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Phonetics Cinzia Giglioni Università della Valle d’Aosta.

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Presentation on theme: "Phonetics Cinzia Giglioni Università della Valle d’Aosta."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phonetics Cinzia Giglioni Università della Valle d’Aosta

2 Task 1 Match the terms 1 – 3 with the definitions A – C. 1.Stress 2.Phoneme 3.Intonation A.The music of our voices B.Giving emphasis to one syllable C.An individual sound

3 Match the terms 1 – 3 with the definitions A – C. 1.Stress 2.Phoneme 3.Intonation A.The music of our voices B.Giving emphasis to one syllable C.An individual sound Task 1

4 Match the terms 1 – 3 with the definitions A – C. 1.An individual sound is mispronounced 2.A request is made with very flat intonation 3.The wrong syllable is stressed in a word A.The word is incomprehensible B.The listener might understand “bin” when the speaker wanted to say “pin” C.The speaker can sound arrogant and demanding Task 2

5 Match the terms 1 – 3 with the definitions A – C. 1.An individual sound is mispronounced 2.A request is made with very flat intonation 3.The wrong syllable is stressed in a word A.The word is incomprehensible B.The listener might understand “bin” when the speaker wanted to say “pin” C.The speaker can sound arrogant and demanding Task 2

6 ?

7 INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET(IPA)

8 SYMBOLS …from Latin: e.g. /m//v// ɑ / …from Greek: e.g. /θ//ð//ʊ/ …created:/ŋ/ …and the diacritic symbols:/ ː //'// ˌ /

9 Aims of the lesson: Becoming more aware of how and why we use English sounds (language awareness, metalinguistic analysis) Improving English pronunciation

10 MINIMAL PAIRS 3 θriː tinkæt triː θɪn hæt

11 Let’s compare! Italian sounds which don’t exist in English Examples of English sounds which don’t exist in Italian Consonants /λ/ aglio /ɲ/ gnomo /dz/ zelo /ts/ zio Vowels /ə/ about /ɜ:/ bird /æ/ cat /ɪ:/ see Diphthongs /aʊ/ now /əʊ/ go /eə/ there Consonants /ð/ then /θ/ thin /ɳ/ long /ʒ / measure

12 Let’s compare! 7 vowels 23 consonants 12 vowels 8 diphtongs 24 consonants = 30 = 44

13 Consonants and their symbols /b/ as in bag /d/ as in dog /f/ as in fat /g/ as in good /h/ as in hat /l/ as in late /m/ as in man /n/ as in note /p/ as in pot /r/ as in rope /s/ as in sock /t/ as in tear /v/ as in vowel /w/ as in worm /z/ as in zoo

14 Other familiar symbols, but… /k/cake, crack, ache, stomach /g/get, give; NO: gem /h/happy, here; NO: thirsty, show, Thomas, hour, heir, /j/your, yes, cute; NO: jam /s/piece/peace, sell/cell, /z/zone, lazy, nose/knows, NO: pizza

15 Confusion between spellings and sounds beat, seed, piece, machine /i:/ day, veil, obey /eı/ shoe, sugar, issue, mansion, mission, nation, suspicion, ocean, conscious, chaperon, schist, fuchsia /∫/ one single sound may correspond to more than one letter

16 Confusion between spellings and sounds man car name /æ/ man /α:/ car /e ɪ / name /t∫/ cheese, church, cheap /∫/ chalet, champagne, Chigago, chic /k/ character, chemistry, chaos

17 Confusion between spellings and sounds: silent letters in subtle, doubt, comb, lamb in answer in knife, know, knight in bright, light, night in name, time, goose

18 Silent letters – Which letters are silent in the following words? tomb whistle folk Greenwich pneumatic soften dumb honest receipt weigh debt psychiatry column scissors knot comb heir aisle

19 Homophones: flour, flower

20 He took a bow at the end of the concert /baʊ/ He was wearing a bow tie /bəʊ/ Homographs

21 Words, words, words…. WORD STRESS Melancholic ˌ meləŋ’kɒlɪk Secondary stress Primary stress

22 STRESS SHIFT afternoonafternoon tea Japanese Japanese Girl weekendweekend traffic

23 Classic Italian-speakers errors adjective, colleague, canal, report…… IN COMPOUNDS , home-page, web-site, chat-line

24 ASSIMILATION a consonant sound at the end of a word becomes similar to a consonant sound at the beginning of another word: /s + ʃ/  /ʃ:/ this shop /ðɪʃ’ʃɒp/ /t + k/  /k:/that cake /ðæk’keɪk/ /t + g/  /g:/ greet guests /gri:g’gests/

25 LINKING /r/ Normally /r/ is not pronounced in the final position in BBC English. In connected speech, however, the final spelling ‘r’ of a word is pronounced if the first sound of the next word is a vowel: That’s my car /ka:/ That car is new. /ka:r ɪz nju:/

26 INTRUSIVE CONSONANTS :/j/ /w/ - if the first word ends in /ɪ/ and the next word starts with any vowel sound, we add /j/ every ear /evrɪ ʲɪə/ sounds like every year - if the first word ends with /u:/ or /ʊ/ and the next word starts with any vowel sound, we add /w/ you ache /ju: ʷeɪk/ sounds like you wake

27 ELISION a sound which would be present in a word spoken in isolation is omitted in connected speech, e.g.:omission of /t/, omission of /d/ next please /neks pli:z/ I don’t know /ai dəʊ nəʊ/ you and me /ju: ən mi:/ stand there /stæn ðeə/

28 VOWEL REDUCTION If you say the following sentences rapidly, stressing the underlined syllables: You and me I wish you would tell me You will notice that in the second sentence the vowels in these two words are reduced, i.e. become shorter and less clear: /ju: ən mi:/ /aɪ ’wɪʃ jʊ wʊd ‘tel mɪ/

29 STRONG AND WEAK FORMS strong form weak form and /ænd//ən/ of /ɒv/ /əv/ you/ju://jʊ/ does/dʌz//dəz/ have /hæv//həv/ /əv/

30 INTONATION I had coffee cake and honey I had coffee, cake and honey

31 FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION 1.INDICATOR OF ATTITUDE - expresses our attitude at the moment of speaking to the situation we are in, or to what we are talking about, or to ourselves or to our listener; 2.GRAMMATICAL INDICATOR - indicates if our utterance is a declarative sentence, an imperative, an exclamation, a question; 3.DISCOURSE INDICATOR – reveals the relationship between utterances and information throughout the discourse.

32 Exercises

33 1. In each of these groups of words, one word is exactly the same as in normal letters. Underline it. Then write the others in normal letters. /'pensəl/ /'peɪpə/ /pen/ /'nəʊtbʊk/ /desk/ /fæks/ /kəm'pju ː tə/ /'telɪfəʊn/ /nek/ /hed/ /hænd/ /leg/ /hen/ /pɪg/ /ʃi ː p/ /kaʊ/ /gri ː n/ /blu ː / /red/ /blæk/ /get/ /teɪk/ /gɪv/ /gəʊ/ /'sevən//ten/ /θri ː / /faɪv/

34 1. KEY pencil paper pen notebook desk fax computer telephone neck head hand leg hen pig sheep cow green blue red black get take give go seven ten three five

35 2. Here is a list of different activities. In each one, one of the words is written with phonemic symbols. Write it in normal letters. Ski /dʒʌmpɪŋ/ /wɒʃɪŋ/ the dishes /ju ː zɪŋ/ a computer /sɪŋɪŋ/ a song /θɪŋkɪŋ/ about something /pleɪjɪŋ/ games

36 2. KEY Ski jumping washing the dishes using a computer singing a song thinking about something playing games

37 3. Long vs. short vowels bee sheet bit cat food cangaroo put third but core far marsh (fever) set

38 3. KEY Long bee sheet food cangaroo third core far marsh Short bit cat put but set

39 4. Insert the missing words /i:/ / ɪ/ /e/æ bead bet did ken lad seat

40 4. KEY /i:/ / ɪ/ /e/æ beadbidbedbad beatbitbetbat deeddiddeaddad keenkinkencan leadlidledlad seatsitsetsat

41 5. Diphthongs: identify the words 1./ʧaɪld/ 2./’weɪʤɪz/ 3./ʃaʊt/ 4./ʧɔɪs/ 5./ʃaɪ/ 6./’deɪnʤə/ 7./en’ʤɔɪd/ 8./’aɪðə/ 9./ʃaʊə/

42 5. KEYS 1./ʧaɪld/ 2./’weɪʤɪz/ 3./ʃaʊt/ 4./ʧɔɪs/ 5./ʃaɪ/ 6./’deɪnʤə/ 7./en’ʤɔɪd/ 8./’aɪðə/ 9./ʃaʊə/ 1.Child 2.Wages 3.Shout 4.Choice 5.Shy 6.Danger 7.Enjoyed 8.Either 9.shower

43 6.Identify the correct transcription Soul a./s ɒl/ b./s ɔ:l/ c./sə ʊl/ Throw a./θr ɔ:/ b./θr əʊ/ c./θr u:/ Sew a./s ɔ:/ b./s əʊ/ c./sj u:/ Ought a./ ɔ:t/ b./ əʊt/ c./ ɒt/

44 6.KEY Soul a./s ɒl/ b./s ɔ:l/ c./sə ʊl/ Throw a./θr ɔ:/ b./θr əʊ/ c./θr u:/ Sew a./s ɔ:/ b./s əʊ/ c./sj u:/ Ought a./ ɔ:t/ b./ əʊt/ c./ ɒt/

45 7. For each of the following words, choose the correct vowel sound foot – a) /ʊ/ – b) /u:/ – c) /əʊ/ stir – a) /ɜː/ – b) /ɪ/ – c) /ə/ want – a) / ɑː / – b) /ɒ/ – c) /ə/ clear – a) /i:/ – b) /ə/ – c) /ɪə/ straw – a) /ɜ:/ – b) /ɔ:/ – c) /ʌ/

46 7.KEY foot a) /ʊ/ stir a) /ɜ:/ Want b) /ɒ/ clear – c) /ɪə/ straw – b) /ɔ:/

47 8. Match the word and the phonetic transcription 1) orange 2) women 3) quay/key 4) children 5) ceiling 6) this 7) these 8) machine 9) minute 10) promise 11) cottage 12) language a) / mə’ʃi:n/ b) /’si:lɪɳ/ c) /ði:z/ d) /’læɳgwɪdʒ/ e) /’ɒrɪndʒ/ f) /’wɪmɪn/ g) /ðɪs/ h) /’tʃɪldrən/ i) /’prɒmɪs/ j) /’kɒtɪdʒ/ k) /’mɪnɪt/ l) /ki:/

48 8. KEY 1-e8-a 2-f 9-k 3-l10-i 4-h11-j 5-b12-d 6-g 7-c

49 9. Choose the word which matches the phonetic transcription 1) /maʊðz/ a) mouths b) months c) mouse 2) /nəʊ/a) nor b) now c) know/no 3) /praʊd/a) pride b) proud c) prude 4) /fɪəʳ/a) fear b) fair c) far

50 9. KEY 1)A 2)C 3)B 4)A

51 10. Words commonly mispronounced. Guess what these words are 1./wɜ:d/ /əʊnli/ /frʌnt/ /'eəriə/ /pla:nt/ /vəraɪəti/ /peərənt/ /ðeə/ laɪən/ /breθ/ /bri:ð/ /rɪ'si:t/ /mə’tjuə/ /hɪə/ /ri:dʒən/ ……… 16./dɪ'li:t/ /bækwəd/ /fo:wəd/ /pə’tɪkjələ/ /nʌθɪɳ/

52 10. KEY 1)word10)breath19)particular 2)only11) breathe20) nothing 3)front12)receipt 4)area13) mature 5)plant14)hear-here 6)variety15)region 7)parent16)delete 8)there17)backward 9)lion18)forward

53 Links /pron_chart/pron_chart.shtml ng/recognising/homophones/quiz.shtml h/flashin.htm


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