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ReligiousSettlement The Impact and Implications of the Religious Settlement.

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1 ReligiousSettlement The Impact and Implications of the Religious Settlement

2 Introduction E lizabeth hoped the Religious Settlement would appeal to most people but in reality it probably created more problems than it solved. Major Problems CatholicOpposition Which resulted in Elizabeth making concessionsProtestantConcerns Over the omission of a statement of faith in the Settlement Issues that determined Catholic support or opposition ForeignPolicySuccessionMarriagePope’sReaction

3 Problems Arising from the Religious Settlement 1563-1572 Problems Quality of the Clergy Poorly educated Poorly trained Catholic clergy who conformed lacked conviction Government’sResponse Key Appointments Matthew Parker as Archbishop of Canterbury Key Protestants and Marian exiles to bishoprics Confusion over Doctrine Protestants concerned the Settlement did not include an enunciation of Protestant doctrine Puritan Opposition Led to Vestments controversy (see p 198) Key Publications Injunctions 39 Articles Commissioners also investigated breaches of the Prayer Book Catholic Opposition Opposition to Elizabeth as Supreme Governor Northern Rebellions Restoration of Mary & Catholicism Failed to Make Concessions Clergy resigned Resulted in Puritanism Turned to Presbyterianism Quashed Opposition Put down rebellions Executed rebel leaders Imprisoned Mary

4 The Northern Rebellion 1569 Was the Northern Rebellion a serious threat to Elizabeth? It’s Significance  The first in a series of rebellions.  C Conspiracy centred around Mary Queen of Scots.  Ushered in a turbulent period in foreign affairs. Elizabeth’s Concerns T hat her failure to marry and produce an heir to the throne would open the way for a legitimate Catholic claimant to the throne of England. W hen Mary Queen of Scots arrived in England in 1568 she became the focal point and catalyst of Catholic Opposition. Rebels Thomas Howard (Duke of Norfolk) Thomas Percy (Earl of Northumberland) Charles Neville (Earl of Westmorland De Spes (Spanish Ambassador) Earl of Sussex

5 What factors caused the rebellion? Reasons for the Rebellion 17.5: ‘contrarie to God word’ 17.6: Opposition to the reformation & support of Mary 17.7: Business matters 17.8: Forced to rebel 17.11: Protestantism a threat to the realm 17.12: Resentment towards Elizabeth’s authority 17.8: Fight against evil H aigh believed the Northern Rebellion was a major threat to Elizabeth. Elizabeth’s response shows how seriously she took the rebellion. She….  Had 450 people executed.  Land confiscated.  The Council of the North was restored under the leadership of the Puritan Earl of Huntington.  Catholic supporters of the rebellion punished.

6 Problems Caused by the Settlement U p until 1568 Elizabeth’s middle-of-the-road, broad- based church was a success. The Success of the Settlement CatholicsConformedOutwardlyNorthernRebellionQuashedSettlementRefined Injunctions Injunctions& 39 Articles Introduced F rom 1568 Elizabeth encountered significant Catholic Opposition.

7 ReligiousSettlement Catholic Opposition

8 Introduction P urpose of the Religious Settlement was to…..  E Establish o oo outward conformity. N ot to…..  E Examine i ii inward reality. Traditional View (A.G. Dickens) B y 1558 majority of Englishmen were….  R Receptive to a Protestant national Church  R Ready to become loyal Anglicans. T hat a minority group of Catholics continued in their support of the Pope and Mary, Queen of Scots, which resulted in them……  B Being branded traitors.  B Becoming the target of repressive measures. T raditional historians argue that Elizabeth was more concerned with countering any political threat than punishing someone for religious non-conformity. R Revisionists have raised serious questions about the Traditional view however.

9 Why was Elizabeth so accommodating of Catholics? Revisionist View E ngland was still largely Catholic, particularly outside of London and in the north in 1559. This would suggest that…….  The majority of the population was Catholic.  Catholic opposition was not restricted to a minority group of extremists. C atholic opposition in the House of Lords supports this view. This also explains Elizabeth’s concessions to Catholics in the Religious Settlement. She retained some of the outward symbolism of the old faith in an attempt to win them over to Protestantism. T o have enforced the Religious Settlement with heavy-handed tactics would have led to….  The outbreak of civil war.  I Isolating Catholic gentry – and she needed their support to enforce the law and govern the localities.

10 Who were these Catholics? CatholicOpposition Church Papists Recusants Seminary Priests Jesuits

11 The Threat of Mary, Queen of Scots H istorians are divided in their assessment of Mary. Assessment of Mary Tragic, Misguided FigureCalculating and Dangerous T hey are also divided over the wisdom of Elizabeth’s decision to have her executed in 1587. Was it a….. S SS Serious blunder or a P PP Political Necessity? Why was Mary a problem for Elizabeth?  L Legitimate claimant to the English throne.  She was both half-French and Catholic. T his threatened England’s political independence and Protestant religion. Elizabeth didn’t help her cause….  B B B By Failing to Marry or Name a Successor!

12 M ost Catholics in England placed their allegiance for Elizabeth before that of the Pope. In other words they were…. E EE Englishmen b bb before they were C CC Catholics! W hen relationships between England and Spain soured in 1569 Spain began supporting Mary’s claim to the English throne.  They supported Elizabeth but…... hey wanted Mary recognised as Elizabeth’s heir. Was it real or imagined? Mary’s Claim to the Throne of England T here is no doubt that Mary’s hasty and untimely arrival in England after her abdication in 1568 created a serious problem for Elizabeth; Problems  To support Mary would be to reject those who deposed her ( Protestant nobles in Scotland) o insist Mary be restored to the throne could result in making enemies of potential allies

13 Elizabeth’s Options S he could return Mary to Scotland to face trial and possible execution.  E Elizabeth rejected this option because of her belief in the Sanctity of Princes! (see source 18.9, p 183) #1 #2 S he could return Mary to her family in France.  E Elizabeth rejected this option because it might revive the old Franco-Scottish connection. The Guises could intervene in Scotland and this would pose an even greater threat to Elizabeth. #3 S he could permit Mary to stay in England.  T This is exactly what Elizabeth did. She permitted Mary to stay in England as her prisoner. T he problem was that during her 18 years imprisonment Mary remained a constant threat as she became the…  S S S Symbol of Hope for Disenchanted Catholics in England.  R R R Rallying-point for Catholic Opposition! U ntil her execution in 1587 Mary was linked with a number of Catholic plots to assassinate Elizabeth.

14 Catholic Threats Key Events NorthernRebellion1569 Bull of Excommunication1570 The Ridolfi Plot 1571 The Throckmorton Plot 1583 The Babington Plot Plot1586 The Northern Rebellion 1569 Court conspiracy to have Norfolk marry Mary Court conspiracy to have Norfolk marry Mary Mary to be proclaimed heir to English throne Mary to be proclaimed heir to English throne Catholicism restored –Elizabeth & Cecil ousted Catholicism restored –Elizabeth & Cecil ousted Privy Council’s Response Demanded Norfolk's execution Demanded Norfolk's execution Parliament’s Response Parliament not called to discuss the matter Parliament not called to discuss the matter Elizabeth’s Response Wanted Mary restored to Scottish throne Wanted Mary restored to Scottish throne Sent force to subdued Mary’s supporters Sent force to subdued Mary’s supporters The Papal Bull of Excommunication 1570 Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth Pius V considers Elizabeth a heretic Pius V considers Elizabeth a heretic Pius calls on Catholics to depose Elizabeth Pius calls on Catholics to depose Elizabeth Parliament’s Response Increased security of Elizabeth Increased security of Elizabeth Privy Council’s Response Increases security to ensure the safety of Elizabeth Increases security to ensure the safety of Elizabeth Parliament’s Response Introduce TREASON ACTS that make it an offense to: Introduce TREASON ACTS that make it an offense to: 1.Challenge legitimacy of Elizabeth as Queen 2.Introduce or publish any Papal Bulls in England The Ridolfi Plot 1571 After excommunication Norfolk plans After excommunication Norfolk plans uprising uprising Plan included Philip II of Spain & the Pope Plan included Philip II of Spain & the Pope Cecil discovered the plan Cecil discovered the plan Privy Council’s Response Demanded execution of Norfolk Demanded execution of Norfolk Initiated Parliamentary Bills against Mary Initiated Parliamentary Bills against Mary Parliament’s Response Passed two Bills: 1. Prohibited the Papal from being brought into England. 2. Treason to deny Elizabeth as rightful Queen Passed two Bills: 1. Prohibited the Papal from being brought into England. 2. Treason to deny Elizabeth as rightful Queen Elizabeth’s Response Agreed to Norfolk’s execution to placate the Agreed to Norfolk’s execution to placate the House of Commons House of Commons Refused to sign Mary’s death warrant Refused to sign Mary’s death warrant The Throckmorton Plot 1583 French forces to invade England, free Mary and created popular Catholic uprising French forces to invade England, free Mary and created popular Catholic uprising Privy Council’s Response Throckmorton tortured & executed Throckmorton tortured & executed Spanish Ambassador, De Mendoza expelled Spanish Ambassador, De Mendoza expelled Parliament’s Response Priests expelled from England Priests expelled from England Treason to become a Catholic priest Treason to become a Catholic priest Death penalty for aiding Catholic priests Death penalty for aiding Catholic priests Elizabeth’s Response Concerned for James future The Babington Plot 1586 Walsingham’s agents intercept a letter from Walsingham’s agents intercept a letter from Mary endorsing the murder of Elizabeth Privy Council’s Response Persuade Elizabeth to bring Mary to trial Push Elizabeth to sign Mary’s death warrant Parliament’s Response Demands execution of Mary Demands execution of Mary Elizabeth’s Response Orders Babington and plotters to be hanged Wanted an alternative punishment for Mary Signed warrant after initial indecision Blamed her secretary William Davidson

15 Was Mary Stuart a Genuine Threat? Yes!No! L egitimate heir to the English throne N atural leader of English Catholics C ause of the Northern Rebellion S upported by Guises of France, Philip II of Spain & the Pope I nstigated the Babington Plot to Murder Elizabeth H enry VIII excluded Stuart succession V iewed as a foreign threat E nglish Catholics were loyal to Elizabeth U pset at Darnley scandal L ittle support elsewhere F rance preoccupied with Civil War – 1562-93 S pain preoccupied with Netherlands & Turks P apal Bull issued too late to cause a Catholic uprising E nglish Catholics upset by Mary’s involvement in the plot & opposed foreign intervention

16 Why The Delay in Executing Mary?  M M ary’s execution would increase Catholic opposition at home and in Europe.  U U sing Mary as a hostage ensured France would not act aggressively toward England.  I I t almost guaranteed Philip II of Spain would not attempt to dethrone Elizabeth. If he did it would only serve to strengthen Mary and French political ambitions for England. IIt was a more merciful, wise and courageous decision. B ut most historians agree that while the plots against Elizabeth never developed into a serious threat, the execution of Mary Stuart was a political necessity. W hile Mary remained alive concerns over Catholicism, succession and national security would remain. Conclusion

17 ReligiousSettlement Puritan Opposition

18 Introduction Who are the Puritans? W hile most historians agree that Elizabeth’s main opposition came from Catholics it is important to consider the threat posed by Puritans (Puritan Choir). The word ‘Puritan’ comes from the word ‘pure.’ They wanted the faith of the Church of England to be rid of mediocrity and its forms of worship to be simple, biblical and free of the influences of Catholicism.   T  They were considered fanatical, left wing and very religious’, ‘ Godly Protestants’ or ‘Hotter sort of Protestants.’  M Most were Marian exiles had been influenced by the reformer John Calvin and his Godly society in Geneva. TTheir religious ideas, actions and practice, along with their views on Church organization led to conflict with the Church of England.

19 Why such a radical approach?  I Influence and impact of Popular Religion. T hey were concerned about:  I Ignorance of the people on matters of religion.  O Ongoing influence of Catholicism.  P Parish Anglicans who were more concerned about outward conformity than inward reality. Was Puritanism at this stage a ‘mindset’ or a ‘movement?’

20 A Mindset or Movement? Some historians have identified THREE strands of Puritanism. All three offered Elizabeth a challenge. ModeratesPresbyteriansSeparatists The Three Strands of Puritanism Upset at imposition of Religious Settlement without consultation. Reluctantly accepted the established church. Wanted Doctrine and Prayer book to be more Calvinistic. Worked within the Church to initiate change. (Read p 196-198 for additional notes, Particularly on the Vestments/Vestarian Controversy) Small influential group. Wanted Church government reformed. Used their position in Parliament to initiate change. Thomas Cartwright key person. (Read p 199-200 for additional notes) I nitially Puritanism was a ‘mind-set’ rather than an organized movement independent of the Church of England. By the reign of Charles I however, it had become a highly organized and influential movement that worked in opposition to the King W orked outside the Church and wanted reforms that would see:  The national church disbanded  Each parish determine its own direction. (Read p 201-203 for additional notes-particularly those on prophesying & Classical Presbyterianism.

21 How Successful was the Puritan Opposition? W hile most historians agree that major opposition came from Catholics it would be a mistake to discount entirely the threat of the Puritan Choir.   I  If the Puritan Choir was a threat it certainly was not on the same scale as the threat posed by the Catholics. Government Suppression E lizabeth viewed the Puritans with a great deal of suspicion. As a result she attempted to moderate their influence by:  Her policy of religious uniformity  J John Whitgift’s commitment to enforcing this policy T his forced Puritan’s to leave the Church of England to establish their own Separatist Church. While some believe Whitgift broke the back of Puritanism the fact that were instrumental in bringing about the downfall of Charles I in 1640s suggests otherwise.  T The execution of Puritan extremists whose opposition was considered S editious!


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