Presentation on theme: "CENTRAL EUROPE. Central Europe extends from the Elbe River in Germany to the marshes of eastern Poland. The northern plains and the southern mountains."— Presentation transcript:
Central Europe extends from the Elbe River in Germany to the marshes of eastern Poland. The northern plains and the southern mountains lacked clear natural frontiers, leaving the region open to warfare, migration, and shifting boundaries.
CENTRAL EUROPE Social Development: While in western Europe serfs won freedom and the middle-class developed in the towns, in eastern Europe the landowning aristocracy gained greater control over the serfs. There were few middle-class merchants or free artisans
CENTRAL EUROPE Rulers: Central Europe was controlled by the Holy Roman Emperor, the _Hapsburg Emperor, and the king of Poland. Power Vacuum: Situation in which a region is made up of old, weakening empires and kingdoms whose weakness tempt ambitious leaders to move into the area a take control
POLAND SLAVS: Settled in Poland in the fifth century. They were converted to_Christianity_ in 966 under Prince Mieszko I. B. BOLESLAW I: Mieszko's son, he was crowned as the first king of Poland, establishing the Piast dynasty, which lasted until 1370. Under the Piast kings, the Polish state was threatened from within by rivalries among nobility, and from without by Bohemian and Germanic invasions. The last of the dynasty was Casimir III, crowned in 1333.
POLAND GOLDEN AGE OF POLAND (1386-1572): Began with a marriage between the grand duke of Lithuania, Jagello, and the __Polish_princess Jadwiga. The initial personal union with Lithuania, formalized only 200 years later by the Union of Lublin in 1569, produced a state that extended from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south. The Polish ___culture__ of the 16th century produced a flourishing of the arts and intellectual life, exemplified by the scientific work of ____Copernicus____. Protestantism gained adherents in Poland during this period, which was one of great religious diversity. The __Jewish__ community, which had prospered in Poland since the 14th century, won the right of self-government. The country's economic wealth was based on grain exports to western Europe.
POLAND PERIOD OF ELECTIVE MONARCHY: The Jagello Dynasty ended with the death of Sigismund II in 1572. The Polish nobility, the szlachta, formed the Sejm, in which each of the nobles had a vote and participated in the choosing of the next king. During a war-torn decade beginning in _about 1650_, Poland's vast territories were attacked by Ukrainian Cossacks, marauding Tartars, Turks, and Russians. But the greatest devastation was inflicted by the__Russians__ who conquered and laid to waste virtually the entire country in 1655. King John III Sobieski's victory over the Turks at __Lember_ in 1682 recovered some of Poland's prestige as a European power, but he could not stop Russian encroachment in the Ukraine and further loss of the eastern territories. During the reign (1697-1733) of Augustus II, Poland was involved in the Great Northern War, which took place largely on Polish soil.
POLAND END OF THE MONARCHY: On Augustus' death, in 1733, the French candidate, Stanislaw Leszczynski, was again elected King; this sparked off the War of Polish__Succession__ (1733 - 35) during which Polish resistance was crushed by combined Prussian and Russian armies. The__Russians__ sent in an army and reran the election; their candidate, Augustus' son, Frederik Augustus II (1696-1763) was elected king, Augustus III, in 1734. Augustus spent his reign almost exclusively in Dresden, only fleeing to Poland when the Prussians occupied Saxony during the Seven Years War. He supported Prussia in the first Silesian War (1740 - 42) but sided with Austria in the second Silesian War (1744 - 45), was defeated and forced to pay indemnity..
POLAND The Electorate of Saxony was occupied by Prussia during the Seven Years War - the third Silesian War (1756 - 63); during this war, by which Prussia gained Silesia, Poland's neutrality was ignored and she became a staging area for the deployment of t he combatants. Frederick II (_the Great_ ) of Prussia recouped his war costs by flooding Poland with counterfeit money and imposing illegal tolls. Prussia and Russia continued to renew their alliances by which Poland would be kept weakened. At Augustus' death, the Russians forced the election of Stanislaw Poniatowski, destined to become the__last_ King of Poland.
AUSTRIA AND HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE LAND OF THE HAPSBURGS REGIONS: Also, other German states and scattered lands in Italy See map, page 498 1) dukedom of Austria on the Danube River 2) Kingdom of Bohemia to the North, duchies of Moravia and Silesia (Crown of Saint Wenceslas) 3) Kingdom of Hungary to the East, Croatia, Transylvania
HAPSBURGS FERDINAND II (1619-1637) A. Principal champion of the Roman Catholic cause in the Thirty Years' War. 1. As king of Bohemia (from 1617) and as emperor, he worked to crush the rebellion of the Bohemian Protestants, who elected (1619) the elector palatine, Frederick V, as a rival king of Bohemia. 2. Ferdinand crushed this rebellion with military help from the Spanish Hapsburgs and from Bavaria but thereby precipitated the Thirty Years' War. After 1626, Albrecht von Wallenstein organized a huge imperial army that made Ferdinand the virtual military master of Germany.
HAPSBURGS C. Ecclesiastical property was restored via the Edict of Restitution (1629). Subsequently the Edict was rescinded but in exchange the German princes agreed to have their armies put under imperial command.
HAPSBURGS FERDINAND III (1637-1658): He ended the Thirty Years' War in Germany and took the lead in the negotiations that finally led to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The settlement forced on Ferdinand a virtual retreat from Germany. From then on, the Austrian Hapsburgs concentrated more and more on their ethnically diverse, Catholic, Danubian dominions.
HAPSBURGS LEOPOLD I (1658-1705) A. Consolidated his diverse family possessions in Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia. The Diet was established in Regensburg in 1663 and remained there until 1806. B. His efforts to extend Counter-Reformation Catholicism throughout his domains provoked revolts in Hungary since he antagonized the Magyar nobility, many of whom had converted to Calvinism. C. Leopold's generals won a series of victories over the Turks, culminating in Eugene of Savoy's triumph at Zenta in 1697 and making possible Leopold's goal of a port at Trieste on the Adriatic. D. By the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) most of Hungary was recovered from the Turks. E. Leopold's imperial forces played a central role in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13).
HAPSBURGS JOSEPH I (1705-1711) A. The War of the Spanish Succession continued throughout his reign, the imperial armies under Eugene of Savoy won victories in Italy, Germany, and Flanders. B. Joseph's death, without a male heir, and the succession of his brother Charles VI, altered the course of the war. The allies who had earlier supported Charles's claim to the Spanish throne abandoned him, fearing a united Spain and Austria. C. During Joseph's reign the Hungarian revolt led by Ferenc II Rakoczi was finally suppressed in 1711
HAPSBURGS CHARLES VI (1711-1740) A. As a claimant to the Spanish throne, Charles spent 7 years (1704-1711) in Spain fighting supporters of Louis XIV's grandson, the future Philip V of Spain. B. The unexpected death of Joseph I made Charles heir to Habsburg possessions in Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary. Elected emperor on October 12, 1711, he reluctantly gave up his Spanish ambitions. At the Peace of Rastatt in March, 1714 he received territories in Italy and the Netherlands as compensation for the lost Spanish crown. C. Because he had no male heir Charles spent his entire reign trying to gain acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction, a document designed to protect the succession rights of his daughter Maria Theresa. However, his death in 1740 led immediately to the War of the Austrian Succession.
RISE OF PRUSSIA HOHENZOLLERNS A.REGIONS: B.1. East Prussia was a small duchy in northern Poland controlled by the Hohenzollerns. 2. Brandenburg was their most valued state located in the HRE since 1417, its ruling prince was one of the Seven Electors. 3. Berlin was the Hohenzollern capital.
PRUSSIA - HOHENZOLLERNS FREDERICK WILLIAM, GREAT ELECTOR: Became Elector of Brandenburg in 1640. 1. He was determined to strengthen Brandenburg by building a strong standing army of 30,000 men. 2. He levied taxes without approval from the local estates (provincial assemblies representing the landed nobility and towns), thereby diminishing the independence of the Junker aristocracy whose services he enlisted as army officers and local administrators. The Junkers were pacified with the right to demand obedience from their serfs. 3. He sought to increase the wealth and prosperity of Brandenburg- Prussia by promoting the growth of agriculture, industry, and commerce, and by encouraging Polish Jews, French Huguenots, and other religious refugees to settle within his domains.
PRUSSIA - HOHENZOLLERNS ELECTOR FREDERICK III, FREDERICK I OF PRUSSIA (1688,1701-1713): Son of the Great Elector; first Hohenzollern to call himself king of Prussia (1701) - a title granted by the Holy Roman Emperor as a reward for Frederick's help in the War of the Spanish Succession. 1. He demonstrated more interest in cultural affairs and court life (a la Louis XIV) than in his government ("the Ostentatious"), which he allowed to fall into the hands of corrupt favorites. 2- In the Peace of Utrecht (1713), which ended the War of the Spanish Succession, East Prussia was recognized as a sovereign kingdom and all Hohenzollern territories were grouped under the name of Prussia.
PRUSSIA - HOHENZOLLERNS FREDERICK WILLIAM I (1713-1740): Son of Frederick I He centralized governmental administration in a single board known as the General Directory. He organized an efficient bureaucracy that cut royal expenditures while more than doubling annual income. 3. The king utilized this additional revenue to expand his peacetime army to 83,000 men, transforming it into one of the best-trained and best-disciplined military establishments in Europe. He chose officers from the Junkers. He is known as the ''Soldiers' King" and his motto was ''Build a bigger and better army". 4. To strengthen the economy, he nurtured industry and agriculture through mercantilist policies. 5. At his death, he left his heir, Frederick II (The Great) a well-filled treasury and a superior fighting machine.
RUSSIA THE BIRTH OF RUSSIA A. 'Barbarian'' Tribes (1000 BC to 800 AD) - Scythians, Goths, Huns B. Slavs: Probably came from southern Poland and the Baltic shore. They were conquered by__Varangian (Norse)_ warriors who established the first unified government around 862 under Rurik at Novgorod. Moving south, Rurik established (879) his authority in Kiev.
RUSSIA Kiev: First Russian state established in the 800's. Other Russian cities recognized Kiev's leadership. The ruler of Kiev was called the___Grand Duke____. 988 Grand Prince Vladimir I becomes a ____Christian___(Eastern Orthodox). The height of Kievan power was reached under Yaroslav the Wise who ruled from 1019 to 1054.
RUSSIA Tatars: Mongol tribe which conquered Russia in the 1200's. It was led by late the grandson of__Ghengis Khan___. Kiev was sacked in 1240. Russia became part of the Mongol Empire, and was called the Golden Horde. During this period Russia was under ''the Mongol yoke's.
RUSSIA RISE OF MOSCOW RISE OF MOSCOW (MUSCOVY): In the early l300's Prince Yuri married the sister of the Khan. He was appointed Russian Grand Prince and was allowed to collect __vykhod (taxes)_. A. Ivan I: Nicknamed ''Moneybags'', he kept some of the tax money, bought land, expanding the territory under his control. He defeated the Mongols in 1380 but they recaptured Moscow in 1382.
RUSSIA Ivan III (1462-1505): Called ''the Great", he tripled the size of his domain through conquering surrounding territory. In 1472 he married Sophia, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor. Seeing himself as the heir to the Byzantine heritage, he began to call himself Czar from ''__Caesar_ ". He freed Russia from Mongol control in 1480 by refusing to pay __tribute__. He built a palace inside the Kremlin (walled citadel in the center of the city). Upon his death he was succeeded by his eldest son, Vasily III.
RUSSIA Ivan IV (1530-1584): Grandson of Ivan III, he came to the throne at age of 3. During his childhood there was a struggle for power among the ___Boyars (nobles)__ (princes comparable to feudal lords) and Ivan, a sickly child, was ignored and poorly educated. He was the first to be crowned czar of all Russia in 1547. In that same year he married Anastasia Romanov and ruled well until her death in 1560, which marked the end of Ivan's constructive policies. After that he began the tactics which earned him the name ''the Terrible.'' He was the first of many czars to pass laws binding the peasants to the land, making them serfs. He massacred conquered peoples, murdered from 400 to as high as 10,000 boyars, and confiscated their property. He married and killed six wives. He killed his own son and heir in a fit of rage in 1581. At his death in 1584 he was succeeded by his son, Fyodor I.
RUSSIA ' 'Time of Troubles'' (1598-1613): Period that followed the death of Tsar Fyodor I, the last ruler of the Rurik dynasty, and lasted until the crowning of the first Romanov. It was a time of civil war political confusion, peasant revolts, foreign invasions. During Fyodor's reign real power lay in the hands of his brother-in-law, Boris Gudunov. Fyodor's half brother, Dmitry, was killed in 1591, possibly by order of Godunov, who became tsar when Fyodor died. In 1604 a pretender who claimed to be Dmitry appeared. This ''false Dmitry'' became tsar upon the assassination of Godunov's son and successor, Fyodor II (r. 1605). Dmitry was killed in an uprising. other pretenders appeared but finally order was restored in 1612.
RUSSIA ROMANOVS Romanov Dynasty: Dynasty in power in Russia from 1613 - 1917; came to power when representatives of 50 Russian cities chose the 17-year- old Michael Romanov, grandnephew of Ivan IV, to be czar. 1. Michael Romanov (1613-1654), Alexis I (1654-1676), and Theodore III (1676-1682) began the centralization of Russia. 2. Russian bureaucracy was mostly controlled by the___zemstvo___ 3. 1670-71: revolt by peasants and Cossacks barely suppressed. 4. Possibilities of mutiny simmered among the ___strelsty___, guards of the Moscow garrison
RUSSIA ROMANOVS RUSSIAN ISOLATION A.Russia had looked to__Constantinople__ rather than Rome for leadership B.Russia was under Mongol rule during the Renaissance so was cut off from new ideas C.geographic barriers - only seaport, __Archangel___, was blocked by ice most of the year D.Russians practiced Byzantine, or Eastern Orthodox, Christianity rather than Roman Catholic or Protestant
RUSSIA ROMANOVS A.PETER THE GREAT (1682-1725): Tsar of Russia and the first Russian emperor (from 1721). He became co-tsar with his half brother Ivan V, (Ivan died in 1696) under the regency of his half sister, Sophia. Peter gained effective control of the government in 1689. In 1697 Peter toured western Europe, studying shipyards, armaments, industrial techniques: etc. Peter returned to Russia determined to bring his country into the modern world.
RUSSIA ROMANOVS Modernization of Russia 1. Peter built up the Russian navy and modernized the army by making it permanent and hiring European drill instructors, making Russia a major European power. The Guards Regiments, aristocratic units that were the core of Peter's army, became especially powerful. The 1698 revolt of the ____strelsty____ was brutally suppressed.
RUSSIA ROMANOVS 2. He introduced western customs, clothing. He adopted the European calendar and alphabet. He started first Russian newspaper 3. Tried to end seclusion of women by inviting noblewomen to social gatherings and demanded they come without veils. He ended arranged marriages without consent of couple
RUSSIA ROMANOVS 4. 1698 he shaved off the__beards___ of his nobles who had viewed their beards as symbols of manhood and Christianity; resisters had to pay a beard tax and wear metal tags to prove they had paid the annual fee. The nobles, previously uneducated and attached to their distant lands, were required to attend schools and to devote their lives to civil or military service. The 1722 ____Table of Ranks__ equated social position to service rather than lineage.
RUSSIA ROMANOVS 5. Introduced the potato to Russian agriculture 6. Adopted mercantilist ideas; encouraged exports and discouraged imports; subsidized the growth of factories; encouraged the iron industry in the __Ural___ Mountains. 7. Peter reorganized the Russian bureaucracy into __colleges__, groups in charge of taxes, foreign relations, war, and the economy. A nine-member __board___ was established to rule when Peter was with the army.
RUSSIA ROMANOVS B. ''Window on the Sea'': Peter I's phrase for his desire to gain a warm- water seaport for Russia including a strip of coastline on the Baltic Sea (opposed by Sweden) and on the Black Sea (opposed by ______Ottoman Turks____) –
RUSSIA ROMANOVS C. Great Northern War: War between Russia and Sweden (1700-1721)7 initial Swedish victories ended by invasion of the Ukraine where their real enemy was the Russian winter. Victorious at the Battle of Poltava, Peter entered into the Peace of Nystadt which gave Russia its new Baltic coastline and proclaimed Peter as emperor of all the Russias
RUSSIA ROMANOVS St. Petersburg: Built beginning in 1703 at the mouth of the Neva River as his Window on the West. It was a poor location health-wise but good as a port. It was named after Peter's patron saint. Thousands died in the building of the city. It became the capital in 1712.
RUSSIA ROMANOVS Religious Reform 1. The mid-17th century reforms of Patriarch__Nikon__ had met with opposition by a group known as the ___Raskolniki__, thousands of whom killed themselves rather than submit to the new texts and rituals. 2. To prevent the church from becoming a focus of dissent Peter abolished the patriarchy and established a group of high priests called the____Holy Synod__ to take the place of the patriarchy in 1721. Peter was the head of the Holy Synod, and as such, could command the huge material resources of the church for the government's use.
RUSSIA ROMANOVS The End: Peter's attempt to arrange the succession to the throne met with difficulties. The 1718 imprisonment of his son ____Alexis__ ended with the mysterious death of his heir. Peter never designated a successor so when he died his second wife ruled, ineffectually, as Catherine I and was followed by Peter's sickly grandsons Peter II (r. 1727-30).