2 The “Reformation” is the term used to describe the PROTEST against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church during the early 16th century. Main leaders were Martin Luther and John CalvinCauses:1. Humanism and the Renaissance brought a spirit of questioning and faith in reason2. Secularism was on the rise during the age of the Renaissance placing emphasis on worldly concerns over religious3. Rise of Nation-states and strong monarchies often competed against the church for power and wealth4. Many objected to certain church practices and saw church officials as abusers of power
3 Martin Luther (German states) John Calvin (Switzerland) 5. Most Protestants believed in ending church abusesSimony (sale of church offices)Nepotism (giving Church positions to relatives)The sale of Indulgences (payments that forgave sins in order to go to heaven)6. The invention of the printing press helped spread the Reformation to other countries, by making copies of the Bible more easily available to ordinary people.The following were extremely influential in the success of the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther (German states) John Calvin (Switzerland) King Henry VIII (England) Queen Elizabeth I (England)
4 Martin Luther German States 1. German Catholic monk who developed his 95 Thesis or questions for debate and nailed the edict to the church doors in Wittenburg2. Questions included the established church practices of selling indulgences or pardons for sins3. Luther had three main ideasa. Promoted the idea that through "faith alone" one could reach salvationb. All are equal in faith and therefore all are able to interpret the teaching of Christ for themselvesc. The Bible is the only authority for Church teachings, not church officials
5 4. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther for his growing radical ideas and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V put Luther on trial and declared him an outlaw and a heretic5. Martin Luther continued teaching and developing his ideas against the declarations of Church and State authorities and the popularity continued into what became known as Lutheran Church
6 John Calvin Switzerland 1. Developed another protestant branch called Calvinism2. Calvinists had several new ideas a. Predestination – Belief/theory that God has already determined who will reach salvation from the beginning of timeb. Theocracy - combining government power with religious leadership (church & state rules by same one)c. Calvinist communities lived by the Protestant Work Ethic success and hard work show that you are predestined
7 Henry VIII & The Anglican Church of England 1. King Henry VIII of England led a protestant reform movement more out of his political needs rather than a religious convictiona. He needed a male heir to his throne and his year old wife, Catherine of Aragon had given him a lone daughter, Maryb. Henry VIII wanted a divorce and marry a younger Queen but the Catholic Church did not allow divorce and the pope would not grant an annulmentc. Henry VIII had the Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy that ended the power of the Catholic Church and the placed the King as the religious authority in England not the poped. Henry VIII granted himself the divorce and married the younger Anne Boleyn
8 Henry’s Heirs Bloody Mary Elizabeth’s Reign Third wife, Jane Seymour gave England male heir, Edward VI1547, Edward VI took throne, age 9Protestantism gained more ground under guidance of his guardiansEdward died young; sister, Mary became queen of EnglandMary returned England to authority of popeHundreds burned at state for Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary”Her death caused little griefHalf-sister Elizabeth became queenBloody MaryElizabeth I, Protestant at heart1559, drafted new Supremacy Act, splitting England again from RomeCatholics plotted to place Mary, Queen of Scots, on throneElizabeth persecuted Catholics, secured Church of EnglandElizabeth’s Reign
9 2. Although Henry VIII's motives were political and self-serving in nature, his actions led England's future down a path of religious and political conflictSeveral of Henry's VIII's heir ruled England after his death bringing a time of chaos and uncertaintyOne daughter, Mary who was Catholic restored the power of the pope and sent to death many English protestants earning the nickname "bloody Mary"Elizabeth I, a protestant and Henry and Anne Boleyn's daughter inherited the throne in 1558 and eventually restores Protestantism and made compromises to help unite England
11 Key TermsHumanism cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized secular concerns as a result of the rediscovery and study of the literature, art, and civilization of ancient Greece and Rome95 Thesis Martin Luther's questions for debate surrounding the practices of the Catholic Church symbolizing the beginning of the Protestant ReformationProtestant Reformation 15th and 16th century European religious schism of the Catholic Church giving origins to new Christian religions of Lutheranism, Calvinism and the Anglican Church of EnglandRenaissance "re-birth" of classics and culture; humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe.
12 The Counter Reformation Religious unity in Europe was lost with the Protestant ReformationEuropean Christians became divided into two groups: Protestants & CatholicsThese religious differences brought about a century of wars between them and weakened the power of the Catholic ChurchThe Church excommunicated Luther and other “reformers” but did little internal reformAt the Council of Trent ( ) which was a special meeting called to restate basic church beliefs and to eliminate problems/abuses inside the church, the Roman Catholic Church finally launched the COUNTER–REFORMATION.--> The purpose of the Counter or Catholic Reformation was to strengthen the Catholic Church and to keep Catholics from converting to Protestantism. The Counter Reformation – led by Spain – cleaned up most abuses which led the church to focus more on RELIGIUOS issues and not politics. The Jesuitsled the way with the “Inquisition” as well as through “Education” The church also intensified missionary work, investigated and persecuted heretics, funded military actions (wars) against Protestants, and even persecuted Jews.
15 Practice – Regents Questions 1. _____ Which action could be considered an effect of the Protestant Reformation?(1) posting of the Ninety-five Theses (2) decline in the power of the Roman Catholic Church (3) sale of indulgences (4) end of religious warfare2. _____An important effect of the Protestant Reformation in Europe was that it strengthened the(1) power of monarchies (2) power of the pope (3) belief in polytheism (4) unity of EuropeLuther posted the Ninety-Five ThesesCalvin preached the theory of predestinationHenry VIII signed the Act of Supremacy3. ___These events occurred during the(1) Crusades (2) Neolithic Revolution (3) Protestant Reformation (4) Glorious Revolution4. ______ A major goal of the Counter-Reformation was to(1) reinstate the power of the Roman Catholic Church (2) reduce the authority of absolute monarchs (3) encourage new ideas in science and philosophy throughout Europe (4) compromise with European Protestants
16 5. _____ The ideas presented in this passage led directly to the Base your answers to questions 5 and 6 on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies. “Kings and Princes coin money only out of metals, but the Pope coins money out of everything - indulgences, ceremonies, dispensations, pardons; all fish come to his net. -Martin Luther, 15195. _____ The ideas presented in this passage led directly to the(1) Commercial Revolution (2) Spanish Inquisition (3) Protestant Reformation (4) French Revolution6. _____ In this passage, Martin Luther presents his(1) objections to practices of the Catholic Church (2) plan for economic change in Central Europe (3) objections to using only metals as the basis for money (4) justification for the dethroning of an absolute monarch.7. _ Martin Luther's posting of the Ninety-Five Theses is considered by many to be a turning point in history because(1) the Pope's right to sell indulgences was strengthened (2) Luther soon became the leader of Germany (3) the power of the Roman Catholic Church was lessened and royal power grew (4) the Roman Catholic Church unified the German states8. _____ One way Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII were similar is that they all were(1) Latin American revolutionary leaders (2) Reformation leaders (3) Impressionist painters (4) divine right monarchs
17 9._____ A major goal of the Counter-Reformation was to (1) reinstate the power of the Roman Catholic Church (2) reduce the authority of absolute monarchs (3) encourage new ideas in science and philosophy throughout Europe (4) compromise with European Protestants10. ______ The Protestant Reformation and the European Renaissance were similar in that both(1) discouraged the growth of strong monarchs. (2) encouraged people to question tradition. (3) were led by the military. (4) supported the return of the Roman Empire."Christians should be taught that he who gives to a poor man or lends to a needy man does better than if he used the money to buy an indulgence."11. _____ Which major movement in European history started with the idea expressed in this statement?(1) Commercial Revolution. (2) Industrial Revolution. (3) Renaissance. (4) Protestant Reformation.12 _____ Which two people would a historian include in an article of the Protestant Reformation?(1) Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. (2) Marco Polo and Vasco da Gama. (3) John Calvin and Martin Luther. (4) Louis XIV and Queen Victoria