Presentation on theme: "Albrecht Dürer, “The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand” (on Mount Ararat, by the Persian King Saporat, at the order of Emperor Hadrian), painted in 1508."— Presentation transcript:
Albrecht Dürer, “The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand” (on Mount Ararat, by the Persian King Saporat, at the order of Emperor Hadrian), painted in 1508
Dutch War of IndependenceFrench Wars of Religion 1561: Philip II imposes Spanish rule in Burgundy 1559: Death of Henry II; Catherine de Medici is regent 1566/67: “Calvinist Fury” provokes crackdown 1561: Catherine decrees religious toleration 1562: Massacre at Vassy by the Duc de Guise provokes war 1572: “Sea Beggars” liberate Zeeland & Holland, war begins 1572: Marriage feast leads to St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1585: England intervenes to avoid a Protestant defeat 1588/89: War of the 3 Henries (Guise+Valois+Navarre): Holy League (militant Catholic) takes Paris 1588: The English defeat the “invincible” Spanish Armada 1609: Twelve Years’ Truce and partition of the Low Countries 1593/94: Henry IV converts to Catholicism, is crowned King
The Duchy of Burgundy under Emperor Charles V The United Provinces vs. Spanish Netherlands in 1609
“The Massacre of the Innocents” (Pieter Brueghel the Young, 1610s)
The Capture of Briel by the Dutch “Sea Beggars,” April 1, 1572
William the Silent, Prince of Orange (1533-1584), painted around 1555 and 1580
Spanish troops leave Maastricht after a truce in 1577, but they returned soon thereafter
Anchored off Calais, the “invincible” Spanish Armada of 1588 broke up in confusion when the English sailed eight fire ships into their tight formation at midnight
The Dutch were Europe’s best sailors in 1600: Here Dutch ships ram Spanish galleys off the Flemish coast, October 1602
The Battle of Gibraltar, 1607, when the Dutch completely destroyed a Spanish fleet of 21 ships
The 12-Years’ Truce did not apply overseas, so the Dutch conquered all the most profitable colonies of Portugal
The King of France was also the Duke of Normandy, Count of Provence, etc. The Bourbon King of Navarre was the highest ranking French Protestant.
The strong Valois Kings Francis I and Henry II centralized power, but Henry II died in a freak jousting accident in 1559
Catherine de Medici (1519-1589), Regent for all three of her sons: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. The Catholic House of Guise and Huguenot House of Bourbon both sensed a chance to recover their power.
Huguenots depicted as apes and tormentors of Christ. The Catholic majority viewed Catherine’s Edict of Toleration as gross dereliction of duty; war broke out in 1562 when the Duc de Guise ordered the execution of Huguenots worshiping on his lands.
The partition of France, 1570-90. Catherine de Medici sought reconciliation in 1572 by arranging marriage between Marguerite de Valois and King Henry of Navarre.
Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France & Huguenot leader, since 1570 a trusted advisor of King Charles IX; wounded by a Catholic assassin on August 22, 1572.
The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, August 24, 1572 (painting by a Huguenot survivor): It began with the murder of the wounded Coligny by order of King Charles IX.
Henry of Navarre seeks protection from his bride: His life was spared when he promised to convert to Catholicism.
After being recognized by the dying Henry III as the rightful heir to the throne, Henry of Navarre routed the forces of the Catholic Holy League at the Battle of Arques, September 1589 But the Holy League still controlled Paris and refused to recognize Henry IV
“Procession of the Catholic League on the Place de Grève,” Paris, 1590-93: Hunger and the promise that Henry IV would convert to Catholicism made them submit
The coronation of King Henry IV in Paris, 1594 (he cures a scrofulous beggar with his “royal touch”)
Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598 to guarantee Huguenots freedom of conscience, civil rights, and fortified places of refuge.