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AKS 42: Absolutism and Enlightenment Chapter 21 – PAGES 589-617 Chapter 22.2 & 22.3 – PAGES 629-639.

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Presentation on theme: "AKS 42: Absolutism and Enlightenment Chapter 21 – PAGES 589-617 Chapter 22.2 & 22.3 – PAGES 629-639."— Presentation transcript:

1 AKS 42: Absolutism and Enlightenment Chapter 21 – PAGES Chapter 22.2 & 22.3 – PAGES

2 France Background: Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)  1st king of Bourbon Dyn.  Conv. to Catho.  Devoted reign to rebuilding France & its prosperity Edict of Nantes  Issued by Henry  Huguenots could live in peace in France & set up their own houses of worship in certain cities

3 France Background: Cardinal Richelieu  No walls in Protest. cities  Weakened power of nobles by ordering them to take down their castles & by ↑ power of gov’t agents

4 France Louis XIV (14 th ) Comes to Power ( 4 yrs old ): France suffered from riots by nobles – Louis’ life threatened at times Louis never forgot fear/anger – vowed to be so strong nobles could never threaten him again “I am the state.” - Louis XIV So distinguished

5 France Louis XIV Comes to Power: Jean Baptiste Colbert:  Made France economic power  Followed mercantilism – make France self- sufficient  Expanded & protected French indus.  Encouraged migration to Canada (fur trade)

6 France Sun King’s Grand Style: Controls Nobility  Nobles expected to be at Palace at Versailles – if not, incomes & social status ↓  Made nobility totally dep. on Louis Patron of the Arts  Pop. opera & ballet  Supported writers  Promoted art that glorified monarchy & supported absolute rule

7 IMPRESSIVE, BUT COSTLY!!!

8 France Disastrous Wars and Legacy: Expansion  Wanted to expand – succeeded at first  Countries banned together to match France’s strength – balance of power

9 France Disastrous Wars and Legacy: War of Spanish Succession ( )  Charles II of Spain died – throne went to Louis’ grandson – Spain & France now ruled by French Bourbon kings  Treaty that ended war allowed Louis’ grandson to stay in power as long as thrones of Spain & France not united  Big winner - Great Britain: Took Gibraltar ↑ involvement in slave trade

10 France Disastrous Wars and Legacy: Death and Legacy:  People rejoiced at news of Louis’ death  Pos.: Military leader of Europe Ranked above all others in art, lit., statesmanship  Neg.: War & construction of Palace at Versailles = massive debt Tax burden by poor & Louis’ abuse of power would plague his heirs & set stage for revolution

11 Russia The First Czar: Ivan the Terrible  1st to call himself “czar”  – “good period” – won victories, added lands, code of laws, ruled justly Terror  – “bad period” – Ivan accused boyars (nobles) of poisoning his wife, Anastasia  Using secret police – executed boyars, their families, & peasants who worked their land  1581 – killed oldest son – left only weak son to rule  Wow, he’s ugly

12 Russia The First Czar: Romanovs:  Ivan’s son died – period of turmoil w/ no leader  1613 – leaders from Russian cities met to choose next czar – chose Michael Romanov  Begins Romanov Dynasty ( ) Mikey!!! 

13 Russia Czar Peter the Great: Russia Different Than Europe:  Had looked to Constantinople for leadership  Mongols & geog. barriers had cut Russia off from Ren. & Age of Expl.  Relig. Diff. – Russia was E. Orthodox; W. Euro. mostly Cath. or Protest. Russia viewed them as heretics

14 Russia Czar Peter the Great: Peter Visits West:  Believed future depended on having warm-water port  1697 – “Grand Embassy” – long visit to W. Europe  Goal: learn about Euro. customs and manuf. techniques

15 Russia Peter Rules Absolutely: Reforms:  Brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control  ↓ power of great landowners  Modernized army by hiring Euro. officers who drilled soldiers in Euro. tactics w/ Euro. weapons  Paid for army w/ heavy taxes “For you know yourself that, though a thing be good and necessary, our people will not do it unless forced to.” - Czar Peter the Great

16 Russia Peter Rules Absolutely: Westernization:  Intro. potatoes  Started 1st newspaper  ↑ women’s status  Ordered nobles to adopt W. fashion  Advanced Edu. - *believed this was key to Russia’s progress

17 Russia Peter Rules Absolutely: St. Petersburg:  Wanted a seaport  easier to travel to the W  Fought Sweden for land on Baltic Sea  Had St. Petersburg built on a piece of swampy land  Estimated 25,000 – 100,000 people died in the effort to build it

18 England Defying Parliament: James I ( ):  Struggled w/ Parliament over $  Agreed to new trans. of Bible

19 England Defying Parliament: Charles I ( ):  Forced to sign Petition of Right: Not imprison subjects w/o due cause Not levy taxes w/o Parl.’s consent Not house soldiers in private homes Not impose martial law during peacetime  Set forth idea that law was higher than king  Charlie!

20 England English Civil War ( ): Background/Causes:  Parl. passed laws to limit royal power – king outraged – arrested Parl. leaders – mob began to form  Loyal to Charles – Royalists/Cavaliers  Puritan supporters of Parl. – Roundheads

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22 England English Civil War ( ): Result:  Roundheads win  Oliver Cromwell: Roundhead General Tried, beheaded Charles for treason Est. commonwealth (repub. form of gov’t)

23 Spain Spanish Empire: Philip II:  Seized Portugal (no heir) – now had empire that circled the globe  Emp. gave him lots of wealth  Duty = defend Cath. “His smile and his dagger were very close.”- Phillip’s court historian

24 Spain Defeat of Spanish Armada: Background:  Philip launched Armada in attempt to punish Protest. Eng. & Queen Eliz. I, who supported Protest. subj. who rebelled against Philip

25 Spain Defeat of Spanish Armada: What Happened:  Spanish Armada defeated Impact:  Seriously weakened Spain

26 Spain Spanish Art and Literature: El Greco (“the Greek”):  Showed deep Cath. faith of Spain Velasquez:  Court painter for Philip IV of Spain  Cervantes:  Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605) Birth of modern European novel

27 Spain Empire Weakens: Inflation:  2 causes: Spain’s pop. ↑ Silver bullion flooded marked  value ↓ Taxes:  Spain’s nobles don’t pay; burden on lower classes  never dev. middle class Bankruptcy:  Finance wars = Spanish kings borrowed $  Philip declared Spain bankrupt 3 times

28 Spain Dutch Revolt and Dutch Prosper: 1579 – 7 N. provinces of Protest. Netherlands – united, declared ind. from Spain Art:  Rembrandt – painted portraits of wealthy middle- class merchants Trade:  Stability of gov’t  concentration on econ. growth  Dutch E. India Co. – dominated Asian spice trade

29 Prussia Thirty Years’ War ( ) Causes:  Lutheran & Cath. princes tried to gain followers Split in 2 leagues  Spark: Ferdinand II (HRE) closed some Protest. churches, Protest. in Bohemia revolted

30 Prussia Thirty Years’ War ( ) Hapsburg Wins:  1st 12 yrs  Haps. armies crushed troops hired by Protest. princes Hapsburg Losses:  Protest. drove Haps. armies out of N. Germany

31 Prussia Thirty Years’ War ( ) Peace (Treaty) of Westphalia:  Weakened Spain & Austria (Haps.)  Strengthened France  German princes ind. of HRE  Ended relig. wars  New method of peace negot.

32 Prussia Thirty Years’ War ( ) Results:  Trade & agric. disrupted  Germany’s econ. ruined  Treaty recognized Euro. as a group of ind. states  Beginning of modern state system

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34 Austria Grows Stronger: Austrian Haps. reconquered Bohemia – wiped out Protest. Cent. gov’t; created standing army

35 Austria Maria Theresa: Charles VI convinced leaders of Europe to sign agreement  Maria heir to all Haps. territories Faced yrs of war – main enemy: Prussia

36 Prussia Rise: Army of 80,000 men paid for w/ perm. taxation Weakened rep. assemblies of their territories Became rigidly controlled, militaristic soc.

37 Prussia Frederick the Great: Military policies, softened some laws Encouraged relig. toleration, legal reform Ruler should be a father to his people “…the fundamental role of governments is the principle of extending their territories.” - Frederick the Great

38 Prussia War of Austrian Succession ( ) Over Silesia (bordered Prussia) Hungary & Britain helped Maria Theresa – stopped Prussian aggression Prussia became major Euro. power

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40 Prussia Seven Years’ War ( ) Fought in Euro., India, & N.Am. No change in territory in Euro. British real victors  France lost colonies in N.Am.  Britain gained sole econ. domination in India

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42 Enlightenment Two Views on Government: Thomas Hobbes:  All humans naturally selfish & wicked  Gov’ts need to keep order Social Contract:  Ppl had to hand over rights to strong ruler in exchange for law & order  B/c ppl acted in own self-interest, ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control (abs. monarchy) Changing Idea: 

43 Enlightenment Two Views on Government: John Locke:  Criticized abs. mon.; for self-gov’t  People had 3 nat. rights – life, liberty, property  Gov’t purpose  protect these rights  If they don’t, ppl have right to overthrow it  Gov’t’s power comes from consent of the ppl  His ideas = foundations of modern democ.

44 Enlightenment Philosophes: Core Beliefs:  Reason - Truth through reason & logical thinking  Nature – what is natural is good & reasonable  Happiness – seek well-being on earth  Progress – society/humankind could improve  Liberty – Liberties won in Glorious Rev. & Bill of Rights

45 Enlightenment Philosophes: Voltaire:  Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of relig. & speech Montesquieu:  Sep. of powers – no 1 group could gain total control of gov’t (checks & balances) Rousseau:  Only good gov’t is one formed by ppl & freely governed by “general will” of soc. (dir. democ.) “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.” - Voltaire “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” - Rousseau

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47 Legacy of the Enlightenment Belief in Progress:  Success of Sci. Rev. = confidence human reason could solve soc. prob.  Urged end to slavery, soc. equality, democ. gov’t Secular Outlook:  Non-religious; ?ed relig. beliefs & teachings of church  Wanted to rid relig. faith of superstition & fear & promote relig. tolerance Importance of Individual:  Looked to selves instead of church or gov’t  Use own ability to reason to judge right from wrong

48 Enlightenment Ideas and Art: Diderot:  Encyclopedia – collection of artic. & essays from leading scholars – spread Enlightenment ideas Neoclassical:  “New classical”; borrowed themes from Greece & Rome Music & Literature:  Classical music – Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven  Writers wrote novels – lengthy works of fiction

49 Enlightenment Monarchies: Enlightened Despot:  Rulers embraced new ideas & made reforms reflecting Enlightenment spirit Frederick the Great (Prussia):  Granted relig. freedom, ↓ censorship, improved edu., reformed justice sys., abolished use of torture; did nothing to end serfdom “A ruler is only the first servant of the state.” - Frederick the Great

50 Enlightenment Monarchies: Joseph II (Austria):  Legal reforms, freedom of press & worship, abolished serfdom & ordered peasants be paid w/ cash Catherine the Great (Russia):  Comm. often w/ Voltaire  Put together commission to allow relig. toleration, abolishing torture & cap. punish. Commission didn’t accomplish these goals


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