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© Boardworks Ltd 2007 1 of 23 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 Britain 1066–1500 1 of 23 The Battle of Hastings Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Accompanying worksheet Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Web addresses Sound
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 2 of 23 Learning objectives How did Harold plan to defend England? Who won the Battle of Stamford Bridge? How did William invade England? Who won the Battle of Hastings, and why? Learning objectives
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 3 of 23 1066: the story so far… In 1066, King Edward the Confessor died without an heir. Three men emerged as contenders for the English crown. Can you remember who they were?
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 4 of 23 Harold, son of Earl Godwin, was chosen king by the chief noblemen of England… Florence of Worcester, 1115 In the end the Witenagemot decided that Harold Godwinson should be the next king. So who did become king? Harold was crowned in Westminster Abbey in January 1066. But he had no time to celebrate. William of Normandy and Harald Hardraada were both determined to take the crown by force.
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 5 of 23 Harold’s dilemma
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 6 of 23 King Harold knew that he would have a lot of difficulty holding onto England. He did not know which of his enemies would make the first move, but he assumed it would be William, so he stationed his troops on the south coast. What did Harold do?
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 7 of 23 Unfortunately for Harold, his gamble did not pay off. The first person to invade was Harald Hardraada. William was waiting for the right wind for his ships. Harold had to march his army north to meet Hardraada, and then get back to the south again before the wind changed and allowed William to invade. Hardraada arrived at the mouth of the Tyne with more than 300 ships on 20 th September 1066. The earls Edwin and Morcar fought the Norwegians, but eventually lost. Hardraada invades
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 8 of 23 Then came our King Harold on the Norwegians unawares, and met them beyond York at Stamford … Harald Hardraada was killed, and Earl Tosti; the Norwegians that were left were put to flight … Only 24 ships returned to Norway. The Battle of Stamford Bridge was a great victory for Harold, but two days later the wind changed and William’s invasion fleet set sail. William landed at Pevensey on the Sussex coast on 28 th September. Why was the change in the wind such bad timing? Who had the better chance of winning the next battle? Why? The Battle of Stamford Bridge The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 9 of 23 …although [Harold] knew that he had lost some of his best men in the recent battle, and that half of his troops were not yet assembled, he did not hesitate to meet the enemy. Florence of Worcester, 1115 What does this text tell you about the type of man Harold was? What advice would you have given him and why? The next battle
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 10 of 23 The road to Hastings
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 11 of 23 The Norman army was made up of… Archers (armed with bows and arrows) Cavalry (men on horseback, armed with swords) Foot soldiers (armed mainly with spears) Total strength = approx. 6000 men The Norman army All William’s soldiers had training and experience. Many were professional mercenaries.
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 12 of 23 The Saxon army The Saxon army was made up of… Housecarls – professional soldiers armed with battleaxes Fyrd – armed with spears and sometimes swords Total strength = approx. 6000 men The housecarls were highly trained and formed the core of the army. The fyrd were ordinary men called up to serve in times of emergency. They were unpaid and had little or no training.
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 13 of 23 The Battle of Hastings
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 14 of 23 How much do you remember?
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 15 of 23 The Bayeux Tapestry Much of our information about the Battle of Hastings comes from the Bayeux Tapestry. This is a large embroidery commemorating the Norman conquest of England. It is believed to have been commissioned by William’s half- brother, Bishop Odo, who fought alongside him at Hastings. Unfortunately, there are two problems with the Bayeux Tapestry as a source. One is that it can be difficult to work out what’s happening at certain points. Can you guess what the other problem might be?
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 16 of 23 The Bayeux Tapestry
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 17 of 23 The Bayeux Tapestry
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 18 of 23 The Bayeux Tapestry
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 19 of 23 The death of Harold Everybody knows that William won the Battle of Hastings and Harold lost. But how exactly did Harold die? Imagine you are a detective investigating a murder. You interview the witnesses, but they disagree with each other. Some may be mistaken. Some may be lying. So you examine the other evidence, but it isn’t very clear. In fact, it may even have been tampered with. This is the situation historians face in investigating the death of Harold.
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 20 of 23 Pictorial evidence – the Bayeux Tapestry
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 21 of 23 …Harold fell, his brain pierced by an arrow. One of the soldiers with a sword gashed his thigh as he lay on the ground. William of Malmesbury, 1140 Harold and his two brothers had fallen close together. The King could not be recognized by his face which had been cut by a sword – only by certain marks on his body. William of Poitiers, 1071 Do these sources agree with each other? How do they help to explain the scene on the Bayeux Tapestry showing Harold’s death? Written evidence Now we’ve looked at the pictorial evidence for the battle, let’s see whether the written evidence backs it up.
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 22 of 23 Comparing sources
© Boardworks Ltd 2007 23 of 23 So how did Harold die?
What happened at the Battle of Stamford Bridge? L/O – To examine the events of the battle and to judge who was now favourite to win the crown Can you remember.
© Boardworks Ltd of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 Britain 1066– of 11 Three Men and a Crown Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 12 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 Britain 1066– of 12 How William Became King Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the.
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