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Objectives The students will examine the causes of the first World War. The students will examine the causes of the first World War. Warm ups TAKS Activity.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives The students will examine the causes of the first World War. The students will examine the causes of the first World War. Warm ups TAKS Activity."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Objectives The students will examine the causes of the first World War. The students will examine the causes of the first World War. Warm ups TAKS Activity Discuss Ch 23 Section 1 Complete Study Guide/Guided Reading Video-take notes Complete Map Activity

3 THE ROAD TO WORLD WAR I

4 CAUSES of WWI Militarism: the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests. Militarism: the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.military Alliances is defined as: an agreement between two or more parties. Alliances is defined as: an agreement between two or more parties. Nationalism : loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially : a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations. Nationalism : loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially : a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations.nation nationalnationnationsnation nationalnationnations Mercantilism: an economic system developing to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by controlling less powerful states and the foreign trading monopolies Mercantilism: an economic system developing to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by controlling less powerful states and the foreign trading monopolies

5 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente 1907: Triple Alliance 1881:

6 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers: Turkey Italy Russia

7 The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]

8 IMPORTANT PEOPLE: Emperor Wilhem II – Leader of the Germans Czar Nicholas II – Russian Emperor Woodrow Wilson – USA President during WWI Archduke Franz Ferdinand – Heir to throne of Austria –Hungary Empire Gavrilo Princip – Serbian terrorist and Black Hand member General Alfred von Schlieffen – came up with the Schlieffen Plan…defeat France 1 st then attack Russia full force.

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11 The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

12 2. Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

13 BEFORE 1914 in EUROPE: Conscription or military draft – was common in Europe Austria-Hungary feared that Serbia would create a large Slavic State Internal Dissent – internal problems within European countries & fear of revolution encouraged leaders to pursue war in 1914.

14 1914 JUNE 28 1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated by Gavrilo Princip

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16 1. Mehmed Mehmedbaši. 10.15 am, the six cars passed the first gunman, He didn't get a clear line of sight to take the shot so gave up for fear of ruining the operation and alerting the authorities. 2. Nedjelko Cabrinovic, threw a bomb at the cars. He missed Ferdinand. Swallowed a cyanide pill & jumped into the nearby River Miljacka. the pill didn't work, the river was only four inches deep and he was dragged out by the angry crowds.cyanide Ferdinand and Sophi reached the town hall and while he planned to continue with the afternoon's engagements (lunch at the governor's residence and a museum visit), Ferdinand was anxious to check on those injured by Cabrinovic's bomb, who were now in hospital. The change of route took his car along Appel Quay but as the driver turned down Franz Joseph Street. THE ASSASINATION PLAN: 7 Assassins

17 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

18 Who’s To Blame?

19 1914 JULY 23 2. Austrian leaders send an ultimatum to Serbia

20 1914 JULY 28 3. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

21 1914 JULY 29 4. Czar Nicholas II orders full mobilization of the Russian Army

22 1914 AUGUST 1 5. Germany declares war on Russia German Troops

23 1914 AUGUST 3 6. Germany declares war on France and issues an ultimatum to Belgium Belgian Uniform 1914

24 1914 AUGUST 4 7. Great Britain declares war on Germany British Troops 1916 2nd Bn Royal Sussex Regiment, France 1915

25 9. MILITARISM – There was a huge increase in the size of European armies…which cause tensions among nations. Conscription – Military service or draft Between 1890 – 1914: Russia – 1.3 million France & Germany – 900,000 each Britain, Italy, Austria – 250,000 to 500,000 Each

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27 Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!  Home by Christmas!  No major war in 50 years!  Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!

28 Recruitment Posters

29 New French Recruits

30 A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

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32 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

33 A Multi-Front War

34 The Western Front

35 Trench Warfare

36 “No Man’s Land”

37 Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.

38 The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

39 War Is HELL !!

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41 Sacrifices in War

42 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

43 The Eastern Front

44 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915

45 Turkish Cavalry in Palestine

46 T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18

47 T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19

48 The Tsar with General Brusilov

49 Warm ups Define conscription Define conscription In the 19 th century, what two alliances were Europe’s great powers divided into? In the 19 th century, what two alliances were Europe’s great powers divided into? T/F In 1914, mobilization was seen as an act of war. T/F In 1914, mobilization was seen as an act of war.

50 Objectives WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY Used in the WAR. The students will examine the stalemate on the western front and the U.S. entry into the war. The students will examine the stalemate on the western front and the U.S. entry into the war. Complete Warm ups Compete TAKS Activity Hand in Guided Reading Discuss Ch 23 Section 2 Complete Section 2 Study Guide Complete Lusitania Activity Video-take notes

51 THE WAR …People thought that the war would be over by Christmas.

52 WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY PROPAGANDA USED DURING THE WAR 1. To stir up hatred towards other nations and create enthusiasm for the war.

53 Australian Poster

54 Financing the War

55 German Poster Think of Your Children!

56 WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY TRENCH WARFARE 2. Used on Western front. Attempted to break through enemy lines by attacking the other side… Germany Swept through Belgium & was stopped before Paris, France at the 1 st Battle of the Marne Resulted into a STALEMATE.

57 3. Where each side attacked and tried to wear down the other. * WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY WAR OF ATTRITION

58 Zeppelins – huge German airships 4. First used to spot enemy positions, then ground targets. Battles were also between planes. WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY AIRPLANES

59 USE DURING THE WAR 5. Were used by Germany to blockage Britain. They were allowed to attack military and civilian ships. WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY SUBMARINES

60 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

61 The Zeppelin

62 Poison Gas Machine Gun

63 French Renault Tank

64 British Tank at Ypres

65 U-Boats

66 VIDEO OF TANKS

67 USE DURING THE WAR 6. Were used to mobilize resources for war. They rationed supplies and took over transportation systems. WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY PLANNED ECONOMIES

68 The Schlieffen Plan

69 Stalemate 7. Because of trench warfare, which kept both sides in the same position for 4 years. 7. Because of trench warfare, which kept both sides in the same position for 4 years.

70 UNRESTRICTIVE SUBMARINE WARFARE 10. The Germans sank the Lusitania and they continued unsrestrictive submarine warfare. 10. The Germans sank the Lusitania and they continued unsrestrictive submarine warfare. Britain used its SUPERIOR navy to impose a naval BLOCKADE on Germany Britain used its SUPERIOR navy to impose a naval BLOCKADE on Germany

71 AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR!

72 The Sinking of the Lusitania

73 The Zimmerman Telegram

74 Americans in the Trenches

75 World War I- Women 11. Because so many men were involved in the war, women were asked to take over jobs that had not been available to them. 11. Because so many men were involved in the war, women were asked to take over jobs that had not been available to them.

76 French Women Factory Workers

77 German Women Factory Workers

78 Working in the Fields

79 A Woman Ambulance Driver

80 Red Cross Nurses

81 Women in the Army Auxiliary

82 Russian Women Soldiers

83 Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!

84 Objectives The students will be able to identify the causes leading to the Russian Revolution. The students will be able to identify the causes leading to the Russian Revolution. Warm-ups Warm-ups TAKS activity TAKS activity Discuss/complete Ch. 23 section 3 study guide Discuss/complete Ch. 23 section 3 study guide Ch. 23 section 2 question # 8 (pg. 727) ½ page min. Ch. 23 section 2 question # 8 (pg. 727) ½ page min. Ch. 23 section 3 question # 1,2,4,5,6 (pg. 737) Ch. 23 section 3 question # 1,2,4,5,6 (pg. 737) Ch. 23 section 3 guided reading Ch. 23 section 3 guided reading Complete Sect 4 Assessment 1-8 (write the question) and on #8 write ½ page. Complete Sect 4 Assessment 1-8 (write the question) and on #8 write ½ page.

85 Warm Ups T/F Russia was prepared for World War I. T/F Russia was prepared for World War I. What did Lenin believe to be the only way to destroy the capitalist system? What did Lenin believe to be the only way to destroy the capitalist system? What territories were given up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? What territories were given up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? Why was Russia hostile towards the Allies by 1921? Why was Russia hostile towards the Allies by 1921?

86 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

87 March 8, 1917 1.10,000 women march throughout the city of Petrograd in protest of bread rationing

88 March 10, 1917 2. A strike shuts down all the factories in Petrograd

89 March 12, 1917 3. The Duma sets up a provisional government Moscow City Duma

90 March 15, 1917 4. Nicholas II steps down as Czar Nicholas II with his wife, son and four daughters

91 April, 1917 5. German military leaders ship Lenin back to Russia to create disorder Lenin in 1920

92 November 6, 1917 6. Bolsheviks seize the Winter Palace, the seat of the Provisional Government Bolshevik Volunteers 1917 Winter Palace

93 March 3, 1918 7. Lenin signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

94 July 16, 1918 8. Nicholas II and his family are murdered The Ipatiev House The Execution At midnight, July 16-17, 1918, after 78 days imprisonment in the Ipatiev House, Yakov Yurovsky arrived and told Dr. Botkin to have the family dressed so they could be moved to the basement for safety as the Whites were drawing near. 1. Nicholas Romanov (50) 2. Alexandra Romanov (46) 3. Alexis Romanov (13) 4. Olga Romanov (22) 5. Tatiana Romanov (21) 6. Marie Romanov (19) 7. Anastasia Romanov (17) 8. Dr. Botkin, the family physician (54) 9. Trupp, Nicholas’ valet (61) 10. Demidova, Alexandra’s maid (40) 11. Kharitonov, the cook (48) Execution squad of 12, led by Yakov Yurovsky.

95 This is the Ipatiev House, the last home of Nicholas and Alexandra, their children and servants. The family, and some of their staff, were executed on the lower level, in the room depicted here with the forward arched window. The house was eventually destroyed, pursuant to orders from Boris Yeltsin.

96 Nicholas II Work Study

97 The Tsar with General Brusilov

98 This box, which once belonged to Her Majesty the Empress, now contains all that was recovered at the mine shaft from the remains of the burned bodies of: His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II, Her Imperial Majesty Alexandra and burned together with them: Doctor Eugene Sergeyevich Botkin, Servant Alexi Yegorovich Trupp, Cook Ivan Mikhailovich Kharitonov, and girl servant Anna Stepanova Demidova

99 Archaeologist finds remains of Russian czar's hemophiliac son August 24, 2007 Bones were found in a burned area in the ground near Yekaterinburg, the city where Czar Nicolas II and his wife and children were held prisoner and then shot in 1918. It comes almost a decade after remains identified as those of Nicholas, his wife and three of his daughters were reburied in a ceremony made possible by the Soviet collapse but shadowed by statements of doubt - including from within the Russian Orthodox Church - about their authenticity. The spot where the remains were found this summer appears to correspond to a site described by Yakov Yurovsky, the leader of the family's killers, said Sergei Pogorelov, deputy head of the archaeological research department at a regional center for the preservation of historical and cultural monuments in Yekaterinburg Nicholas abdicated in 1917 as revolutionary fervor swept Russia, and he and his family were detained. The next year, they were sent to the Ural Mountains city of Yekaterinburg, where a firing squad executed them on July 17, 1918. Historians say Communist guards lined up and shot Nicholas, his wife, Alexandra, their five children and four attendants in a small basement room in a nobleman's house in Yekaterinburg. The bodies were loaded in a truck and disposed of first in a mine shaft, according to most accounts. According to NTV, a 1934 report based on Yurovsky's words indicated that the bodies of nine victims were then doused with sulfuric acid and buried along a road, while those of Alexei and a sister were burned and left in a pit nearby. The Bolsheviks who killed the czar apparently mutilated and hid the bodies because they did not want the remains of the family — especially those of the heir Alexei — to become objects of worship or spark opposition to their new regime.

100 1930 Yakov Yurovsky Executioner of the Romanovs

101 Yakov Yurovsky Executioner of the Romanovs Weapon used Yakov Yurovsky Yakov Yurovsk Workshop

102 9. Alexandra made decisions when Nicholas II was away. Russia was not prepared for war and suffered heavy losses. They also had other military disasters and economic problems. They were upset with the Rule of the Czar. Empress Alexandra Fedorovna Romanov

103 10. An end to the war. Redistribution of land, transfer of factories to the workers and the transfer of government power to the Soviets. Russian Revolution 1917

104 11. Because he had promised the Russian people that he would end the war. Giving up territories was the only way to remove Russia from the war.

105 12. The White Army was the name given to the anti-communist forces during the Civil War --- Groups that were loyal to the Czar, liberals, anti-Communist Socialists and the allies. Portrait of General Vrangel', commander of the White Russian volunteer army, 1917–20

106 13. The Red Army was well disciplined, the Communists had a clear vision of a new Socialist order. The whites on the other hand were not unified. The Communists implemented a policy of war communism. Communists were able to use the presence of a foreign armies to stir up Russian patriotism. First Petrograd Red Army Soldiers

107 Objectives The students will analyze the end of the war and the factors involved. The students will analyze the end of the war and the factors involved. Complete Warm ups Complete TAKS Activity Discuss Ch 23 Section 4 Complete Section 4 Study Guide Complete Section 4 Guided Reading Movie-Take notes Complete Ch 23 Test Review

108 Warm Ups During World War I, how many troops went into France? During World War I, how many troops went into France? Who developed the 14 Points? Who developed the 14 Points? Under the Treaty of Versailles, what two territories were returned to France? Under the Treaty of Versailles, what two territories were returned to France? T/F Under the mandate system, one nation governed another as well as owned the territory. T/F Under the mandate system, one nation governed another as well as owned the territory.

109 END OF THE WAR November 7, 1918 front page of the San Diego Sun announcing the end of World War I

110 VIDEO OF END OF WAR

111 MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

112 Interpretation: Treaty of Versailles Who wrote the Treaty of Versailles and what did it say? TREATY OF VERSAILLES A group of men sat in judgment of Germany. They were known as the 'Big Four'. 'Big Four''Big Four' © IWM © IWM Vittorio OrlandoVittorio Orlando - Italian premier who wanted territory promised in Treaty of London (1915), and maybe more. David Lloyd George - British prime minister who wanted the support of the British public by punishing Germany. Georges Clemenceau - French prime minister who wanted the Treaty to prevent Germany from attacking France ever again. Woodrow Wilson - American president who wanted the League of Nations formed, and a fair treaty for Germany. David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau Woodrow Wilson Vittorio Orlando David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau Woodrow Wilson

113 MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Responsibility/ Costs of the War 1. Germany and Austria were responsible for starting the war. Germany had to pay reparations. Germany loses land

114 MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Military 2. Germany had to reduce its Army and Navy and to eliminate its Air Force. Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men. They were forbidden to have tanks or an air force. The area between France and Germany - the Rhineland - was made into a demilitarized zone, which meant that no military forces could enter this area. Allied troops were stationed there for fifteen years.

115 MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Territory 3. Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. Parts of Eastern Germany were given to a new Polish State.

116 MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Buffer Zone 4. German land on both sides of the Rhine was made a demilitarized zone, and stripped of all weapons and fortifications. Demonstrations in 1919 against Versailles Treaty in front of Reichstag

117 5. It gave the allies a psychological boost. The allies began to advance toward Germany with the aid of two million American troops. President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

118 6. Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia. Aftermath of the First World War

119 The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died

120 World War I Casualties


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