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The Impact and Implications of the Religious Settlement

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1 The Impact and Implications of the Religious Settlement

2 Issues that determined Catholic support or opposition
Introduction Elizabeth hoped the Religious Settlement would appeal to most people but in reality it probably created more problems than it solved. Major Problems Catholic Opposition Which resulted in Elizabeth making concessions Protestant Concerns Over the omission of a statement of faith in the Settlement Elizabeth and her government can have had no illusions about the difficulty of creating a religious settlement which pleased even the majority of her subjects, let alone the whole nation. They may have assumed following the persecution that took place in Mary’s reign, that a Protestant settlement was more acceptable to a wider range of clergy and laity. If this is so, the resistance of Catholics in the House of Lords would have been a rude awakening. Elizabeth responded by making a significant concessions to placate conservative opinion. The having enshrined the settlement in law, she saw no need for any further discussion on the subject of religion. This however proved impossible because the 1559 Religious Settlement contained no statement of faith, a deliberate omission that committed churchmen of various persuasions wanted to fill to their advantage. From the start, therefore, the Religious Settlement was bound to cause problems with Protestants who saw it only the first step on the road to establishing a doctrine in line with Calvinist theology. How far the Settlement would cause problems with the Catholics depended on foreign policy issues, Elizabeth's marriage, the succession, and above all on the Popes reaction. Issues that determined Catholic support or opposition Foreign Policy Succession Marriage Pope’s Reaction

3 Problems Arising from the Religious Settlement 1563-1572
Government’s Response Quality of the Clergy Poorly educated Poorly trained Catholic clergy who conformed lacked conviction Key Appointments Matthew Parker as Archbishop of Canterbury Key Protestants and Marian exiles to bishoprics Confusion over Doctrine Protestants concerned the Settlement did not include an enunciation of Protestant doctrine Key Publications Injunctions 39 Articles Commissioners also investigated breaches of the Prayer Book Puritan Opposition Led to Vestments controversy (see p 198) Failed to Make Concessions Clergy resigned Resulted in Puritanism Turned to Presbyterianism Catholic Opposition Opposition to Elizabeth as Supreme Governor Northern Rebellions Restoration of Mary & Catholicism Quashed Opposition Put down rebellions Executed rebel leaders Imprisoned Mary

4 The Northern Rebellion 1569
Was the Northern Rebellion a serious threat to Elizabeth? It’s Significance The first in a series of rebellions. Conspiracy centred around Mary Queen of Scots. Ushered in a turbulent period in foreign affairs. Elizabeth’s Concerns The northern rebellion was the first of a series of conspiracies centered around Mary, Queen of Scots, who arrived in England in 1568 expecting Elizabeth's support. Her arrival ended any hopes that Catholicism would wither away gently and heralded the start of a turbulent period in foreign affairs. Such as the English seizure of Spanish bullion ships on their way to Europe from the New World in 1568 ended the uneasy friendship between the two countries. Elizabeth's failure to marry and produce a Protestant heir meant there was no guarantee than the Religious Settlement of 1559 would last. The chief fear of Elizabeth and her councillors – that a legitimate Catholic claimant to the throne might try to overthrow Elizabeth with foreign and English support – had materialised in the form of Mary, Queen of Scots. HOWARD – a leading english noble he consipired to marry Mary Queen of Scots, to secure her succession to the English throne. He was supported by some of Eliz courtiers, including Leicester who wanted to discredit Cecil. When the conspiracy was discovered Norfolk fled from court, urged his co-conspirators Northumberland and Westmorland not to carry out the rebellion, and threw himself on the mercy of the Queen. He was imprisioned. PERCY – was willing to rise in support of restoring Catholicism, but did not want Mary and Howard to marry. NEVILLE – brother in law to Howard, an early conspirators. DE SPES – spanish ambassador wrote to Phillip II and was optimistic about the outcome of a Catholic uprising against Eliz. SUSSEX - president of the northern council, did question Percy and Neville regarding a possible plot and was assured loyalty. That her failure to marry and produce an heir to the throne would open the way for a legitimate Catholic claimant to the throne of England. When Mary Queen of Scots arrived in England in 1568 she became the focal point and catalyst of Catholic Opposition. Thomas Percy (Earl of Northumberland) Earl of Sussex Thomas Howard (Duke of Norfolk) Rebels De Spes (Spanish Ambassador) Charles Neville (Earl of Westmorland

5 What factors caused the rebellion?
17.6: Opposition to the reformation & support of Mary 17.5: ‘contrarie to God word’ 17.7: Business matters Reasons for the Rebellion 17.8: Fight against evil 17.8: Forced to rebel 17.12: Resentment towards Elizabeth’s authority 17.11: Protestantism a threat to the realm Haigh believed the Northern Rebellion was a major threat to Elizabeth. Elizabeth’s response shows how seriously she took the rebellion. She…. Had 450 people executed. Land confiscated. Catholic supporters of the rebellion punished. The Council of the North was restored under the leadership of the Puritan Earl of Huntington.

6 Success of the Settlement
Problems Caused by the Settlement Up until 1568 Elizabeth’s middle-of-the-road, broad- based church was a success. The Success of the Settlement Settlement Refined Injunctions & 39 Articles Introduced Catholics Conformed Outwardly Northern Rebellion Quashed From 1568 Elizabeth encountered significant Catholic Opposition.

7 Religious Settlement Catholic Opposition

8 Introduction Purpose of the Religious Settlement was to….. Establish outward conformity. Not to….. Examine inward reality. Traditional View (A.G. Dickens) By 1558 majority of Englishmen were…. Receptive to a Protestant national Church Ready to become loyal Anglicans. That a minority group of Catholics continued in their support of the Pope and Mary, Queen of Scots, which resulted in them…… Being branded traitors. Becoming the target of repressive measures. Traditional historians argue that Elizabeth was more concerned with countering any political threat than punishing someone for religious non-conformity. Revisionists have raised serious questions about the Traditional view however.

9 Why was Elizabeth so accommodating of Catholics?
Revisionist View England was still largely Catholic, particularly outside of London and in the north in This would suggest that……. The majority of the population was Catholic. Catholic opposition was not restricted to a minority group of extremists. Catholic opposition in the House of Lords supports this view. This also explains Elizabeth’s concessions to Catholics in the Religious Settlement. She retained some of the outward symbolism of the old faith in an attempt to win them over to Protestantism. Why was Elizabeth so accommodating of Catholics? To have enforced the Religious Settlement with heavy-handed tactics would have led to…. The outbreak of civil war. Isolating Catholic gentry – and she needed their support to enforce the law and govern the localities.

10 Who were these Catholics?
Church Papists Recusants Catholic Opposition Seminary Priests Jesuits

11 Why was Mary a problem for Elizabeth didn’t help her cause….
The Threat of Mary, Queen of Scots Historians are divided in their assessment of Mary. Assessment of Mary Tragic, Misguided Figure Calculating and Dangerous They are also divided over the wisdom of Elizabeth’s decision to have her executed in Was it a….. Serious blunder or a Political Necessity? Why was Mary a problem for Elizabeth? Legitimate claimant to the English throne. She was both half-French and Catholic. This threatened England’s political independence and Protestant religion. Elizabeth didn’t help her cause…. By Failing to Marry or Name a Successor!

12 Most Catholics in England placed their allegiance for
Elizabeth before that of the Pope. In other words they were…. Englishmen before they were Catholics! They supported Elizabeth but…... They wanted Mary recognised as Elizabeth’s heir. When relationships between England and Spain soured in 1569 Spain began supporting Mary’s claim to the English throne. Mary’s Claim to the Throne of England Was it real or imagined? There is no doubt that Mary’s hasty and untimely arrival in England after her abdication in 1568 created a serious problem for Elizabeth; Problems To support Mary would be to reject those who deposed her ( Protestant nobles in Scotland) To insist Mary be restored to the throne could result in making enemies of potential allies

13 #1 #2 #3 in England. Elizabeth’s Options
She could return Mary to Scotland to face trial and possible execution. Elizabeth rejected this option because of her belief in the Sanctity of Princes! (see source 18.9, p 183) #2 She could return Mary to her family in France. Elizabeth rejected this option because it might revive the old Franco-Scottish connection. The Guises could intervene in Scotland and this would pose an even greater threat to Elizabeth. #3 She could permit Mary to stay in England. This is exactly what Elizabeth did. She permitted Mary to stay in England as her prisoner. The problem was that during her 18 years imprisonment Mary remained a constant threat as she became the… Symbol of Hope for Disenchanted Catholics in England. Rallying-point for Catholic Opposition! Until her execution in 1587 Mary was linked with a number of Catholic plots to assassinate Elizabeth.

14 The Northern Rebellion 1569
Bull of Excommunication 1570 Catholic Threats Key Events The Northern Rebellion 1569 Court conspiracy to have Norfolk marry Mary Mary to be proclaimed heir to English throne Catholicism restored –Elizabeth & Cecil ousted Privy Council’s Response Demanded Norfolk's execution Parliament’s Response Parliament not called to discuss the matter Elizabeth’s Response Wanted Mary restored to Scottish throne Sent force to subdued Mary’s supporters The Babington Plot 1586 The Ridolfi Plot 1571 The Papal Bull of Excommunication 1570 Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth Pius V considers Elizabeth a heretic Pius calls on Catholics to depose Elizabeth Parliament’s Response Increased security of Elizabeth Privy Council’s Response Increases security to ensure the safety of Elizabeth Introduce TREASON ACTS that make it an offense to: Challenge legitimacy of Elizabeth as Queen Introduce or publish any Papal Bulls in England The Ridolfi Plot 1571 After excommunication Norfolk plans uprising Plan included Philip II of Spain & the Pope Cecil discovered the plan Privy Council’s Response Demanded execution of Norfolk Initiated Parliamentary Bills against Mary Parliament’s Response Passed two Bills: 1. Prohibited the Papal from being brought into England. 2. Treason to deny Elizabeth as rightful Queen Elizabeth’s Response Agreed to Norfolk’s execution to placate the House of Commons Refused to sign Mary’s death warrant The Throckmorton Plot 1583 The Babington Plot 1586 Walsingham’s agents intercept a letter from Mary endorsing the murder of Elizabeth Privy Council’s Response Persuade Elizabeth to bring Mary to trial Push Elizabeth to sign Mary’s death warrant Parliament’s Response Demands execution of Mary Elizabeth’s Response Orders Babington and plotters to be hanged Wanted an alternative punishment for Mary Signed warrant after initial indecision Blamed her secretary William Davidson The Throckmorton Plot 1583 French forces to invade England, free Mary and created popular Catholic uprising Privy Council’s Response Throckmorton tortured & executed Spanish Ambassador, De Mendoza expelled Parliament’s Response Priests expelled from England Treason to become a Catholic priest Death penalty for aiding Catholic priests Elizabeth’s Response Concerned for James future ‘S

15 Yes! No! Was Mary Stuart a Genuine Threat? Henry VIII excluded
Legitimate heir to the English throne Henry VIII excluded Stuart succession Viewed as a foreign threat Natural leader of English Catholics English Catholics were loyal to Elizabeth Upset at Darnley scandal Little support elsewhere Cause of the Northern Rebellion France preoccupied with Civil War – Spain preoccupied with Netherlands & Turks Papal Bull issued too late to cause a Catholic uprising Supported by Guises of France, Philip II of Spain & the Pope English Catholics upset by Mary’s involvement in the plot & opposed foreign intervention Instigated the Babington Plot to Murder Elizabeth

16 Why The Delay in Executing Mary?
Mary’s execution would increase Catholic opposition at home and in Europe. Using Mary as a hostage ensured France would not act aggressively toward England. It almost guaranteed Philip II of Spain would not attempt to dethrone Elizabeth. If he did it would only serve to strengthen Mary and French political ambitions for England. It was a more merciful, wise and courageous decision. Conclusion While Mary remained alive concerns over Catholicism, succession and national security would remain. But most historians agree that while the plots against Elizabeth never developed into a serious threat, the execution of Mary Stuart was a political necessity.

17 Religious Settlement Puritan Opposition

18 ‘Hotter sort of Protestants.’
Introduction While most historians agree that Elizabeth’s main opposition came from Catholics it is important to consider the threat posed by Puritans (Puritan Choir). Who are the Puritans? Most were Marian exiles had been influenced by the reformer John Calvin and his Godly society in Geneva. The word ‘Puritan’ comes from the word ‘pure.’ They wanted the faith of the Church of England to be rid of mediocrity and its forms of worship to be simple, biblical and free of the influences of Catholicism. They were considered fanatical, left wing and very religious’, ‘Godly Protestants’ or ‘Hotter sort of Protestants.’ Their religious ideas, actions and practice, along with their views on Church organization led to conflict with the Church of England.

19 Why such a radical approach?
They were concerned about: Influence and impact of Popular Religion. Ongoing influence of Catholicism. Ignorance of the people on matters of religion. Parish Anglicans who were more concerned about outward conformity than inward reality. Was Puritanism at this stage a ‘mindset’ or a ‘movement?’

20 Initially Puritanism was a ‘mind-set’ rather than an
A Mindset or Movement? Initially Puritanism was a ‘mind-set’ rather than an organized movement independent of the Church of England. By the reign of Charles I however, it had become a highly organized and influential movement that worked in opposition to the King Some historians have identified THREE strands of Puritanism. All three offered Elizabeth a challenge. The Three Strands of Puritanism Worked outside the Church and wanted reforms that would see: The national church disbanded Each parish determine its own direction. (Read p for additional notes-particularly those on prophesying & Classical Presbyterianism. Moderates Presbyterians Separatists Upset at imposition of Religious Settlement without consultation. Reluctantly accepted the established church. Wanted Doctrine and Prayer book to be more Calvinistic. Worked within the Church to initiate change. (Read p for additional notes, Particularly on the Vestments/Vestarian Controversy) Small influential group. Wanted Church government reformed. Used their position in Parliament to initiate change. Thomas Cartwright key person. (Read p for additional notes)

21 the Puritan Opposition? Government Suppression
How Successful was the Puritan Opposition? While most historians agree that major opposition came from Catholics it would be a mistake to discount entirely the threat of the Puritan Choir. If the Puritan Choir was a threat it certainly was not on the same scale as the threat posed by the Catholics. Government Suppression Elizabeth viewed the Puritans with a great deal of suspicion. As a result she attempted to moderate their influence by: Her policy of religious uniformity John Whitgift’s commitment to enforcing this policy The execution of Puritan extremists whose opposition was considered Seditious! This forced Puritan’s to leave the Church of England to establish their own Separatist Church. While some believe Whitgift broke the back of Puritanism the fact that were instrumental in bringing about the downfall of Charles I in 1640s suggests otherwise.

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