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Henry VIII The Creation of the Anglican Church. Henry VIII... Becomes King at age 18 –BUT only after his brother Arthur died unexpectedly Was a devout.

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Presentation on theme: "Henry VIII The Creation of the Anglican Church. Henry VIII... Becomes King at age 18 –BUT only after his brother Arthur died unexpectedly Was a devout."— Presentation transcript:

1 Henry VIII The Creation of the Anglican Church

2 Henry VIII... Becomes King at age 18 –BUT only after his brother Arthur died unexpectedly Was a devout Catholic –Detested Luther “A great limb of the Devil” –Strongly supported the pope and went on record stating the importance of marriage Pope gave Henry a special title –“Defender of the Faith” Goal: Produce as many male heirs as possible to avoid another Civil War Split from the Catholic Church to establish the Anglican Church –“Church of England”

3 Catherine of Aragon Henry’s 1 st Wife –Brother’s Widow Married for political reasons NOT love, but both would fall in love –Daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella 4 of 5 babies died in infancy –Only surviving child was Mary Henry produces a bastard son –Henry FitzRoy Henry falls in love with another women –Anne Boleyn “Your wife I can not be, and your mistress I will not be” Henry becomes convinced Catherine could not have more children –He wants a divorce / Catherine refused Catherine of Aragon Mary AKA: Bloody Mary

4 Political Needs v Religious Loyalties Henry’s political needs (To produce as many male heirs as possible) were ultimately more important then his religious loyalties Eventually Henry will ask the Church to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon Problem: Church doesn’t recognize divorce

5 The Divorce Process Thomas Wolsey Argued that it was wrong for Henry to have married his brother’s widow –The pope refused because of political issues –Wolsey also secretly disproved and was slow in arranging the divorce because he wanted to be pope someday Wolsey was arrested but died before he could be executed Thomas Wolsey Chief Minister to King Henry

6 The Divorce Process Thomas Cranmer Suggested divorce question be submitted for debate by the English university professors –Professors gave a favorable verdict Supported Henry's efforts to check power of the pope and to become head of Church of England Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury

7 The Divorce Process The Divorce Process Thomas Cromwell Trusted adviser –Responsible for civil and religious affairs Architect of Acts of Supremacy and Dissolution of the Monasteries Pushed Henry VIII to marry Anne Cleves Ultimately, he would fall out of favor with Henry and was beheaded

8 King sought Parliament’s Help Parliament limits power of the church by ending canon law –Canon Law: church laws without royal approval Parliament OK’d divorce and marriage to Anne Boleyn

9 Acts of Supremacy Popes authority ended Created Church of England –Kings is head of the Church Led to the beheading of Sir Thomas More Results: –Strengthened King because he won control of Church of England –Parliament gained power because never before had a ruler asked Parliament to act on such issues

10 The Fate of Sir Thomas More More refused to take an oath supporting the Act of Supremacy Henry ordered More to beheaded More: “I die the king’s good servant, but God’s first”

11 Closing of the Monasteries Henry closed all monasteries and seized their wealth and lands –Land = 1/3 of land in Europe Dramatically increased royal power and enriched Henry Henry sold much of this land to nobles and the middle class –Result: Provided a solid base of support for Church of England

12 Anne Boleyn 2 nd wife Insisted on marriage –Wanted to protect herself Soon after they marry Henry loses interest Anne fails to produce an heir –Does give birth to Elizabeth Henry starts falling in love with another women –Wants out of marriage –Anne says – No –Wants to protect Elizabeth’s future Accused of witchcraft and beheaded Anne BoleynElizabeth

13 Jane Seymor 3 rd Wife Henry’s true love –A perfect relationship Jane provides Henry with his long waited heir - Edward However, Jane dies from complications of the birth Henry mourns her until the end of his life Jane SeymorEdward

14 Anne Cleves 4 th Wife A marriage based on nothing but politics –Henry’s advisors tell him that Anne was extremely beautiful Henry found her extremely ugly and believed her to smell Anne was only Queen of England for only a few months –Henry did not believed he could produce children with her –By all accounts the marriage was never consummated Henry divorced Anne –Anne believed it to be a great idea

15 Catherine Howard 5 th Wife Henry believes her to be a virgin –She is NOT Henry is extremely attracted to Catherine –She is young and known for her good looks Catherine gets caught cheating and her lie is exposed Beheaded because of adultery

16 Catherine Parr 6 th Wife Henry asks Catherine to be marry him –She declines but says that she will be his mistress Henry will not take “no” for an answer and they marry Catherine was more a nurse and friend to Henry than a wife They both grew to care for one another The only wife to out live Henry the 8 th

17 Church of England v Catholic Church Does close the monasteries –More political than religious Very few differences –Insisted that English priests make no changes in Catholic rituals, beliefs, and practices England will go back and forth –Edward: Protestant –Mary: Catholic –Elizabeth: Protestant

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