2Learning objectives Learning objectives How did Harold plan to defend England?Who won the Battle of Stamford Bridge?How did William invade England?Who won the Battle of Hastings, and why?Learning objectives
3Can you remember who they were? 1066: the story so far…In 1066, King Edward the Confessor died without an heir.Three men emerged as contenders for the English crown.Can you remember who they were?
4So who did become king?In the end the Witenagemot decided that Harold Godwinson should be the next king.Harold, son of Earl Godwin, was chosen king by the chief noblemen of England…Florence of Worcester, 1115Harold was crowned in Westminster Abbey in January But he had no time to celebrate. William of Normandy and Harald Hardraada were both determined to take the crown by force.
6What did Harold do?King Harold knew that he would have a lot of difficulty holding onto England. He did not know which of his enemies would make the first move, but he assumed it would be William, so he stationed his troops on the south coast.
7Hardraada invadesUnfortunately for Harold, his gamble did not pay off. The first person to invade was Harald Hardraada. William was waiting for the right wind for his ships.Hardraada arrived at the mouth of the Tyne with more than 300 ships on 20th September The earls Edwin and Morcar fought the Norwegians, but eventually lost.Harold had to march his army north to meet Hardraada, and then get back to the south again before the wind changed and allowed William to invade.
8The Battle of Stamford Bridge Then came our King Harold on the Norwegians unawares, and met them beyond York at Stamford … Harald Hardraada was killed, and Earl Tosti; the Norwegians that were left were put to flight … Only 24 ships returned to Norway.The Anglo-Saxon ChronicleThe Battle of Stamford Bridge was a great victory for Harold, but two days later the wind changed and William’s invasion fleet set sail. William landed at Pevensey on the Sussex coast on 28th September.Why was the change in the wind such bad timing?Who had the better chance of winning the next battle? Why?
9The next battle…although [Harold] knew that he had lost some of his best men in the recent battle, and that half of his troops were not yet assembled, he did not hesitate to meet the enemy.Florence of Worcester, 1115What does this text tell you about the type of man Harold was?What advice would you have given him and why?
11The Norman army The Norman army was made up of… Archers (armed with bows and arrows)Cavalry (men on horseback, armed with swords)Foot soldiers (armed mainly with spears)Total strength = approx menAll William’s soldiers had training and experience. Many were professional mercenaries.
12The Saxon army The Saxon army was made up of… Housecarls – professional soldiers armed with battleaxesFyrd – armed with spears and sometimes swordsTotal strength = approx menThe housecarls were highly trained and formed the core of the army. The fyrd were ordinary men called up to serve in times of emergency. They were unpaid and had little or no training.
19The death of HaroldEverybody knows that William won the Battle of Hastings and Harold lost. But how exactly did Harold die?Imagine you are a detective investigating a murder. You interview the witnesses, but they disagree with each other. Some may be mistaken. Some may be lying. So you examine the other evidence, but it isn’t very clear. In fact, it may even have been tampered with.This is the situation historians face in investigating the death of Harold.
21Do these sources agree with each other? Written evidenceNow we’ve looked at the pictorial evidence for the battle, let’s see whether the written evidence backs it up.…Harold fell, his brain pierced by an arrow. One of the soldiers with a sword gashed his thigh as he lay on the ground. William of Malmesbury, 1140Harold and his two brothers had fallen close together. The King could not be recognized by his face which had been cut by a sword – only by certain marks on his body.William of Poitiers, 1071Do these sources agree with each other?How do they help to explain the scene on the Bayeux Tapestry showing Harold’s death?