted to protect the colony from possible attacks from Spanish Florida.  Highland Scots: men from Scotland who had the reputation of being good soldiers  Arrived at the Altamaha River in 1736—established a settlement called “New Inverness” (later changed to Darien)  The Scots were hard workers and kept many of their Scottish traditions (including the wearing of kilts).  Changed to raising cattle/harvesting timber when they couldn’t grow from the soil  Encouraged other Scots to emigrate because of their successful economy  Responsible for the earliest anti- slave petition in the South (held from ) © Georgia Department of Natural Resources (DNR)

18 Malcontents in Colonial Georgia  Malcontent: a person who is dissatisfied with the existing government, administration, system, etc.  Malcontents were upset over regulations imposed by Oglethorpe Mulberry trees (wrong kind for producing large amounts of silk)Mulberry trees (wrong kind for producing large amounts of silk) Slavery: S. Carolina had slaves and those colonists seemed to be prosperingSlavery: S. Carolina had slaves and those colonists seemed to be prospering Alcohol: Colonists were not able to grow hemp, flax, indigo, or grapes for wineAlcohol: Colonists were not able to grow hemp, flax, indigo, or grapes for wine  Many of the malcontent settlers moved elsewhere so that they could live more freely.  When Oglethorpe returned to Georgia after a trip to Great Britain, he found rising discontent.


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