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The Thirty Years War Brittany Barnwell May 5, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "The Thirty Years War Brittany Barnwell May 5, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Thirty Years War Brittany Barnwell May 5, 2008

2 1618-1648

3 Basically… A massive civil war in Germany b/w Protestants and Roman Catholics Started as a religious war with political overtones Ended as a political war with religious overtones; the Hapsburg power was threatened; struggle for power b/w Austria and France

4 Basically… The Hohenzollerns expand their holdings The German states –remain divided –pose no threat to their neighbors –they don’t play a highly significant role in European affairs for the rest of the century

5 Pre-War

6 Peace of Augsburg of 1555 Recognized the independent power of the German princes –The prince determined the religion of his subjects Further undermined any authority of the central government The Hapsburg ruler in Vienna had the title of “emperor” but had no imperial power Peace of Augsburg

7 Conflicts Catholics grew alarmed because Lutherans were converting several German bishops –a violation of the Peace of Augsburg Calvinists ignored the Peace of Augsburg- converted several princes Lutheran princes formed the Protestant Union; Catholics formed the Catholic League

8 Conflicts continued… Charles V abdicated in 1556 –Divided possessions b/w his son Philip II and brother Ferdinand I –Ferdinand inherited the Hapsburg lands in central Europe (Austria) Matthias’s (Ferdinand’s grandson) heir was his Catholic cousin Ferdinand of Styria who became King of Bohemia Charles V

9 Ferdinand of Styria and Bohemia The Bohemians were Czech and German; Lutheran, Calvinist, Catholic, and Hussite. Ferdinand began to close some Protestant churches; Protestant Estates of Bohemia protested May 23, 1618- Protestants threw two of Ferdinand’s officials from a castle window in Prague –Called the “Defenestration of Prague”

10 Defenestration of Prague Marked the beginning of the Thirty Year’s War Signaled Protestant uprising in Hungary, Transylvania, and Bohemia Defenestration of Prague

11 First Phase/ Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)

12 Bohemian Phase

13 War in Bohemia Characterized by civil war between… –Catholic League led by Ferdinand –Protestant Union led by Prince Frederick of the Palatinate The Bohemians fought for religious liberty and independence from Hapsburg rule

14 Ferdinand vs. Frederick 1618- the Bohemian Estates deposed Ferdinand, who inherited the throne; gave crown of Bohemia to Frederick Ferdinand II received support from Maximilian I of Bavaria –HRE and Bavari troops, commanded by Baron Tilly, invaded Bohemia Frederick Ferdinand

15 Ferdinand vs. Frederick continued… November 8, 1620- Frederick was defeated at the Battle of the White Mountain Frederick fled to Holland Ferdinand of Styria (Ferdinand II) gained throne; wiped out Protestantism in Bohemia Within 10 years, Bohemia was completely Catholic

16 Results Catholic control of Palatinate Restoration of Catholicism in Bohemia Punishments against Bohemian Protestants by the Austrian Hapsburgs The Hapsburgs and Spanish had an iron grip on Europe Hapsburg Crest

17 2 nd Phase/ Danish Phase (1625-1629)

18 Danish Phase Was called because of the participation of King Christian IV of Denmark –Wanted to maintain Protestantism in Denmark Albrecht von Wallerstein, led a Catholic imperial army –Raised an independent army of 50,000 –Won many victories through Silesia, Schleswig, Jutland, Pomerania King Christian

19 Albrecht von Wallerstein Made himself essential to Emperor Ferdinand An opportunist who used his riches to build an army loyal only to him Seemed more interested in carving out an empire for himself than in helping the Catholic cause Was fired by Ferdinand due to German princes protesting

20 Defeated Christian defeated in 1626 The Treaty of Lübeck on May 22, 1629 –Christian IV could keep control over Denmark; He could not intervene in German affairs Hapsburg and Catholic victory Ferdinand issues the Edict of Restitution Lübeck Flag

21 Danish Phase

22 Results: Edict of Restitution 1629- the Jesuits persuaded the emperor Ferdinand to issue the Edict of Restitution Signed b/w Holy Roman Empire and Denmark on March 6, 1629 –All Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1552 were to be restored –Only Catholics and Lutherans were to be allowed to practice their faiths; no Calvinism

23 Edict- Primary Source “We herewith declare that the Religious Peace [1555] refers only to the Augsburg confession as it was submitted to our ancestor Emperor Charles V on 25 June 1530; and that all other doctrines and sects, whatever names they may have, nit included in the Peace are forbidden and cannot be tolerated. We therefore command to all and everybody under punishment of the religious and the land ban that they shall at once cease opposing our ordinance and carry it out in their lands and territories and also assist our commissioners.”

24 Edict- Primary Source “Such as hold the archbishoprics and bishoprics, prelacies, monasteries, hospitals, etc., shall forthwith return them to our Imperial commissioners with all their appurtenances. Should they not carry out this behest they will not only expose themselves to the Imperial ban and to the immediate loss of all their privileges and rights without any further sentence or condemnation, but to the inevitable real execution of that order and be distrained by force.”

25 Effect of Edict Protestants throughout Europe feared collapse of the balance of power in north-central Europe (fear of a strong Austrian Empire) Unified opposition by Calvinists and Lutherans Resulted in a great transfer of power and property away from Protestants to Catholics; thousands of Protestants moved to other states that were Protestant

26 3 rd Phase/ Swedish Phase (1630-1635)

27 Swedish Phase

28 Swedish Intervention Protestants liberate territories lost in second phase Began with the arrival of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus in Germany –He intervened to support the oppressed Protestants within the empire Gustavus Adolphus

29 Success Sweden helped by France and Cardinal Richelieu 1631- Gustavus Adolphus and army victorious at Breitenfeld; 1632- victorious at Lützen, defeated Wallerstein When Gustavus landed in Germany, he had already brought Denmark, Poland, Finland, and the smaller Baltic states under Swedish influence Ended Hapsburg ambition of uniting all German states under imperial rule 1632- Gustavus Adolphus died during the Battle of Lüzen The victory at Breitenfield

30 Primary Source " I am the lion of the Midnight sun, I shall fence you with renewed strength, for I fight by the power of God, God helps those of the right faith." ~Gustavus Adolphus

31 Catholics Fight Back When Adolphus invades, Ferdinand brought back Albrecht The defeat of the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen in 1634 The French to enter the war on the side of the Protestants Battle of Nördlingen

32 4 th Phase/ French Phase (1635-1648)

33 The International Phase The defeat of the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen prompted the French to enter the war May 1635- Cardinal Richelieu declared war on Spain and sent financial and military assistance to the Swedes and the German Protestant princes French, Dutch and Swedes, supported by Scots, Finns, and German mercenaries, burned, looted, and destroyed German agriculture and commerce Cardinal Richelieu

34 The International Phase The French and English help out the Dutch (Northern Netherlands) in defeating Spain All countries in Europe now participated in the war This phase was the most destructive 1648- The Swedes and the French defeat the Catholic Imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarchausen and Lens. Battle of Zusmarchausen and Lens

35 Why Thirty Years? The war lasted so long because neither side had the resources to win a quick, decisive victory

36 Peace Peace was achieved in October 24, 1648 The treaties signed at Münster and Osnabrück (the Peace of Westphalia) –Marked a turning point in European political, religious, and social history

37 Treaty of Westphalia- Primary Source “When the divisions and disorders which began several years ago in the Roman Empire had grown to a point was fixed for the meeting of the plenipotentiaries at Osnabrück and at Munster in Westphalia. In accordance with this the ambassadors plenipotentiary duly appointed by both parties appeared at the said time and places named, to wit... After invoking the aid of God and exchanging their credentials, copies of which are inserted word for word in the present treaty, they arranged and agreed upon the articles of peace and amity which follow, to the glory of God and for the welfare of the Christian commonwealth; the electors, princes, and estates of the Holy Roman Empire being present and approving.”

38 Treaty of Westphalia- Primary Source “There shall be a Christian and Universal Peace, and a perpetual, true, and sincere Amity, between his Sacred Imperial Majesty, and his most Christian Majesty; as also, between all and each of the Allies, and Adherents of his said Imperial Majesty, the House of Austria, and its Heirs, and Successors; but chiefly between the Electors, Princes, and States of the Empire on the one side; and all and each of the Allies of his said Christian Majesty, and all their Heirs and Successors, chiefly between the most Serene Queen and Kingdom of Swedeland, the Electors respectively, the Princes and States of the Empire, on the other part.”

39 Treaty of Westphalia- Primary Source “That this Peace and Amity be observ'd and cultivated with such a Sincerity and Zeal, that each Party shall endeavour to procure the Benefit, Honour and Advantage of the other; that thus on all sides they may see this Peace and Friendship in the Roman Empire, and the Kingdom of France flourish, by entertaining a good and faithful Neighbourhood.”

40 Post- War

41 Peace of Westphalia- Political Recognized the sovereign, independent authority of the German princes –Each could govern his particular territory (make peace and war, etc.) –300 city states Holy Roman Empire was destroyed along with their hope of restoring its power The Peace Treaties of Westphalia

42 Peace of Westphalia- Political International stature of France and Sweden was improved –France acquired the province of Alsace; France allowed to intervene in German affairs –Sweden received money & jurisdiction over German territories along Baltic Sea (NE Germany) posed a serious threat to the future kingdom of Brandenburg-Prussia The signing of the Treaty

43 Peace of Westphalia- Political Independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands and Switzerland was acknowledged from Spain –Switzerland was unified into cantons Austria emerged separate of HRE; became focus of Hapsburg rule Spain and Austria lost power Signing the Treaty

44 Treaty of Westphalia- Political France, Sweden, and Brandenburg- Prussia become superpowers Bavaria emerged as leading Catholic power in S. Germany Brandenburg-Prussia received important territories on N. Sea & in central Germany; leading Lutheran power in N. Germany FranceSweden

45 Treaty of Westphalia- Religious The Augsburg agreement of 1555 should stay permanent –Allowed Calvinism, along with Catholicism and Lutheranism –Catholic claims to Protestant territory abandoned in HRE Protestants rights in Hapsburg lands were not protected

46 Treaty of Westphalia- Religious Treaties denied the papacy the right to participate in German religious affairs –Symbolically reduced the role of the Church in European politics Destroyed the HRE’s hope of restoring the Catholic faith throughout the empire Pope protests

47 Results of War Germany suffered major loses –Germany physically destroyed –Lose large population Ended the dominance of the Mediterranean states and economy in European affairs Amsterdam emerged as the great financial center Diseases re-emerge –Plague The Plague

48 Loss of German Lives in 30 Years’ War

49 Results of War Ended all wars on religion Increase of power of other countries What countries fight for after this… –Balance of power, diplomacy –Conquering territories Regarding religious practices… –The north German states remained Protestant –The south German states remained Catholic

50 Social and Economic Impact PopulationDecreased 1600-1650 due to war, famine, and disease (plague); steady recovery after 1650 AgricultureImpact on crop prices (prices rose); low production PricesPrice changes and price levels varied throughout Europe; "There was a rise in real wages from about 1620 and the wage earner was not necessarily in a bad position during the war." Tradeopened many avenues for trade; brought in a degree of economic protectionism FinanceThe countries fighting in the war had to finance their campaigns

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