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Chapter 22 Review and Discussion. Moscow Rises In Power 1.During the Mongol period, the princes of Moscow steadily increased their power. 2. The Russian.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Review and Discussion. Moscow Rises In Power 1.During the Mongol period, the princes of Moscow steadily increased their power. 2. The Russian."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 Review and Discussion

2 Moscow Rises In Power 1.During the Mongol period, the princes of Moscow steadily increased their power. 2. The Russian Orthodox moves to Moscow eventually the seat of power is moved there. 3. Moscow became the “Third Rome”

3 Ivan the Great: First Tsar Ivan III, refused to pay Mongol tributeIvan III, refused to pay Mongol tribute Won many battles and recovered lost territoryWon many battles and recovered lost territory Suppressed boyar powersSuppressed boyar powers claimed the leadership of the Eastern Orthodox Empireclaimed the leadership of the Eastern Orthodox Empire Took the title czar (tsar) the Russian word for CaesarTook the title czar (tsar) the Russian word for Caesar Recruited peasants and other them freedom from their feudal lords if they agreed to settle in New lands to the EastRecruited peasants and other them freedom from their feudal lords if they agreed to settle in New lands to the East

4 Ivan IV aka Ivan the Terrible! Grandson of Ivan the GreatGrandson of Ivan the Great Ruled from Ruled from Why Terrible? he resorted to torture, exile, and execution to punish those who plotted against himhe resorted to torture, exile, and execution to punish those who plotted against him Significantly expanded Russia’s territory and Russia prospered!Significantly expanded Russia’s territory and Russia prospered!

5 His Family…. Tragic, read on… In 1582 his daughter-in-law Elena appeared immodestly dressed and Ivan censured her.In 1582 his daughter-in-law Elena appeared immodestly dressed and Ivan censured her. His son Ivan Ivanovich rose to defend his wife, whereupon the tsar killed his son, his only possible respectable heir.His son Ivan Ivanovich rose to defend his wife, whereupon the tsar killed his son, his only possible respectable heir. This left as heir Ivan’s feebleminded son Fyodor (reigned ), the last Ryurikid ruler in a line that extended back seven centuries.This left as heir Ivan’s feebleminded son Fyodor (reigned ), the last Ryurikid ruler in a line that extended back seven centuries. Another son, Dmitry, was considered illegitimate because his mother was Ivan's seventh wife (the church only permitted three marriages, and recognized none of Ivan’s later wives).Another son, Dmitry, was considered illegitimate because his mother was Ivan's seventh wife (the church only permitted three marriages, and recognized none of Ivan’s later wives). Dmitry either killed himself playing with a knife or was murdered in 1591Dmitry either killed himself playing with a knife or was murdered in 1591

6 St. Basil’s Cathedral Legend has it that Ivan the Terrible, who was Tsar of Russia at the time,Legend has it that Ivan the Terrible, who was Tsar of Russia at the time, blinded the architect when it was finished, to prevent him from building anything as spectacular for any other king.

7 Late Medieval Russia Russia is in a Period of disorder: Open to invasionOpen to invasion Isolated from EuropeIsolated from Europe Untouched by Renaissance or the ReformationUntouched by Renaissance or the Reformation Enters the “Time of Troubles” Enters the “Time of Troubles”

8 Russian Monarchy Medieval Russia group of clergy, nobles and townsmen chose a new czar Romanov dynasty established with Mikhail Romanov lasts until 1917 with the Communist Revolution. Romanov Crown Mikhail Romanov

9 Russia Before Peter Look at the facts: 10 million people, 8.5 serfs10 million people, 8.5 serfs Boyars (landowning nobles) control the court and governmentBoyars (landowning nobles) control the court and government Very Anti-Western European cultureVery Anti-Western European culture Majority of population are uneducatedMajority of population are uneducated

10 GoalsGoals –To modernize, westernize Russia –Establish absolute monarchy Journeyed to Western Europe to learn…Journeyed to Western Europe to learn… –Anatomy –Dentistry –Carpenter in shipyard –Government structure of English Parliament Brought Experts to RussiaBrought Experts to Russia –Technical experts, teachers, soldiers, and nobles The Westernization of Russia

11 Peter the Great Built a new capital at St. Petersburg and committed to a policy of westernization in Russia. Built a new capital at St. Petersburg and committed to a policy of westernization in Russia. To impose his will, Peter became the most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs.To impose his will, Peter became the most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs. No to political liberalization Brought Russian Orthodox Church under his control and increased the burden of taxes and labor on the serfsBrought Russian Orthodox Church under his control and increased the burden of taxes and labor on the serfs “Great Northern War” “Great Northern War” broke Swedish control over the Baltic and established direct contact between Russia and Europe broke Swedish control over the Baltic and established direct contact between Russia and Europe

12 Peter the Great’s Major Changes Took control of church Made the boyars serve in the gov’t Modernizedarmy Adopts Mercantilism Brought in Europe’s Technology and Craftsman Builds St. Petersburg Westernization of Russia Requires European Dress & No Beards!

13 Catherine the Great r Born in 1729 in GermanyBorn in 1729 in Germany today modern day Poland Gains the throne by “stealing it” (maybe) from her murdered husband, Peter III!Gains the throne by “stealing it” (maybe) from her murdered husband, Peter III!

14 began state-sponsoredbegan state-sponsored education for boys and girls. embraced and encouraged Western ideas and culture. embraced and encouraged Western ideas and culture. granted special privileges to the boyars.granted special privileges to the boyars. Allows serfdom to continue Allows serfdom to continue repressed peasant rebellions.repressed peasant rebellions. Built the world’s largest land empireBuilt the world’s largest land empire Catherine’s Palace

15 Peter the Great: created the largest standing army in Europecreated the largest standing army in Europe On land won from Sweden, Peter built a magnificent new capital city, St. Petersburg.On land won from Sweden, Peter built a magnificent new capital city, St. Petersburg. Catherine the Great: 1.gained a warm-water port on the Black Sea 2.agreed to partition Poland and gained the eastern portion. Expansion of Russia,

16 St. Petersburg

17 Romanov Dynasty Heritage Moscow in 1810 Last Romanov Czar Murdered w/ family in 1917

18 Expansion of Russia, 1689 – 1796

19

20 Decline of the late Ming Drop in annual temperatures between 1645 and 1700 – Led to agricultural distress, migration, distress, and uprising Inflation caused by new world silver Threats in the borders – From Mongols to the north and west – Suffered heavy losses by helping Koreans against Japanese invasions – Japanese pirates Qing (Manchu) overthrew the Ming in 1644

21 Qing China

22 Emperor Kangxi

23 Emperor Kangxi r Intellectual prodigy and a successful military commander who expanded his territory and gave it a high degree of stability Reign of 61 years makes him the longest reigning Emperor of China Cultural diffusion adapted Mongol system of political organization; the Tibetan practice of religious legitimization for rulers; Korean and Chinese agricultural policies; and European mapping and technology ( influenced by the Jesuits).

24 Order and Unity Restored Under the Tokugawas, The Tokugawa shogunate was the longest period of uninterrupted peace Japan ever enjoyed. The Tokugawa shogunate was the longest period of uninterrupted peace Japan ever enjoyed.

25 Kabuki Theater  Created by Okuni, a woman but actors are now all men, why?  Tokugawa disapproved of women having an elevated status and forbid it!  Kabuki theater is famous for its brightly colored sets, exaggerated acting, and lively and emotional music and dance.  Kabuki is the most popular form of traditional Japanese theater. Kabuki Theater Tour Kabuki Theater

26 Bunraku Bunraku (puppet theater) traditional art form Three puppeteers manipulate the puppets, creating subtle movements and expressions. The performance is accompanied by shamisen music and narrative song

27 Review: The Culture of Feudal Japan Japanese painters were influenced by Chinese landscape paintings, yet developed their own styles. Painters recreated historical events on scrolls. Woodblock prints used fresh colors and simple lines to convey town life. Essays expressed Zen values or contained observations about human nature. Japanese poets adapted Chinese models, creating miniature poems called haiku. No plays presented Zen Buddhist themes or recounted fairy tales or power struggles. Kabuki, a popular new form of drama, combined drama, dance, and music. Puppet plays, known as bunraku, were popular. PAINTING & PRINTMAKING LITERATURE THEATER

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29 “Forty-seven Ronin” incident 1702 Showed basic flaw in the Shogunal government Forced the military, to obey the civil law in the interests of building a centralized, standardized system of law (transformed from a military to a civil society)


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