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Objectives The students will examine the causes of the first World War. Warm ups TAKS Activity Discuss Ch 23 Section 1 Complete Study Guide/Guided Reading.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives The students will examine the causes of the first World War. Warm ups TAKS Activity Discuss Ch 23 Section 1 Complete Study Guide/Guided Reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objectives The students will examine the causes of the first World War. Warm ups TAKS Activity Discuss Ch 23 Section 1 Complete Study Guide/Guided Reading Video-take notes Complete Map Activity


3 CAUSES of WWI Militarism: the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests. Alliances is defined as: an agreement between two or more parties. Nationalism : loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially : a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations. Mercantilism: an economic system developing to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by controlling less powerful states and the foreign trading monopolies

4 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente 1907: Triple Alliance 1881:

5 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers: Russia Turkey Italy

6 Victor Emmanuel II [It]
The Major Players: Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]

7 IMPORTANT PEOPLE: Emperor Wilhem II – Leader of the Germans
Czar Nicholas II – Russian Emperor Woodrow Wilson – USA President during WWI Archduke Franz Ferdinand – Heir to throne of Austria –Hungary Empire Gavrilo Princip – Serbian terrorist and Black Hand member General Alfred von Schlieffen – came up with the Schlieffen Plan…defeat France 1st then attack Russia full force.



10 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

11 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%

12 BEFORE 1914 in EUROPE: Conscription or military draft – was common in Europe Austria-Hungary feared that Serbia would create a large Slavic State Internal Dissent – internal problems within European countries & fear of revolution encouraged leaders to pursue war in 1914.

13 1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated by Gavrilo Princip
1914 JUNE 28 1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated by Gavrilo Princip


1. Mehmed Mehmedbaši am, the six cars passed the first gunman, He didn't get a clear line of sight to take the shot so gave up for fear of ruining the operation and alerting the authorities. 2. Nedjelko Cabrinovic, threw a bomb at the cars. He missed Ferdinand. Swallowed a cyanide pill & jumped into the nearby River Miljacka. the pill didn't work, the river was only four inches deep and he was dragged out by the angry crowds. Ferdinand and Sophi reached the town hall and while he planned to continue with the afternoon's engagements (lunch at the governor's residence and a museum visit), Ferdinand was anxious to check on those injured by Cabrinovic's bomb, who were now in hospital. The change of route took his car along Appel Quay but as the driver turned down Franz Joseph Street.

16 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip

17 Who’s To Blame?

18 2. Austrian leaders send an ultimatum to Serbia
1914 JULY 23 2. Austrian leaders send an ultimatum to Serbia

19 3. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
1914 JULY 28 3. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

20 4. Czar Nicholas II orders full mobilization of the Russian Army
1914 JULY 29 4. Czar Nicholas II orders full mobilization of the Russian Army

21 5. Germany declares war on Russia
1914 AUGUST 1 German Troops 5. Germany declares war on Russia

22 6. Germany declares war on France and issues an ultimatum to Belgium
1914 AUGUST 3 Belgian Uniform 1914 6. Germany declares war on France and issues an ultimatum to Belgium

23 1914 AUGUST 4 7. Great Britain declares war on Germany
2nd Bn Royal Sussex Regiment, France 1915 British Troops 1916 7. Great Britain declares war on Germany

24 Conscription – Military service or draft Between 1890 – 1914:
9. MILITARISM – There was a huge increase in the size of European armies…which cause tensions among nations. Conscription – Military service or draft Between 1890 – 1914: Russia – 1.3 million France & Germany – 900,000 each Britain, Italy, Austria – 250,000 to 500,000 Each


26 Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!
It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!

27 Recruitment Posters

28 New French Recruits

29 A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier


31 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

32 A Multi-Front War

33 The Western Front

34 Trench Warfare

35 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

36 Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive.
Each side had 500,000 casualties.

37 The Somme – July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

38 War Is HELL !!


40 Sacrifices in War

41 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

42 The Eastern Front

43 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915

44 Turkish Cavalry in Palestine

45 T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18

46 T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19

47 The Tsar with General Brusilov

48 Warm ups Define conscription
In the 19th century, what two alliances were Europe’s great powers divided into? T/F In 1914, mobilization was seen as an act of war.

49 Objectives WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY Used in the WAR.
The students will examine the stalemate on the western front and the U.S. entry into the war. Complete Warm ups Compete TAKS Activity Hand in Guided Reading Discuss Ch 23 Section 2 Complete Section 2 Study Guide Complete Lusitania Activity Video-take notes

50 …People thought that the war would be over by Christmas.

PROPAGANDA USED DURING THE WAR 1. To stir up hatred towards other nations and create enthusiasm for the war.

52 Australian Poster

53 Financing the War

54 German Poster Think of Your Children!

TRENCH WARFARE 2. Used on Western front. Attempted to break through enemy lines by attacking the other side… Germany Swept through Belgium & was stopped before Paris, France at the 1st Battle of the Marne Resulted into a STALEMATE.

WAR OF ATTRITION 3. Where each side attacked and tried to wear down the other. *

57 WAR STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY Zeppelins – huge German airships
AIRPLANES Zeppelins – huge German airships 4. First used to spot enemy positions, then ground targets. Battles were also between planes.

SUBMARINES USE DURING THE WAR 5. Were used by Germany to blockage Britain. They were allowed to attack military and civilian ships.

59 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

60 The Zeppelin

61 Poison Gas Machine Gun

62 French Renault Tank

63 British Tank at Ypres

64 U-Boats


PLANNED ECONOMIES USE DURING THE WAR 6. Were used to mobilize resources for war. They rationed supplies and took over transportation systems.

67 The Schlieffen Plan

68 Stalemate 7. Because of trench warfare, which kept both sides in the same position for 4 years.

10. The Germans sank the Lusitania and they continued unsrestrictive submarine warfare. Britain used its SUPERIOR navy to impose a naval BLOCKADE on Germany


71 The Sinking of the Lusitania

72 The Zimmerman Telegram

73 Americans in the Trenches

74 World War I- Women 11. Because so many men were involved in the war, women were asked to take over jobs that had not been available to them.

75 French Women Factory Workers

76 German Women Factory Workers

77 Working in the Fields

78 A Woman Ambulance Driver

79 Red Cross Nurses

80 Women in the Army Auxiliary

81 Russian Women Soldiers

82 Spies “Mata Hari” Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle German Spy!

83 Objectives The students will be able to identify the causes leading to the Russian Revolution. Warm-ups TAKS activity Discuss/complete Ch. 23 section 3 study guide Ch. 23 section 2 question # 8 (pg. 727) ½ page min. Ch. 23 section 3 question # 1,2,4,5,6 (pg. 737) Ch. 23 section 3 guided reading Complete Sect 4 Assessment 1-8 (write the question) and on #8 write ½ page.

84 Warm Ups T/F Russia was prepared for World War I.
What did Lenin believe to be the only way to destroy the capitalist system? What territories were given up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? Why was Russia hostile towards the Allies by 1921?


86 March 8, 1917 10,000 women march throughout the city of Petrograd
in protest of bread rationing

87 2. A strike shuts down all the factories in Petrograd
March 10, 1917 2. A strike shuts down all the factories in Petrograd

88 a provisional government
March 12, 1917 3. The Duma sets up a provisional government Moscow City Duma

89 4. Nicholas II steps down as Czar
March 15, 1917 4. Nicholas II steps down as Czar Nicholas II with his wife, son and four daughters

90 April, 1917 5. German military leaders ship Lenin back to Russia to create disorder Lenin in 1920

91 the Provisional Government
November 6, 1917 6. Bolsheviks seize the Winter Palace, the seat of the Provisional Government Bolshevik Volunteers 1917 Winter Palace

92 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
March 3, 1918 7. Lenin signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

93 8. Nicholas II and his family are murdered
July 16, 1918 8. Nicholas II and his family are murdered The Execution At midnight, July 16-17, 1918, after 78 days imprisonment in the Ipatiev House, Yakov Yurovsky arrived and told Dr. Botkin to have the family dressed so they could be moved to the basement for safety as the Whites were drawing near. 1. Nicholas Romanov (50) 2. Alexandra Romanov (46) 3. Alexis Romanov (13) 4. Olga Romanov (22) 5. Tatiana Romanov (21) 6. Marie Romanov (19) 7. Anastasia Romanov (17) 8. Dr. Botkin, the family physician (54) 9. Trupp, Nicholas’ valet (61) 10. Demidova, Alexandra’s maid (40) 11. Kharitonov, the cook (48) Execution squad of 12, led by Yakov Yurovsky. The Ipatiev House

94 This is the Ipatiev House, the last home of Nicholas and Alexandra, their children and servants.  The family, and some of their staff, were executed on the lower level, in the room depicted here with the forward arched window. The house was eventually destroyed, pursuant to orders from Boris Yeltsin.

95 Nicholas II Work Study

96 The Tsar with General Brusilov

97 This box, which once belonged to Her Majesty the Empress, now contains all that was recovered at the mine shaft from the remains of the burned bodies of: His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II, Her Imperial Majesty Alexandra and burned together with them: Doctor Eugene Sergeyevich Botkin, Servant Alexi Yegorovich Trupp, Cook Ivan Mikhailovich Kharitonov, and girl servant Anna Stepanova Demidova

98 Archaeologist finds remains of Russian czar's hemophiliac son
August 24, 2007 Bones were found in a burned area in the ground near Yekaterinburg , the city where Czar Nicolas II and his wife and children were held prisoner and then shot in 1918. It comes almost a decade after remains identified as those of Nicholas, his wife and three of his daughters were reburied in a ceremony made possible by the Soviet collapse but shadowed by statements of doubt - including from within the Russian Orthodox Church - about their authenticity. The spot where the remains were found this summer appears to correspond to a site described by Yakov Yurovsky, the leader of the family's killers, said Sergei Pogorelov, deputy head of the archaeological research department at a regional center for the preservation of historical and cultural monuments in Yekaterinburg Nicholas abdicated in 1917 as revolutionary fervor swept Russia, and he and his family were detained. The next year, they were sent to the Ural Mountains city of Yekaterinburg, where a firing squad executed them on July 17, Historians say Communist guards lined up and shot Nicholas, his wife, Alexandra, their five children and four attendants in a small basement room in a nobleman's house in Yekaterinburg. The bodies were loaded in a truck and disposed of first in a mine shaft, according to most accounts. According to NTV, a 1934 report based on Yurovsky's words indicated that the bodies of nine victims were then doused with sulfuric acid and buried along a road, while those of Alexei and a sister were burned and left in a pit nearby. The Bolsheviks who killed the czar apparently mutilated and hid the bodies because they did not want the remains of the family — especially those of the heir Alexei — to become objects of worship or spark opposition to their new regime.

99 Executioner of the Romanovs
Yakov Yurovsky Executioner of the Romanovs 1930

100 Executioner of the Romanovs
Yakov Yurovsky Executioner of the Romanovs Yakov Yurovsk Workshop Yakov Yurovsky Weapon used

101 9. Alexandra made decisions when Nicholas II was away
9. Alexandra made decisions when Nicholas II was away. Russia was not prepared for war and suffered heavy losses. They also had other military disasters and economic problems. They were upset with the Rule of the Czar. Empress Alexandra Fedorovna Romanov

102 10. An end to the war. Redistribution of land, transfer of factories to the workers and the transfer of government power to the Soviets. Russian Revolution 1917

103 11. Because he had promised the Russian people that he would end the war. Giving up territories was the only way to remove Russia from the war.

104 Portrait of General Vrangel', commander of the White Russian volunteer army, 1917–20
12. The White Army was the name given to the anti-communist forces during the Civil War --- Groups that were loyal to the Czar, liberals, anti-Communist Socialists and the allies.

105 13. The Red Army was well disciplined, the Communists had a clear vision of a new Socialist order. The whites on the other hand were not unified. The Communists implemented a policy of war communism. Communists were able to use the presence of a foreign armies to stir up Russian patriotism. First Petrograd Red Army Soldiers

106 Objectives The students will analyze the end of the war and the factors involved. Complete Warm ups Complete TAKS Activity Discuss Ch 23 Section 4 Complete Section 4 Study Guide Complete Section 4 Guided Reading Movie-Take notes Complete Ch 23 Test Review

107 Warm Ups During World War I, how many troops went into France?
Who developed the 14 Points? Under the Treaty of Versailles, what two territories were returned to France? T/F Under the mandate system, one nation governed another as well as owned the territory.

108 END OF THE WAR November 7, 1918 front page of the San Diego Sun announcing the end of World War I



111 Interpretation: Treaty of Versailles
Who wrote the Treaty of Versailles and what did it say? TREATY OF VERSAILLES A group of men sat in judgment of Germany. They were known as the 'Big Four'.                                                                                                                                               © IWM Vittorio Orlando - Italian premier who wanted territory promised in Treaty of London (1915), and maybe more. David Lloyd George - British prime minister who wanted the support of the British public by punishing Germany. Georges Clemenceau - French prime minister who wanted the Treaty to prevent Germany from attacking France ever again. Woodrow Wilson - American president who wanted the League of Nations formed, and a fair treaty for Germany.

MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Responsibility/ Costs of the War 1. Germany and Austria were responsible for starting the war. Germany had to pay reparations. Germany loses land

MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Military 2. Germany had to reduce its Army and Navy and to eliminate its Air Force. Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men. They were forbidden to have tanks or an air force. The area between France and Germany - the Rhineland - was made into a demilitarized zone, which meant that no military forces could enter this area. Allied troops were stationed there for fifteen years.

MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Territory 3. Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. Parts of Eastern Germany were given to a new Polish State.

115 MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Demonstrations in 1919 against Versailles Treaty in front of Reichstag Buffer Zone 4. German land on both sides of the Rhine was made a demilitarized zone, and stripped of all weapons and fortifications.

116 President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917 5. It gave the allies a psychological boost. The allies began to advance toward Germany with the aid of two million American troops.

117 Aftermath of the First World War
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6. Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia.

118 The Somme American Cemetary, France
116,516 Americans Died

119 World War I Casualties

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