Presentation on theme: "The Impact and Implications of the Religious Settlement"— Presentation transcript:
1The Impact and Implications of the Religious Settlement
2Issues that determined Catholic support or opposition IntroductionElizabeth hoped the Religious Settlement wouldappeal to most people but in reality it probablycreated more problems than it solved.MajorProblemsCatholicOppositionWhich resultedin ElizabethmakingconcessionsProtestantConcernsOver the omissionof a statementof faith in theSettlementElizabeth and her government can have had no illusions about the difficulty of creating a religious settlement which pleased even the majority of her subjects, let alone the whole nation. They may have assumed following the persecution that took place in Mary’s reign, that a Protestant settlement was more acceptable to a wider range of clergy and laity. If this is so, the resistance of Catholics in the House of Lords would have been a rude awakening. Elizabeth responded by making a significant concessions to placate conservative opinion. The having enshrined the settlement in law, she saw no need for any further discussion on the subject of religion. This however proved impossible because the 1559 Religious Settlement contained no statement of faith, a deliberate omission that committed churchmen of various persuasions wanted to fill to their advantage.From the start, therefore, the Religious Settlement was bound to cause problems with Protestants who saw it only the first step on the road to establishing a doctrine in line with Calvinist theology. How far the Settlement would cause problems with the Catholics depended on foreign policy issues, Elizabeth's marriage, the succession, and above all on the Popes reaction.Issues that determinedCatholic support or oppositionForeignPolicySuccessionMarriagePope’sReaction
3Problems Arising from the Religious Settlement 1563-1572 Government’sResponseQuality of the ClergyPoorly educatedPoorly trainedCatholic clergy whoconformed lackedconvictionKey AppointmentsMatthew Parker asArchbishop of CanterburyKey Protestants andMarian exiles to bishopricsConfusion over DoctrineProtestants concernedthe Settlement did notinclude an enunciationof Protestant doctrineKey PublicationsInjunctions39 ArticlesCommissioners alsoinvestigated breaches ofthe Prayer BookPuritan OppositionLed to Vestmentscontroversy (see p 198)Failed to Make ConcessionsClergy resignedResulted in PuritanismTurned to PresbyterianismCatholic OppositionOpposition to Elizabethas Supreme GovernorNorthern RebellionsRestoration of Mary& CatholicismQuashed OppositionPut down rebellionsExecuted rebel leadersImprisoned Mary
4The Northern Rebellion 1569 Was the Northern Rebellion a serious threatto Elizabeth?It’s SignificanceThe first in a series of rebellions.Conspiracy centred around Mary Queen of Scots.Ushered in a turbulent period in foreign affairs.Elizabeth’s ConcernsThe northern rebellion was the first of a series of conspiracies centered around Mary, Queen of Scots, who arrived in England in 1568 expecting Elizabeth's support. Her arrival ended any hopes that Catholicism would wither away gently and heralded the start of a turbulent period in foreign affairs. Such as the English seizure of Spanish bullion ships on their way to Europe from the New World in 1568 ended the uneasy friendship between the two countries.Elizabeth's failure to marry and produce a Protestant heir meant there was no guarantee than the Religious Settlement of 1559 would last. The chief fear of Elizabeth and her councillors – that a legitimate Catholic claimant to the throne might try to overthrow Elizabeth with foreign and English support – had materialised in the form of Mary, Queen of Scots.HOWARD – a leading english noble he consipired to marry Mary Queen of Scots, to secure her succession to the English throne. He was supported by some of Eliz courtiers, including Leicester who wanted to discredit Cecil. When the conspiracy was discovered Norfolk fled from court, urged his co-conspirators Northumberland and Westmorland not to carry out the rebellion, and threw himself on the mercy of the Queen. He was imprisioned.PERCY – was willing to rise in support of restoring Catholicism, but did not want Mary and Howard to marry.NEVILLE – brother in law to Howard, an early conspirators.DE SPES – spanish ambassador wrote to Phillip II and was optimistic about the outcome of a Catholic uprising against Eliz.SUSSEX - president of the northern council, did question Percy and Neville regarding a possible plot and was assured loyalty.That her failure to marry and produce an heirto the throne would open the way for a legitimateCatholic claimant to the throne of England.When Mary Queen of Scots arrived in England in1568 she became the focal point and catalyst ofCatholic Opposition.Thomas Percy(Earl of Northumberland)Earl of SussexThomas Howard(Duke of Norfolk)RebelsDe Spes(Spanish Ambassador)Charles Neville(Earl of Westmorland
5What factors caused the rebellion? 17.6: Oppositionto the reformation& support of Mary17.5: ‘contrarieto God word’17.7: BusinessmattersReasonsfor theRebellion17.8: Fightagainst evil17.8: Forced torebel17.12:ResentmenttowardsElizabeth’sauthority17.11:Protestantisma threat to therealmHaigh believed the Northern Rebellion was a majorthreat to Elizabeth. Elizabeth’s response shows howseriously she took the rebellion. She….Had 450 people executed.Land confiscated.Catholic supporters of the rebellion punished.The Council of the North was restored under theleadership of the Puritan Earl of Huntington.
6Success of the Settlement Problems Causedby theSettlementUp until 1568 Elizabeth’s middle-of-the-road, broad-based church was a success.TheSuccess of the SettlementSettlementRefinedInjunctions&39 ArticlesIntroducedCatholicsConformedOutwardlyNorthernRebellionQuashedFrom 1568 Elizabeth encountered significantCatholic Opposition.
8IntroductionPurpose of the Religious Settlement was to…..Establish outward conformity.Not to…..Examine inward reality.Traditional View(A.G. Dickens)By 1558 majority of Englishmen were….Receptive to a Protestant national ChurchReady to become loyal Anglicans.That a minority group of Catholics continued in theirsupport of the Pope and Mary, Queen of Scots, whichresulted in them……Being branded traitors.Becoming the target of repressive measures.Traditional historians argue that Elizabeth was moreconcerned with countering any political threat thanpunishing someone for religious non-conformity.Revisionists have raised serious questions about the Traditional view however.
9Why was Elizabeth so accommodating of Catholics? Revisionist ViewEngland was still largely Catholic, particularlyoutside of London and in the north in Thiswould suggest that…….The majority of the population was Catholic.Catholic opposition was not restricted to aminority group of extremists.Catholic opposition in the House of Lords supportsthis view. This also explains Elizabeth’s concessionsto Catholics in the Religious Settlement. She retainedsome of the outward symbolism of the old faith in anattempt to win them over to Protestantism.Why was Elizabeth so accommodating of Catholics?To have enforced the Religious Settlement withheavy-handed tactics would have led to….The outbreak of civil war.Isolating Catholic gentry – and she needed theirsupport to enforce the law and govern thelocalities.
10Who were these Catholics? Church PapistsRecusantsCatholicOppositionSeminary PriestsJesuits
11Why was Mary a problem for Elizabeth didn’t help her cause…. The Threat ofMary, Queen of ScotsHistorians are divided in their assessment of Mary.Assessment of MaryTragic, MisguidedFigureCalculatingand DangerousThey are also divided over the wisdom of Elizabeth’sdecision to have her executed in Was it a…..Serious blunder or a Political Necessity?Why was Mary a problem forElizabeth?Legitimate claimant to the English throne.She was both half-French and Catholic.This threatened England’s political independence andProtestant religion.Elizabeth didn’t help her cause….By Failing to Marry or Name a Successor!
12Most Catholics in England placed their allegiance for Elizabeth before that of the Pope. In other wordsthey were….Englishmen before they were Catholics!They supported Elizabeth but…...They wanted Mary recognised as Elizabeth’s heir.When relationships between England and Spainsoured in 1569 Spain began supporting Mary’s claimto the English throne.Mary’s Claimto theThrone of EnglandWas it real or imagined?There is no doubt that Mary’s hasty and untimelyarrival in England after her abdication in 1568created a serious problem for Elizabeth;ProblemsTo support Mary would be to reject those whodeposed her ( Protestant nobles in Scotland)To insist Mary be restored to the throne couldresult in making enemies of potential allies
13#1 #2 #3 in England. Elizabeth’s Options She could return Mary to Scotland to facetrial and possible execution.Elizabeth rejected this option because of her belief inthe Sanctity of Princes! (see source 18.9, p 183)#2She could return Mary to her family inFrance.Elizabeth rejected this option because it might revivethe old Franco-Scottish connection. The Guisescould intervene in Scotland and this would pose aneven greater threat to Elizabeth.#3She could permit Mary to stay in England.This is exactly what Elizabeth did. She permittedMary to stay in England as her prisoner.The problem was that during her 18 yearsimprisonment Mary remained a constant threat asshe became the…Symbol of Hope for Disenchanted Catholicsin England.Rallying-point for Catholic Opposition!Until her execution in 1587 Mary was linked witha number of Catholic plots to assassinate Elizabeth.
14The Northern Rebellion 1569 Bull ofExcommunication1570CatholicThreatsKey EventsThe Northern Rebellion1569Court conspiracy to have Norfolk marry MaryMary to be proclaimed heir to English throneCatholicism restored –Elizabeth & Cecil oustedPrivy Council’s ResponseDemanded Norfolk's executionParliament’s ResponseParliament not called to discuss the matterElizabeth’s ResponseWanted Mary restored to Scottish throneSent force to subdued Mary’s supportersThe BabingtonPlot1586The Ridolfi Plot1571The Papal Bull of Excommunication1570Pope Pius V excommunicates ElizabethPius V considers Elizabeth a hereticPius calls on Catholics to depose ElizabethParliament’s ResponseIncreased security of ElizabethPrivy Council’s ResponseIncreases security to ensure the safety of ElizabethIntroduce TREASON ACTS that make it an offense to:Challenge legitimacy of Elizabeth as QueenIntroduce or publish any Papal Bulls in EnglandThe Ridolfi Plot1571After excommunication Norfolk plansuprisingPlan included Philip II of Spain & the PopeCecil discovered the planPrivy Council’s ResponseDemanded execution of NorfolkInitiated Parliamentary Bills against MaryParliament’s ResponsePassed two Bills: 1. Prohibited the Papal from being brought into England. 2. Treason to deny Elizabeth as rightful QueenElizabeth’s ResponseAgreed to Norfolk’s execution to placate theHouse of CommonsRefused to sign Mary’s death warrantTheThrockmorton Plot1583The Babington Plot1586Walsingham’s agents intercept a letter fromMary endorsing the murder of ElizabethPrivy Council’s ResponsePersuade Elizabeth to bring Mary to trialPush Elizabeth to sign Mary’s death warrantParliament’s ResponseDemands execution of MaryElizabeth’s ResponseOrders Babington and plotters to be hangedWanted an alternative punishment for MarySigned warrant after initial indecisionBlamed her secretary William DavidsonThe Throckmorton Plot1583French forces to invade England, free Mary and created popular Catholic uprisingPrivy Council’s ResponseThrockmorton tortured & executedSpanish Ambassador, De Mendoza expelledParliament’s ResponsePriests expelled from EnglandTreason to become a Catholic priestDeath penalty for aiding Catholic priestsElizabeth’s ResponseConcerned for James future‘S
15Yes! No! Was Mary Stuart a Genuine Threat? Henry VIII excluded Legitimate heir tothe English throneHenry VIII excludedStuart successionViewed as a foreignthreatNatural leader ofEnglish CatholicsEnglish Catholics wereloyal to ElizabethUpset at DarnleyscandalLittle support elsewhereCause of theNorthern RebellionFrance preoccupied withCivil War –Spain preoccupied withNetherlands & TurksPapal Bull issued toolate to cause a CatholicuprisingSupported by Guisesof France, Philip II ofSpain & the PopeEnglish Catholics upsetby Mary’s involvementin the plot & opposedforeign interventionInstigated theBabington Plot toMurder Elizabeth
16Why The Delay in Executing Mary? Mary’s execution would increase Catholicopposition at home and in Europe.Using Mary as a hostage ensured France wouldnot act aggressively toward England.It almost guaranteed Philip II of Spain would notattempt to dethrone Elizabeth. If he did it wouldonly serve to strengthen Mary and French politicalambitions for England.It was a more merciful, wise and courageousdecision.ConclusionWhile Mary remained alive concerns over Catholicism,succession and national security would remain.But most historians agree that while the plots against Elizabeth never developed into a serious threat, the execution of Mary Stuart was a political necessity.
18‘Hotter sort of Protestants.’ IntroductionWhile most historians agree that Elizabeth’s mainopposition came from Catholics it is important toconsider the threat posed by Puritans (Puritan Choir).Who are the Puritans?Most were Marian exiles had been influenced by thereformer John Calvin and his Godly society inGeneva.The word ‘Puritan’ comes from the word ‘pure.’They wanted the faith of the Church of England tobe rid of mediocrity and its forms of worship to besimple, biblical and free of the influences ofCatholicism.They were considered fanatical, left wing and veryreligious’, ‘Godly Protestants’ or‘Hotter sort of Protestants.’Their religious ideas, actions and practice, alongwith their views on Church organization led toconflict with the Church of England.
19Why such a radical approach? They were concerned about:Influence and impact of Popular Religion.Ongoing influence of Catholicism.Ignorance of the people on matters of religion.Parish Anglicans who were more concerned aboutoutward conformity than inward reality.Was Puritanism at this stage a‘mindset’ or a ‘movement?’
20Initially Puritanism was a ‘mind-set’ rather than an A Mindset or Movement?Initially Puritanism was a ‘mind-set’ rather than anorganized movement independent of the Church ofEngland. By the reign of Charles I however, it hadbecome a highly organized and influentialmovement that worked in opposition to the KingSome historians have identified THREE strands ofPuritanism. All three offered Elizabeth a challenge.The Three Strands of PuritanismWorked outside the Church andwanted reforms that would see:The national church disbandedEach parish determine itsown direction.(Read p for additionalnotes-particularly those onprophesying & ClassicalPresbyterianism.ModeratesPresbyteriansSeparatistsUpset at imposition of Religious Settlement without consultation.Reluctantly accepted the established church.Wanted Doctrine and Prayer book to be more Calvinistic.Worked within the Church to initiate change.(Read p for additional notes,Particularly on the Vestments/VestarianControversy)Small influential group.Wanted Church government reformed.Used their position in Parliament to initiate change.Thomas Cartwright key person.(Read p for additional notes)
21the Puritan Opposition? Government Suppression How Successful wasthe Puritan Opposition?While most historians agree that major oppositioncame from Catholics it would be a mistake todiscount entirely the threat of the Puritan Choir.If the Puritan Choir was a threat it certainlywas not on the same scale as the threat posed bythe Catholics.Government SuppressionElizabeth viewed the Puritans with a great deal ofsuspicion. As a result she attempted to moderatetheir influence by:Her policy of religious uniformityJohn Whitgift’s commitment to enforcing thispolicyThe execution of Puritan extremistswhose opposition was consideredSeditious!This forced Puritan’s to leave the Church of Englandto establish their own Separatist Church. While somebelieve Whitgift broke the back of Puritanism the factthat were instrumental in bringing about thedownfall of Charles I in 1640s suggests otherwise.