11 Shifting Perspective… From … Instructor to student Teaching to learning “Sage on the stage” to “Guide on the side”
12 Theoretical Frameworks of Learning Two Extremes: Information Processing Constructivism
13 Information Processing Heir of behaviorism. Mind as computer (input –> output). What happens in between is not the interesting part. Treats students as blank slates. Gave us understanding of working memory capacity and chunking.
14 Information Processing Is it so ineffective?
15 Constructivism Knowledge is not passively received, but is actively built up by the learner. Teacher can’t pass knowledge to learner. Teacher is a facilitator, not transmitter. Recognizes that students come with prior knowledge.
16 The Constructivist Classroom Less telling. More questions and discussion. Teacher needs to be good listener. Accepting of alternative schemes. Not everything can (or need be) constructed from scratch.
17 The Constructivist Classroom Need to think on your feet. Need to be a good manager and negotiator. Need to draw out prior knowledge. Epistemological obstacles should not be avoided or short-cut.
19 Thinking about learning Clearly the point of education is for students to learn something Shouldn’t we focus on learning? What goes on inside students’ heads? How do students learn? How do we know they’ve learned what we’ve taught?
20 Thinking about students— Types and Styles Independent Dependent Avoidant Collaborative Competitive Participant Entitlement
22 More from cognitive science about student learning Knowledge organization is important Pre-conceptions matter Active engagement is effective Learning is incremental Practice & spiraling back help Epistemological beliefs play a role
23 Teaching for learning Plan instruction based on student learning (and content) Concrete before abstract Concept before name Acknowledge students’ preconceptions Get students active during class
24 Facilitating Learning Students will construct understanding if instructors create a classroom environment where students are actively involved in learning process learn to monitor their learning learn from each other instructors motivate and engage students by Choosing examples that interest them Challenging them and letting them participate
25 Some Student Perspectives on Good Teaching Enthusiasm and passion Rapport Intellectual challenges Clarity and organization Scholarship
26 What Do UCSD’s Best LAB TAs Do? provide warning signs to look for highlight what’s problematic highlight procedures, connect things-- ideas, lecture to lab, lab to the real world highlight what could go wrong talk about their own work & experience let students figure it out (within reason)
27 What Do UCSD’s Best SECTION TAs Do? put current material in perspective with the course explain how concepts apply to the class and how they apply to the real world very organized and clearly explain prepared with problems for students to do provide an outline give lots of opportunities to ask questions have a good sense of whether students understand or not show alternative approaches to solving problems never get frustrated
28 Scenarios: WHAT DO YOU DO? SECTION: You’ve planned a great problem-solving lesson for your students involving the homework problems. Unfortunately, it seems that very few of them have even attempted to solve the problems. What do you do?
29 Scenarios: WHAT DO YOU DO? Although you’ve planned a reasonable agenda, you find that you consistently run out of time to cover everything. What do you do? You ask your students a question, and no one answers…ever. What do you do?