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AKS 42: Absolutism and Enlightenment

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1 AKS 42: Absolutism and Enlightenment
Chapter 21 – PAGES Chapter 22.2 & 22.3 – PAGES

2 France Background: Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) Edict of Nantes
1st king of Bourbon Dyn. Conv. to Catho. Devoted reign to rebuilding France & its prosperity Edict of Nantes Issued by Henry Huguenots could live in peace in France & set up their own houses of worship in certain cities

3 France Background: Cardinal Richelieu No walls in Protest. cities
Weakened power of nobles by ordering them to take down their castles & by ↑ power of gov’t agents

4 France Louis XIV (14th) Comes to Power (4 yrs old ):
“I am the state.” - Louis XIV France suffered from riots by nobles – Louis’ life threatened at times Louis never forgot fear/anger – vowed to be so strong nobles could never threaten him again So distinguished

5 France Louis XIV Comes to Power:
Jean Baptiste Colbert: Made France economic power Followed mercantilism – make France self-sufficient Expanded & protected French indus. Encouraged migration to Canada (fur trade)

6 France Sun King’s Grand Style:
Controls Nobility Nobles expected to be at Palace at Versailles – if not, incomes & social status ↓ Made nobility totally dep. on Louis Patron of the Arts Pop. opera & ballet Supported writers Promoted art that glorified monarchy & supported absolute rule


8 France Disastrous Wars and Legacy:
Expansion Wanted to expand – succeeded at first Countries banned together to match France’s strength – balance of power

9 France Disastrous Wars and Legacy:
War of Spanish Succession ( ) Charles II of Spain died – throne went to Louis’ grandson – Spain & France now ruled by French Bourbon kings Treaty that ended war allowed Louis’ grandson to stay in power as long as thrones of Spain & France not united Big winner - Great Britain: Took Gibraltar ↑ involvement in slave trade

10 France Disastrous Wars and Legacy:
Death and Legacy: People rejoiced at news of Louis’ death Pos.: Military leader of Europe Ranked above all others in art, lit., statesmanship Neg.: War & construction of Palace at Versailles = massive debt Tax burden by poor & Louis’ abuse of power would plague his heirs & set stage for revolution

11 Russia The First Czar: Ivan the Terrible Terror
Wow, he’s ugly Ivan the Terrible 1st to call himself “czar” – “good period” – won victories, added lands, code of laws, ruled justly Terror – “bad period” – Ivan accused boyars (nobles) of poisoning his wife, Anastasia Using secret police – executed boyars, their families, & peasants who worked their land 1581 – killed oldest son – left only weak son to rule

12 Russia The First Czar: Romanovs:
Ivan’s son died – period of turmoil w/ no leader 1613 – leaders from Russian cities met to choose next czar – chose Michael Romanov Begins Romanov Dynasty ( ) Mikey!!! 

13 Russia Czar Peter the Great:
Russia Different Than Europe: Had looked to Constantinople for leadership Mongols & geog. barriers had cut Russia off from Ren. & Age of Expl. Relig. Diff. – Russia was E. Orthodox; W. Euro. mostly Cath. or Protest. Russia viewed them as heretics

14 Russia Czar Peter the Great:
Peter Visits West: Believed future depended on having warm-water port 1697 – “Grand Embassy” – long visit to W. Europe Goal: learn about Euro. customs and manuf. techniques

15 Russia Peter Rules Absolutely:
“For you know yourself that, though a thing be good and necessary, our people will not do it unless forced to.” - Czar Peter the Great Reforms: Brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control ↓ power of great landowners Modernized army by hiring Euro. officers who drilled soldiers in Euro. tactics w/ Euro. weapons Paid for army w/ heavy taxes

16 Russia Peter Rules Absolutely:
Westernization: Intro. potatoes Started 1st newspaper ↑ women’s status Ordered nobles to adopt W. fashion Advanced Edu. - *believed this was key to Russia’s progress

17 Russia Peter Rules Absolutely:
St. Petersburg: Wanted a seaport  easier to travel to the W Fought Sweden for land on Baltic Sea Had St. Petersburg built on a piece of swampy land Estimated 25,000 – 100,000 people died in the effort to build it

18 England Defying Parliament:
James I ( ): Struggled w/ Parliament over $ Agreed to new trans. of Bible

19 England Defying Parliament:
 Charlie! Charles I ( ): Forced to sign Petition of Right: Not imprison subjects w/o due cause Not levy taxes w/o Parl.’s consent Not house soldiers in private homes Not impose martial law during peacetime Set forth idea that law was higher than king

20 England English Civil War (1642-1649):
Background/Causes: Parl. passed laws to limit royal power – king outraged – arrested Parl. leaders – mob began to form Loyal to Charles – Royalists/Cavaliers Puritan supporters of Parl. – Roundheads


22 England English Civil War (1642-1649):
Result: Roundheads win Oliver Cromwell: Roundhead General Tried, beheaded Charles for treason Est. commonwealth (repub. form of gov’t)

23 Spain Spanish Empire: Philip II:
“His smile and his dagger were very close.” - Phillip’s court historian Philip II: Seized Portugal (no heir) – now had empire that circled the globe Emp. gave him lots of wealth Duty = defend Cath.

24 Spain Defeat of Spanish Armada:
Background: Philip launched Armada in attempt to punish Protest. Eng. & Queen Eliz. I, who supported Protest. subj. who rebelled against Philip

25 Spain Defeat of Spanish Armada:
What Happened: Spanish Armada defeated Impact: Seriously weakened Spain

26 Spain Spanish Art and Literature:
El Greco (“the Greek”): Showed deep Cath. faith of Spain Velasquez: Court painter for Philip IV of Spain  Cervantes: Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605) Birth of modern European novel

27 Spain Empire Weakens: Inflation: Taxes: Bankruptcy: 2 causes:
Spain’s pop. ↑ Silver bullion flooded marked  value ↓ Taxes: Spain’s nobles don’t pay; burden on lower classes  never dev. middle class Bankruptcy: Finance wars = Spanish kings borrowed $ Philip declared Spain bankrupt 3 times

28 Spain Dutch Revolt and Dutch Prosper:
1579 – 7 N. provinces of Protest. Netherlands – united, declared ind. from Spain Art: Rembrandt – painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants Trade: Stability of gov’t  concentration on econ. growth Dutch E. India Co. – dominated Asian spice trade

29 Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
Causes: Lutheran & Cath. princes tried to gain followers Split in 2 leagues Spark: Ferdinand II (HRE) closed some Protest. churches, Protest. in Bohemia revolted

30 Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
Hapsburg Wins: 1st 12 yrs Haps. armies crushed troops hired by Protest. princes Hapsburg Losses: Protest. drove Haps. armies out of N. Germany

31 Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
Peace (Treaty) of Westphalia: Weakened Spain & Austria (Haps.) Strengthened France German princes ind. of HRE Ended relig. wars New method of peace negot.

32 Prussia Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
Results: Trade & agric. disrupted Germany’s econ. ruined Treaty recognized Euro. as a group of ind. states Beginning of modern state system


34 Austria Grows Stronger:
Austrian Haps. reconquered Bohemia – wiped out Protest. Cent. gov’t; created standing army

35 Austria Maria Theresa:
Charles VI convinced leaders of Europe to sign agreement  Maria heir to all Haps. territories Faced yrs of war – main enemy: Prussia

36 Prussia Rise: Army of 80,000 men paid for w/ perm. taxation
Weakened rep. assemblies of their territories Became rigidly controlled, militaristic soc.

37 Prussia Frederick the Great:
“…the fundamental role of governments is the principle of extending their territories.” - Frederick the Great Military policies, softened some laws Encouraged relig. toleration, legal reform Ruler should be a father to his people

38 Prussia War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
Over Silesia (bordered Prussia) Hungary & Britain helped Maria Theresa – stopped Prussian aggression Prussia became major Euro. power


40 Prussia Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
Fought in Euro., India, & N.Am. No change in territory in Euro. British real victors France lost colonies in N.Am. Britain gained sole econ. domination in India


42 Enlightenment Two Views on Government:
Thomas Hobbes: All humans naturally selfish & wicked Gov’ts need to keep order Social Contract: Ppl had to hand over rights to strong ruler in exchange for law & order B/c ppl acted in own self-interest, ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control (abs. monarchy) Changing Idea:

43 Enlightenment Two Views on Government:
John Locke: Criticized abs. mon.; for self-gov’t People had 3 nat. rights – life, liberty, property Gov’t purpose  protect these rights If they don’t, ppl have right to overthrow it Gov’t’s power comes from consent of the ppl His ideas = foundations of modern democ.

44 Enlightenment Philosophes:
Core Beliefs: Reason - Truth through reason & logical thinking Nature – what is natural is good & reasonable Happiness – seek well-being on earth Progress – society/humankind could improve Liberty – Liberties won in Glorious Rev. & Bill of Rights

45 Enlightenment Philosophes:
“I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.” - Voltaire Voltaire: Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of relig. & speech Montesquieu: Sep. of powers – no 1 group could gain total control of gov’t (checks & balances) Rousseau: Only good gov’t is one formed by ppl & freely governed by “general will” of soc. (dir. democ.) “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Rousseau


47 Legacy of the Enlightenment
Belief in Progress: Success of Sci. Rev. = confidence human reason could solve soc. prob. Urged end to slavery, soc. equality, democ. gov’t Secular Outlook: Non-religious; ?ed relig. beliefs & teachings of church Wanted to rid relig. faith of superstition & fear & promote relig. tolerance Importance of Individual: Looked to selves instead of church or gov’t Use own ability to reason to judge right from wrong

48 Enlightenment Ideas and Art:
Diderot: Encyclopedia – collection of artic. & essays from leading scholars – spread Enlightenment ideas Neoclassical: “New classical”; borrowed themes from Greece & Rome Music & Literature: Classical music – Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven Writers wrote novels – lengthy works of fiction

49 Enlightenment Monarchies:
Enlightened Despot: Rulers embraced new ideas & made reforms reflecting Enlightenment spirit Frederick the Great (Prussia): Granted relig. freedom, ↓ censorship, improved edu., reformed justice sys., abolished use of torture; did nothing to end serfdom “A ruler is only the first servant of the state.” - Frederick the Great

50 Enlightenment Monarchies:
Joseph II (Austria): Legal reforms, freedom of press & worship, abolished serfdom & ordered peasants be paid w/ cash Catherine the Great (Russia): Comm. often w/ Voltaire Put together commission to allow relig. toleration, abolishing torture & cap. punish. Commission didn’t accomplish these goals

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