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A King Returns to the Throne Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School.

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Presentation on theme: "A King Returns to the Throne Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 A King Returns to the Throne Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School

2 Introduction n Charles II, son of Charles I, faced lots of danger during the civil war n in fact, he actually fought in the war on the side of the royalists n Charles II had also witnessed his father’s execution n Charles II was almost captured and executed but was able to escape capture--he fled to the mainland of Europe –while in Europe, he wandered between nations to keep from being captured –many European monarchs were friendly, others threatened to turn Charles over to the English n the Puritans in England kept aware of Charles’ location in Europe

3 Charles II

4 Merry Monarch n May 26, 1660--Charles II returns to the throne of England n his return ended the land and bloody English Civil War and the harsh Puritan rule n Charles’ return to the throne was called the Restoration n Charles became known as the “merry monarch” because of his love for social life--games, parties, etc. n Charles will marry a Portuguese princess; they, however, will have no children –Charles did have many illegitimate children by his many mistresses

5 Merry Monarch (cot.) n Charles II allowed the English Parliament to gain more power n Charles publicly claimed he was a member of the Church of England; however, he was secretly a Catholic n 1661, a new Parliament was elected--the Cavalier Parliament n 1661, this new Parliament passed a series of laws called the Clarendon Code –this code made the Church of England the official Church in England –the law also said that only members of the Church of England could attend Universities and serve in Parliament

6 Merry Monarch (cot.) n This Cavalier Parliament also limited the power of the king –Parliament made Charles II accept the Petition of Right signed by his father –Parliament created a constitutional monarchy--a monarchy limited by a constitution n Charles did not agree to all Parliament did--but he never publicly disagreed with Parliament n 1665--the Plague returns to England--killing nearly 100,000 people n 1665--a terrible fire destroys most of London

7 Merry Monarch (cot.) n Political parties began to develop in England-- they were based on the opposition to Catholicism n the parties developed as an argument over who would take over the throne after Charles II-- he had no legitimate heir n James II was to be the new king--he was Charles’ II brother –there was one problem with James--he was an open and practicing Catholic n 1679: Parliament attempts to pass the Exclusion Bill –this bill would have kept James from becoming king

8 James II

9 The Two Parties n Whigs –members of Parliament who wanted to keep James from becoming king n Tories –members of Parliament who believed James should succeed his brother Charles II

10 The Two Parties (cot.) n The Tories (supporters of James) were able to defeat the Exclusion Bill habeas corpus law –the Tories were able to do this by accepting a bill proposed by the Whigs--habeas corpus law n according to the habeas corpus law, a person could not be imprisoned by the king without just cause or without trial

11 Bloodless Revolt n 1685: Charles II dies and his Catholic brother--James II-- becomes king –James’ becoming king ended the peace between Parliament and the monarchy –James wanted absolute power –James ignored the Clarendon Code by electing Catholics to government positions n All of James’ actions made Parliament very upset--Parliament attempted to remain patient Mary n Parliament was actually waiting for James to die and pass the throne over to his Protestant daughter Mary William of Orange n Mary was married to William of Orange--the ruler in the Netherlands

12 Bloodless Revolt n 1688: James’ 2nd wife bears him a son--a future heir to the English throne –James was to raise his son as a Catholic--a fact that Parliament did not want to deal with; another future Catholic king n both the Whig and Tory parties united against James n Both the parties invited Mary’s husband-- William of Orange--to invade and take over England n James hears of the plot and flees England--he goes to France n William & Mary will take over without a drop of blood being spilled n this is known as the Glorious Revolution

13 William and Mary n 1689: William and Mary come to power n they agree to govern England “according to the statutes in Parliament agreed upon, and the laws and customs of the same” n 1689: Parliament passes the Bill of Rights n These Bill of Rights kept the king from raising taxes or maintaining an army without Parliament’s consent –this also gave individual rights to the people: right to trial by jury outlawed cruel and unusual punishment limited the amount of bail people had the right to appeal to the king and free speech in Parliament

14 William and Mary

15 William & Mary n James will try to lead an unsuccessful revolt against William & Mary n because of this failed revolt, parliament passed more laws limiting the power of the monarch Act of Settlement n Parliament also passed the Act of Settlement--excluding Catholics from inheriting the throne of England

16 Parliament & the Crown n The Bill of Right & Act of Settlement illustrated the power that Parliament had gained over the monarchy –the monarch could not rule without the consent of Parliament n England was not a democracy even though Parliamentary members were elected n Member of the House of Commons were elected –only property owning males could vote--4% of the population n Members of the House of Commons were not paid –only the rich could run for office n therefore, Parliament was controlled by a select few who owned property

17 Parliament & the Crown (cont.) n 1702: William dies-- Mary has already passed Anne n the throne passes to Mary’s sister Anne n 1702: Parliament begins to create a new order of succession to the throne –on too many occasions, monarchs had no children to take over n Anne had no living children to take over upon her death Sophia n Parliament, thus, decided that Anne would be succeeded by the children of the Protestant granddaughter of James I--Sophia –Sophia was the wife of the German elector of Hanover

18 Parliament & the Crown (cont.) the House of Hanover n When Sophia’s children take over, a new dynasty takes over in England-- the House of Hanover n Parliament was afraid that the people of Scotland may want a Stuart on the throne, not a Hanover –Parliament feared that the Scots may ally themselves with France and attack England Act of Union of 1707 n 1707: Parliament issues the Act of Union of 1707 –this act united England and Scotland into a new nation called Great Britain –the Scots will give up their own Parliament and gain representation in the English Parliament –the Scots will be allowed to keep their Calvinist religion, their own laws, courts, and education system

19 Queen Anne n She ruled from 1707 until 1714 n Parliament increased its power under her n she was not a very skilled leader and received help from a cabinet--a small group of advisors from the House of commons –this 1st cabinet was made of both Whigs and Tories –the two parties would constantly argue and quarrel –to keep things orderly, later cabinets were constructed of the majority party

20 Queen Anne

21 George I & Robert Walpole George I n 1714: Anne dies and Sophia’s son--George I-- took over (this followed the Act of Settlement) n George had been raised in Germany n he spoke very little English n because of his unfamiliarity with England and its customs, George relied, heavily, on his cabinet n eventually, the Whig party took control of the cabinet Sir Robert Walpole n the leader of the Whig party was Sir Robert Walpole

22 George I

23 Robert Walpole

24 Walpole n Since Walpole was the head of the Whig party, he became the head of the King’s cabinet prime minister n Walpole’s head position in the cabinet would be called the prime minister--the chief executive of a parliamentary government n Walpole remained prime minister when George II became king in 1727 n George II will encourage Walpole to take over more responsibility in the government –managing finances, appointing government officials, requesting the passage of laws

25 Walpole (cont.) n Walpole helped England to avoid wars n he allowed the American colonies to grow

26 George III n 1760: a new king comes to the throne--George III n George III was the grandson of George II n he was only 22 years old when he became king n he expands the British empire by defeating France –Great Britain gains control over Canada and all of France’s territory east of the Mississippi River n this war with France will be costly for England--it will eventually lead to Britain’s losing of its American Colonies

27 George III

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