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World War I 1914-1918 Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I 1914-1918 Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I Chapter 14

2 Peace in Europe By 1914, Europe had enjoyed nearly 100 years of relative peace Olympic Games Nobel Peace Prize First Universal Peace Conference Hague Tribunal BUT…

3 M.A.I.N. causes of WWI Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism
Glorification of the military and war Alliances Pacts of mutual defense between countries Imperialism When a stronger nation takes over a weaker nation Nationalism Extreme pride in your nation/ethnic group

4 Nationalism Germany v. France Russia as leader of Slavic people
Germany proud of its new power and leadership France wants to regain its power Revenge for loss in Franco-Prussian War Russia as leader of Slavic people Leader and protector of Slavic people Supports break away states in the Balkans (E. Europe)

5 Imperialism France v. Germany
Competing/fighting for colonies in Africa Pushes Britain and France closer together

6 Militarism Imperialism caused the great powers to expand their armies and navies—making war more likely Resulted in an ARMS RACE Great Britain v. Germany--competing navies

7 Alliances Distrust  treaties pledging to defend on another
2 main alliances emerged: Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Entente aka Allies France Great Britain Russia

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9 The Great War Begins Chapter 14.2

10 Assassination in Sarajevo
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary decided to visit Sarajevo on June 18, 1914

11 The Problem: Sarajevo = the capital of Bosnia
Bosnia under the rule of A-H, but had many Serbs (Slavs) that wanted their independence Saw A-H as oppressors

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13 The Black Hand A Serbian nationalist group decided to take action = assassinating the heir to the A-H throne 3 men sent on the mission

14 The Assassination Ferdinand and his wife escorted through the city in an open car 1st attempt failed (bomb wounds an officer) 2nd attempt successful (Ferd./wife on their way to the hospital and shot by Gavrilo Princip)

15 The Ultimatum: A-H sends Serbia an 2-day ultimatum
Punish any Serbians involved Must be judged by Austrian judges Serbia rejects the Austrian judges A-H declares war on Serbia (Slavic country), with Germany’s support

16 Alliances at Work Read page 381 and create a flow chart of the countries that were pulled into WWI. Be sure to identify WHY each country got involved.

17 Germany Ottoman Enpire Austria-Hungary Serbia Russia France Italy
Supported A-H against Serbia Austria-Hungary Serbia Russia France Italy Great Britain

18 Germany’s Plan Schlieffen Plan: plan to avoid a 2 front war
Defeat France quickly Then fight Russia to the east Invaded Belgium to swing behind French troops

19 Political Cartoon Choose one of the European powers involved in the outbreak of WWI. Then, from that countries’ point of view, draw a cartoon assigning blame for the war.

20 A New Kind of Conflict Chapter 14.3

21 “The Great War” Largest and most deadliest conflict up until that time. “One out of every 4 men who went out to the World War did not come back again.” (56%) 65+ million men mobilized 8.5 million killed

22 The Western Front

23 Ended in a stalemate because of trench warfare
Schlieffen Plan took German forces through Belgium, BUT… Russia mobilized much quicker than anticipated  had to send troops east Battle of Marne British/French forces vs. German forces Allies push German forces back; no quick victory for Germany Ended in a stalemate because of trench warfare

24 Trench Warfare An underground network linking bunkers, communications trenches, and gun emplacements

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28 Trench Foot

29 “No man’s land”

30 New Technologies: Rapid-fire machine guns Artillery Poisonous gas
Armored tank Aircrafts Zeppelins U-boats Convoy systems

31 The War Outside of Europe
Japan joins the Allies Take German colonies in Asia Ottomans join Central Powers Arab Revolt (Arabs supported by Allies revolt against the Turkish Ottoman rulers) Allies overrun German colonies in Africa/Asia Allies turn to own colonies for troops, laborers, and supplies Colonies had mixed feelings about helping

32 Winning the War Chapter 14.4

33 Ending the Stalemate 3 years into the war, moral was down
BUT… Russian withdrawal and US entry into WWI changed everything and ended the stalemate

34 US Neutrality: President Woodrow Wilson won the 1916 presidential election by promised to stay neutral = staying out of the war BUT…3 things prevented this from happening:

35 1. German Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The new German U-boats (submarine) changed the nature of naval war. BEFORE: U-boats rose to the surface and allowed the crew to leave the ship before attacking it. AFTER: U-boats remained hidden and fired on merchant ships that were suspected of carrying weapons. (German Warning)

36 The Lusitania British ship that the Germans bombed in killed 1,200 people (128 Americans). Turned Americans a/g Germany Sussex Pledge: German promises to stop unrestricted submarine warfare = they would give a warning… Film:

37 2. Zimmerman Note: (Handout)

38 3. Russian Revolution 1917: Czar Nicholas II of Russian was overthrown by a republican government. People were concerned about being allied with an autocrat = a ruler who has unlimited power. With Nicholas II gone, there was no reason left reason for not entering the war

39 Declaration of War: March 16-18, 1917: German sank 3 American ships.
April 6, 1917: Wilson declared war!! “The world must be made safe for democracy”

40 Total War Total war = channeling all of a nation’s resources into a war effort Conscription = the draft Raise taxes/borrow money Ration food/other products Economic controls; i.e. price setting Propaganda = spreading ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause Women step up (take jobs, volunteer, etc.)

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