AKS 42: Absolutism and Enlightenment Chapter 21 – PAGES 589-617 Chapter 22.2 & 22.3 – PAGES 629-639
France Background: Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) 1st king of Bourbon Dyn. Conv. to Catho. Devoted reign to rebuilding France & its prosperity Edict of Nantes Issued by Henry Huguenots could live in peace in France & set up their own houses of worship in certain cities
France Background: Cardinal Richelieu No walls in Protest. cities Weakened power of nobles by ordering them to take down their castles & by ↑ power of gov’t agents
France Louis XIV (14 th ) Comes to Power ( 4 yrs old ): France suffered from riots by nobles – Louis’ life threatened at times Louis never forgot fear/anger – vowed to be so strong nobles could never threaten him again “I am the state.” - Louis XIV So distinguished
France Louis XIV Comes to Power: Jean Baptiste Colbert: Made France economic power Followed mercantilism – make France self- sufficient Expanded & protected French indus. Encouraged migration to Canada (fur trade)
France Sun King’s Grand Style: Controls Nobility Nobles expected to be at Palace at Versailles – if not, incomes & social status ↓ Made nobility totally dep. on Louis Patron of the Arts Pop. opera & ballet Supported writers Promoted art that glorified monarchy & supported absolute rule
IMPRESSIVE, BUT COSTLY!!!
France Disastrous Wars and Legacy: Expansion Wanted to expand – succeeded at first Countries banned together to match France’s strength – balance of power
France Disastrous Wars and Legacy: War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) Charles II of Spain died – throne went to Louis’ grandson – Spain & France now ruled by French Bourbon kings Treaty that ended war allowed Louis’ grandson to stay in power as long as thrones of Spain & France not united Big winner - Great Britain: Took Gibraltar ↑ involvement in slave trade
France Disastrous Wars and Legacy: Death and Legacy: People rejoiced at news of Louis’ death Pos.: Military leader of Europe Ranked above all others in art, lit., statesmanship Neg.: War & construction of Palace at Versailles = massive debt Tax burden by poor & Louis’ abuse of power would plague his heirs & set stage for revolution
Russia The First Czar: Ivan the Terrible 1st to call himself “czar” 1547-1560 – “good period” – won victories, added lands, code of laws, ruled justly Terror 1560-1584 – “bad period” – Ivan accused boyars (nobles) of poisoning his wife, Anastasia Using secret police – executed boyars, their families, & peasants who worked their land 1581 – killed oldest son – left only weak son to rule Wow, he’s ugly
Russia The First Czar: Romanovs: Ivan’s son died – period of turmoil w/ no leader 1613 – leaders from Russian cities met to choose next czar – chose Michael Romanov Begins Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) Mikey!!!
Russia Czar Peter the Great: Russia Different Than Europe: Had looked to Constantinople for leadership Mongols & geog. barriers had cut Russia off from Ren. & Age of Expl. Relig. Diff. – Russia was E. Orthodox; W. Euro. mostly Cath. or Protest. Russia viewed them as heretics
Russia Czar Peter the Great: Peter Visits West: Believed future depended on having warm-water port 1697 – “Grand Embassy” – long visit to W. Europe Goal: learn about Euro. customs and manuf. techniques
Russia Peter Rules Absolutely: Reforms: Brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control ↓ power of great landowners Modernized army by hiring Euro. officers who drilled soldiers in Euro. tactics w/ Euro. weapons Paid for army w/ heavy taxes “For you know yourself that, though a thing be good and necessary, our people will not do it unless forced to.” - Czar Peter the Great
Russia Peter Rules Absolutely: Westernization: Intro. potatoes Started 1st newspaper ↑ women’s status Ordered nobles to adopt W. fashion Advanced Edu. - *believed this was key to Russia’s progress
Russia Peter Rules Absolutely: St. Petersburg: Wanted a seaport easier to travel to the W Fought Sweden for land on Baltic Sea Had St. Petersburg built on a piece of swampy land Estimated 25,000 – 100,000 people died in the effort to build it
England Defying Parliament: James I (1603-1625): Struggled w/ Parliament over $ Agreed to new trans. of Bible
England Defying Parliament: Charles I (1625-1649): Forced to sign Petition of Right: Not imprison subjects w/o due cause Not levy taxes w/o Parl.’s consent Not house soldiers in private homes Not impose martial law during peacetime Set forth idea that law was higher than king Charlie!
England English Civil War (1642-1649): Background/Causes: Parl. passed laws to limit royal power – king outraged – arrested Parl. leaders – mob began to form Loyal to Charles – Royalists/Cavaliers Puritan supporters of Parl. – Roundheads
England English Civil War (1642-1649): Result: Roundheads win Oliver Cromwell: Roundhead General Tried, beheaded Charles for treason - 1649 Est. commonwealth (repub. form of gov’t)
Spain Spanish Empire: Philip II: Seized Portugal (no heir) – now had empire that circled the globe Emp. gave him lots of wealth Duty = defend Cath. “His smile and his dagger were very close.”- Phillip’s court historian
Spain Defeat of Spanish Armada: Background: Philip launched Armada in attempt to punish Protest. Eng. & Queen Eliz. I, who supported Protest. subj. who rebelled against Philip
Spain Defeat of Spanish Armada: What Happened: Spanish Armada defeated Impact: Seriously weakened Spain
Spain Spanish Art and Literature: El Greco (“the Greek”): Showed deep Cath. faith of Spain Velasquez: Court painter for Philip IV of Spain Cervantes: Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605) Birth of modern European novel
Spain Empire Weakens: Inflation: 2 causes: Spain’s pop. ↑ Silver bullion flooded marked value ↓ Taxes: Spain’s nobles don’t pay; burden on lower classes never dev. middle class Bankruptcy: Finance wars = Spanish kings borrowed $ Philip declared Spain bankrupt 3 times
Spain Dutch Revolt and Dutch Prosper: 1579 – 7 N. provinces of Protest. Netherlands – united, declared ind. from Spain Art: Rembrandt – painted portraits of wealthy middle- class merchants Trade: Stability of gov’t concentration on econ. growth Dutch E. India Co. – dominated Asian spice trade
Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) Causes: Lutheran & Cath. princes tried to gain followers Split in 2 leagues Spark: Ferdinand II (HRE) closed some Protest. churches, Protest. in Bohemia revolted
Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) Hapsburg Wins: 1st 12 yrs Haps. armies crushed troops hired by Protest. princes Hapsburg Losses: Protest. drove Haps. armies out of N. Germany
Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) Peace (Treaty) of Westphalia: Weakened Spain & Austria (Haps.) Strengthened France German princes ind. of HRE Ended relig. wars New method of peace negot.
Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) Results: Trade & agric. disrupted Germany’s econ. ruined Treaty recognized Euro. as a group of ind. states Beginning of modern state system
Austria Grows Stronger: Austrian Haps. reconquered Bohemia – wiped out Protest. Cent. gov’t; created standing army
Austria Maria Theresa: Charles VI convinced leaders of Europe to sign agreement Maria heir to all Haps. territories Faced yrs of war – main enemy: Prussia
Prussia Rise: Army of 80,000 men paid for w/ perm. taxation Weakened rep. assemblies of their territories Became rigidly controlled, militaristic soc.
Prussia Frederick the Great: Military policies, softened some laws Encouraged relig. toleration, legal reform Ruler should be a father to his people “…the fundamental role of governments is the principle of extending their territories.” - Frederick the Great
Prussia War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Over Silesia (bordered Prussia) Hungary & Britain helped Maria Theresa – stopped Prussian aggression Prussia became major Euro. power
Prussia Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Fought in Euro., India, & N.Am. No change in territory in Euro. British real victors France lost colonies in N.Am. Britain gained sole econ. domination in India
Enlightenment Two Views on Government: Thomas Hobbes: All humans naturally selfish & wicked Gov’ts need to keep order Social Contract: Ppl had to hand over rights to strong ruler in exchange for law & order B/c ppl acted in own self-interest, ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control (abs. monarchy) Changing Idea:
Enlightenment Two Views on Government: John Locke: Criticized abs. mon.; for self-gov’t People had 3 nat. rights – life, liberty, property Gov’t purpose protect these rights If they don’t, ppl have right to overthrow it Gov’t’s power comes from consent of the ppl His ideas = foundations of modern democ.
Enlightenment Philosophes: Core Beliefs: Reason - Truth through reason & logical thinking Nature – what is natural is good & reasonable Happiness – seek well-being on earth Progress – society/humankind could improve Liberty – Liberties won in Glorious Rev. & Bill of Rights
Enlightenment Philosophes: Voltaire: Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of relig. & speech Montesquieu: Sep. of powers – no 1 group could gain total control of gov’t (checks & balances) Rousseau: Only good gov’t is one formed by ppl & freely governed by “general will” of soc. (dir. democ.) “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.” - Voltaire “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” - Rousseau
Legacy of the Enlightenment Belief in Progress: Success of Sci. Rev. = confidence human reason could solve soc. prob. Urged end to slavery, soc. equality, democ. gov’t Secular Outlook: Non-religious; ?ed relig. beliefs & teachings of church Wanted to rid relig. faith of superstition & fear & promote relig. tolerance Importance of Individual: Looked to selves instead of church or gov’t Use own ability to reason to judge right from wrong
Enlightenment Ideas and Art: Diderot: Encyclopedia – collection of artic. & essays from leading scholars – spread Enlightenment ideas Neoclassical: “New classical”; borrowed themes from Greece & Rome Music & Literature: Classical music – Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven Writers wrote novels – lengthy works of fiction
Enlightenment Monarchies: Enlightened Despot: Rulers embraced new ideas & made reforms reflecting Enlightenment spirit Frederick the Great (Prussia): Granted relig. freedom, ↓ censorship, improved edu., reformed justice sys., abolished use of torture; did nothing to end serfdom “A ruler is only the first servant of the state.” - Frederick the Great
Enlightenment Monarchies: Joseph II (Austria): Legal reforms, freedom of press & worship, abolished serfdom & ordered peasants be paid w/ cash Catherine the Great (Russia): Comm. often w/ Voltaire Put together commission to allow relig. toleration, abolishing torture & cap. punish. Commission didn’t accomplish these goals