Presentation on theme: "STUART KINGS & QUEENS (1603-1714). JAMES I (VI OF SCOTLAND) r. 1603 - 1625 “Kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God’s throne,"— Presentation transcript:
STUART KINGS & QUEENS ( )
JAMES I (VI OF SCOTLAND) r “Kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself they are called Gods… I will not be content that my power be disputed on.”
James spent a lot of money on himself and his court. He was constantly asking Parliament for more. The political rift between James and Parliament begins with James’ decision to end the war with Spain. The treaty James signed had England paying Spain for its losses. Adding to the fire James tried to marry son Charles to a Royal Spanish catholic. It fell through, however. A religious rift also began to emerge. Puritans in England wanted James, the head of the Anglican Church, to reform from the church. The Puritans believed it was too Catholic. James refused and began to persecute the Puritans. Many Puritans made plans to flee to America. James dies in 1625, leaving his son Charles with his unsolved baggage.
CHARLES I r
Charles, an Anglican, married Henrietta Maria a French Catholic. Believing that Charles would follow in his father’s footsteps, parliament gave only a portion of the treasury amount he had requested. This angered Charles, and he responded by dissolving parliament, which under English common law, he had the power to do. So where was Charles to get his money if not from Parliament? He will get it from landed gentry. Charles forced the landowners to “loan” him money, for if they refused he would have them thrown in jail. The country was shocked, and there were several counties voicing protest. With these counties, Charles simply declared martial law. To prove his point, he also passed a measure that forced citizens to house the king’s military while martial law was in place.
In addition to dealing with inner strife, Charles felt it necessary to continue war with Spain at the same time declare against France. The King recalled parliament in 1628 to get money to fight the two powerhouses. Parliament agreed to grant the king expenses as long as he agreed to sign the petition of right. Charles did so. The provisions of this edict were: – The King could not collect taxes without the consent of parliament. – The King could not imprison anyone without just cause. Law of the Land. – Troops could not be housed in private homes without the approval of the owner. – The King could not declare martial law unless England was at war. No forced loans or confiscation of property. – Due process is guaranteed.
Charles had signed the document; however, after he received his funds he dissolved parliament again and ignored the petition. For ELEVEN YEARS, Charles would rule without parliament. As religious tensions grew, Charles appointed William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury. This position allowed Laud to make decisions concerning the Anglican Church and canon. Laud went to work immediately. He began a campaign of persecution against the Puritans. He burned Puritan religious books, banned preaching, and forced meeting houses to follow the sacraments and use James’ version of the Bible. If there was resistance, which there was, public floggings as well as imprisonment followed. Charles and Laud then set their sights on Scotland. They were to follow the Church of England as well. The resistance in Scotland was much more violent and organized than that of the English Puritans. War would come!
This war would be something that Charles did not bargain for. In the year 1640, Scotland invades England; Charles desperately needs money to raise an army. After eleven years of ignoring them, he is forced to recall parliament. Parliament, predominantly made up of Puritans, immediately began venting. The stubborn king, after only THREE weeks dissolved them again. This session was known as the “short parliament”. Charles falls further into debt, Scotland is making progress and he is losing support from landed nobles. He had no choice but to recall parliament once again. This time, however, parliament remained for twenty years. “Long Parliament” Parliament’s first act of business was to arrest William Laud and Wentworth on the charge of treason. They were convicted and executed against the wishes of the king. Charles quickly found himself at the mercy of the parliament he so often mocked. This time it was the Irish who will cause the trouble. The native Irish rebelled because of religious issues, but also because of the royal system of giving Irish land to Englishmen. Even though the Puritans controlled parliament there was a small but vocal group was aptly called the Royalists.
The Puritans of the House of Commons sent Charles 19 propositions which would give parliament supreme power in England. Of course Charles rejected them and saw the authors as treasonous. The king sent his army into the House to arrest those responsible, however, by the time the army had arrived; the Puritan leaders had fled. There king’s supporters were predominantly from the north and west. Their given name was the Cavaliers. Puritans support was centered in the south and east. The revolutionaries were called Roundheads. Parliament passed the Militia Ordinance. The political and military leader of the Roundheads was a commoner by the name of Oliver Cromwell. After 4 years of back and forth battles, the royalists and cavaliers finally surrendered in the year 1646, at the battle of Naseby. Still the king refused to bend. He charged parliament with treason from within his jail cell and assured them that England will demand justice. Charles I was executed on the tower green in This sent shockwaves across Europe. Now what???
THE COMMONWEALTH 1649 – 1653 Rump Parliament
OLIVER CROMWELL LORD PROTECTOR r
England, for the first time in its long history, becomes a commonwealth. The elected officials of parliament and those whom they appoint will rule from While The Commons was creating a commonwealth, Cromwell took his army and defeated the Irish and the Scots. Upon his return the great defeater of tyranny takes over parliament and names himself Lord Protector, in Disbands the rest of parliament. Cromwell will rule as a dictator for 5 years. His rule of strict Puritan laws forces many to consider returning to a monarchy. When Oliver dies in 1658, his son Richard assumes power, but doesn’t have the stomach for it and resigns in less than a year.
CHARLES II exiled / r
Charles II returns to England 1660 Known as the Restoration – He supported the arts, science and entertainments – Had had no legitimate children – He allowed Parliament to settle religious issues 1661 a new Parliament is elected. The Cavalier Parliament with majority Royalists
He passed the Claredon Code Church of England official Only Anglicans could attend Universities, serve in Parliament, and hold services – Constitutional monarch under Charles II – Test Act = civil/military employees swear against transubstantiation – Disasters= Plague and London fire blamed on Puritans and Catholics – 1679 Parliament introduced the Exclusion Bill – Which would have kept Charles’ brother James II out of the throne Those who supported James were Tories Those who opposed were Whigs The bill fell, however a bill which establish habeas corpus was passed. (no imprisonment without just cause) – Charles dies in 1685, he has no heir, his brother James II becomes king.
JAMES II r – 1689
– James was Catholic and believed in Divine Right. Parliament worried and hoped he would die without an heir 1688 he had a son by his 2 nd wife Repealed the Test Act and dissolved parliament
WILLIAM III AND MARY II r – 1702 r
All of parliament “invited” Mary II (James II’s protestant daughter and her husband William of Orange from Netherlands) to take England over. They did so without bloodshed, known as the Glorious Revolution 1689 William and Mary swore loyalty to Parliament
Passed the Bill of Rights – King couldn’t raise taxes without Parliament – King couldn’t suspend laws – King couldn’t maintain an army without Parliament – Parliament in session often – Right to debate – Trail by jury – Bail limited – Right to appeal – No cruel or unusual punishment Act of Settlement 1701 No Catholic could be crowned Not yet a democracy- male property owners could vote
James II exiled, landed in Ireland and began a Catholic revolt. It was crushed and the English Protestants of Ireland began to persecute the Irish Catholics. Died in Paris in William and Mary wouldn’t have an heir
Mary’s sister Anne would be crowned She had no heir. Scotland and England agree to politically unite under the act of Union 1707 Sophia, James I granddaughter’s son is next in line
HANOVER KINGS & QUEENS ( )
GEORGE I r
1714 George I Hanover is crowned Sir Robert Walpole becomes Britain’s 1st Prime Minister