Presentation on theme: "Objectives The students will examine the causes of the first World War. Warm ups TAKS Activity Discuss Ch 23 Section 1 Complete Study Guide/Guided Reading."— Presentation transcript:
1ObjectivesThe students will examine the causes of the first World War.Warm upsTAKS ActivityDiscuss Ch 23 Section 1Complete Study Guide/Guided ReadingVideo-take notesComplete Map Activity
3CAUSES of WWIMilitarism: the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.Alliances is defined as: an agreement between two or more parties.Nationalism : loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially : a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations.Mercantilism: an economic system developing to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by controlling less powerful states and the foreign trading monopolies
41. The Alliance SystemTriple Entente 1907:Triple Alliance 1881:
6Victor Emmanuel II [It] The Major Players:Allied Powers:Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus]Wilhelm II [Ger]George V [Br]Victor Emmanuel II [It]Enver Pasha [Turkey]Pres. Poincare [Fr]Franz Josef [A-H]
7IMPORTANT PEOPLE: Emperor Wilhem II – Leader of the Germans Czar Nicholas II – Russian EmperorWoodrow Wilson – USA President during WWIArchduke Franz Ferdinand – Heir to throne of Austria –Hungary EmpireGavrilo Princip – Serbian terrorist and Black Hand memberGeneral Alfred von Schlieffen – came up with the Schlieffen Plan…defeat France 1st then attack Russia full force.
10The “Powder Keg” of Europe The Balkans, 1914The “Powder Keg” of Europe
111910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 2. Militarism & Arms RaceTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.18701880189019001910191494130154268289398Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%
12BEFORE 1914 in EUROPE:Conscription or military draft – was common in EuropeAustria-Hungary feared that Serbia would create a large Slavic StateInternal Dissent – internal problems within European countries & fear of revolution encouraged leaders to pursue war in 1914.
131. Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated by Gavrilo Princip 1914JUNE 281. Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated by Gavrilo Princip
15THE ASSASINATION PLAN: 7 Assassins 1. Mehmed Mehmedbaši am, the six cars passed the first gunman, He didn't get a clear line of sight to take the shot so gave up for fear of ruining the operation and alerting the authorities.2. Nedjelko Cabrinovic, threw a bomb at the cars. He missed Ferdinand. Swallowed a cyanide pill & jumped into the nearby River Miljacka. the pill didn't work, the river was only four inches deep and he was dragged out by the angry crowds.Ferdinand and Sophi reached the town hall and while he planned to continue with the afternoon's engagements (lunch at the governor's residence and a museum visit), Ferdinand was anxious to check on those injured by Cabrinovic's bomb, who were now in hospital. The change of route took his car along Appel Quay but as the driver turned down Franz Joseph Street.
182. Austrian leaders send an ultimatum to Serbia 1914JULY 232. Austrian leaders send an ultimatum to Serbia
193. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia 1914JULY 283. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
204. Czar Nicholas II orders full mobilization of the Russian Army 1914JULY 294. Czar Nicholas II orders full mobilization of the Russian Army
215. Germany declares war on Russia 1914AUGUST 1German Troops5. Germany declares war on Russia
226. Germany declares war on France and issues an ultimatum to Belgium 1914AUGUST 3Belgian Uniform 19146. Germany declares war on France and issues an ultimatum to Belgium
231914 AUGUST 4 7. Great Britain declares war on Germany 2nd Bn Royal Sussex Regiment, France 1915British Troops 19167. Great Britain declares war on Germany
24Conscription – Military service or draft Between 1890 – 1914: 9. MILITARISM – There was a huge increase in the size of European armies…which cause tensions among nations.Conscription – Military service or draftBetween 1890 – 1914:Russia – 1.3 millionFrance & Germany – 900,000 eachBritain, Italy, Austria – 250,000 to 500,000 Each
26Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary,It's a long way to go;To the sweetest girl I know!Goodbye, Piccadilly,Farewell, Leicester Square,It's a long, long way to Tipperary,But my heart's right there!
48Warm ups Define conscription In the 19th century, what two alliances were Europe’s great powers divided into?T/F In 1914, mobilization was seen as an act of war.
49Objectives WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY Used in the WAR. The students will examine the stalemate on the western front and the U.S. entry into the war.Complete Warm upsCompete TAKS ActivityHand in Guided ReadingDiscuss Ch 23 Section 2Complete Section 2 Study GuideComplete Lusitania ActivityVideo-take notes
50…People thought that the war would be over by Christmas.
51WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY PROPAGANDAUSED DURING THE WAR1. To stir up hatred towards other nations and create enthusiasm for the war.
55WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY TRENCH WARFARE2. Used on Western front. Attempted to break through enemy lines by attacking the other side…Germany Swept through Belgium & was stopped before Paris, France at the 1st Battle of the MarneResulted into a STALEMATE.
56WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY WAR OF ATTRITION3. Where each side attacked and tried to wear down the other.*
57WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY Zeppelins – huge German airships AIRPLANESZeppelins – huge German airships4. First used to spot enemy positions, then ground targets. Battles were also between planes.
58WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY SUBMARINESUSE DURING THE WAR5. Were used by Germany to blockage Britain. They were allowed to attack military and civilian ships.
83ObjectivesThe students will be able to identify the causes leading to the Russian Revolution.Warm-upsTAKS activityDiscuss/complete Ch. 23 section 3 study guideCh. 23 section 2 question # 8 (pg. 727) ½ page min.Ch. 23 section 3 question # 1,2,4,5,6 (pg. 737)Ch. 23 section 3 guided readingComplete Sect 4 Assessment 1-8 (write the question) and on #8 write ½ page.
84Warm Ups T/F Russia was prepared for World War I. What did Lenin believe to be the only way to destroy the capitalist system?What territories were given up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?Why was Russia hostile towards the Allies by 1921?
86March 8, 1917 10,000 women march throughout the city of Petrograd in protest ofbread rationing
872. A strike shuts down all the factories in Petrograd March 10, 19172. A strike shuts down all the factories in Petrograd
88a provisional government March 12, 19173. The Duma sets upa provisional governmentMoscow City Duma
894. Nicholas II steps down as Czar March 15, 19174. Nicholas II steps down as CzarNicholas II with his wife,son and four daughters
90April, 19175. German military leaders ship Lenin back to Russia to create disorderLeninin 1920
91the Provisional Government November 6, 19176. Bolsheviks seize the Winter Palace, the seat ofthe Provisional GovernmentBolshevik Volunteers 1917Winter Palace
92Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 3, 19187. Lenin signs theTreaty of Brest-Litovsk
938. Nicholas II and his family are murdered July 16, 19188. Nicholas II and his family are murderedThe ExecutionAt midnight, July 16-17, 1918, after 78 days imprisonment in the Ipatiev House,Yakov Yurovsky arrived and told Dr. Botkin to have the family dressed so they could be moved to the basement for safety as the Whites were drawing near.1. Nicholas Romanov (50)2. Alexandra Romanov (46)3. Alexis Romanov (13)4. Olga Romanov (22)5. Tatiana Romanov (21)6. Marie Romanov (19)7. Anastasia Romanov (17)8. Dr. Botkin, the family physician (54)9. Trupp, Nicholas’ valet (61)10. Demidova, Alexandra’s maid (40)11. Kharitonov, the cook (48)Execution squad of 12, led by Yakov Yurovsky.The Ipatiev House
94This is the Ipatiev House, the last home of Nicholas and Alexandra, their children and servants. The family, and some of their staff, were executed on the lower level, in the room depicted here with the forward arched window. The house was eventually destroyed, pursuant to orders from Boris Yeltsin.
97This box, which once belonged to Her Majesty the Empress, now contains all that was recovered at the mine shaft from the remains of the burned bodies of: His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II, Her Imperial Majesty Alexandra and burned together with them: Doctor Eugene Sergeyevich Botkin, Servant Alexi Yegorovich Trupp, Cook Ivan Mikhailovich Kharitonov, and girl servant Anna Stepanova Demidova
98Archaeologist finds remains of Russian czar's hemophiliac son August 24, 2007Bones were found in a burned area in the ground near Yekaterinburg , the city where Czar Nicolas II and his wife and children were held prisoner and then shot in 1918.It comes almost a decade after remains identified as those of Nicholas, his wife and three of his daughters were reburied in a ceremony made possible by the Soviet collapse but shadowed by statements of doubt - including from within the Russian Orthodox Church - about their authenticity. The spot where the remains were found this summer appears to correspond to a site described by Yakov Yurovsky, the leader of the family's killers, said Sergei Pogorelov, deputy head of the archaeological research department at a regional center for the preservation of historical and cultural monuments in YekaterinburgNicholas abdicated in 1917 as revolutionary fervor swept Russia, and he and his family were detained. The next year, they were sent to the Ural Mountains city of Yekaterinburg, where a firing squad executed them on July 17, Historians say Communist guards lined up and shot Nicholas, his wife, Alexandra, their five children and four attendants in a small basement room in a nobleman's house in Yekaterinburg. The bodies were loaded in a truck and disposed of first in a mine shaft, according to most accounts. According to NTV, a 1934 report based on Yurovsky's words indicated that the bodies of nine victims were then doused with sulfuric acid and buried along a road, while those of Alexei and a sister were burned and left in a pit nearby. The Bolsheviks who killed the czar apparently mutilated and hid the bodies because they did not want the remains of the family — especially those of the heir Alexei — to become objects of worship or spark opposition to their new regime.
99Executioner of the Romanovs Yakov YurovskyExecutioner of the Romanovs1930
100Executioner of the Romanovs Yakov YurovskyExecutioner of the RomanovsYakov Yurovsk WorkshopYakov YurovskyWeapon used
1019. Alexandra made decisions when Nicholas II was away 9. Alexandra made decisions when Nicholas II was away. Russia was not prepared for war and suffered heavy losses. They also had other military disasters and economic problems. They were upset with the Rule of the Czar.Empress AlexandraFedorovna Romanov
10210. An end to the war. Redistribution of land, transfer of factories to the workers and the transfer of government power to the Soviets.Russian Revolution 1917
10311. Because he had promised the Russian people that he would end the war. Giving up territories was the only way to remove Russia from the war.
104Portrait of General Vrangel', commander of the White Russian volunteer army, 1917–20 12. The White Army was the name given to the anti-communist forces during the Civil War --- Groups that were loyal to the Czar, liberals, anti-Communist Socialists and the allies.
10513. The Red Army was well disciplined, the Communists had a clear vision of a new Socialist order. The whites on the other hand were not unified. The Communists implemented a policy of war communism. Communists were able to use the presence of a foreign armies to stir up Russian patriotism.First Petrograd Red Army Soldiers
106ObjectivesThe students will analyze the end of the war and the factors involved.Complete Warm upsComplete TAKS ActivityDiscuss Ch 23 Section 4Complete Section 4 Study GuideComplete Section 4 Guided ReadingMovie-Take notesComplete Ch 23 Test Review
107Warm Ups During World War I, how many troops went into France? Who developed the 14 Points?Under the Treaty of Versailles, what two territories were returned to France?T/F Under the mandate system, one nation governed another as well as owned the territory.
108END OFTHE WARNovember 7, 1918 front page of the San Diego Sun announcing the end of World War I
112THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES MAJOR PROVISIONS OFTHE TREATY OF VERSAILLESResponsibility/Costs of the War1. Germany and Austria were responsible for starting the war. Germany had to pay reparations.Germany loses land
113THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES MAJOR PROVISIONS OFTHE TREATY OF VERSAILLESMilitary2. Germany had to reduce its Army and Navy and to eliminate its Air Force.Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men. They were forbidden to have tanks or an air force. The area between France and Germany - the Rhineland - was made into a demilitarized zone, which meant that no military forces could enter this area. Allied troops were stationed there for fifteen years.
114THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES MAJOR PROVISIONS OFTHE TREATY OF VERSAILLESTerritory3. Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. Parts of Eastern Germany were given to a new Polish State.
115MAJOR PROVISIONS OFTHE TREATY OF VERSAILLESDemonstrations in 1919 againstVersailles Treaty in front of ReichstagBuffer Zone4. German land on both sides of the Rhine was made a demilitarized zone, and stripped of all weapons and fortifications.
116President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 19175. It gave the allies a psychological boost. The allies began to advance toward Germany with the aid of two million American troops.
117Aftermath of the First World War 6. Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia.
118The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died