s t a r r i n g R u s s e l l C r o w e s t a r r i n g M e l G i b s o n s t a r r i n g M o r g a n F r e e m a n s t a r r i n g K e v i n C o s t n e r d i r e c t e d b y S t e v e n S p i e l b e r g p r o d u c e d b y G e o r g e L u c a s m u s i c b y J o h n W i l l i a m s
Angles Originally occupied parts of Germany Invaded by Britain with Saxons & Jutes (from Jutland) in 5 th Cent. Formed people who became known as English (The name England is derived from them)
Anglo-Saxons 450-Present “Volkerwanderung” Drove out Britons, Celts Gave name “Welsh” – strangers Divided into 7 kingdoms (Kent, Sussex, Essex) –Brought Important Documents
Christmas Berry Mocha Fudge - A Heavenly treat 1/4 lb. butter 12 oz. can of evaporated milk 3 1/2 Cups of sugar 1 heaping tablespoon of INSTANT COFFEE 10 oz. Hershey's Raspberry chocolate chips 2 oz. bittersweet chocolate 7 oz. Marshmallow cream 1 tsp. Vanilla In a heavy saucepan melt the butter. Add evaporated milk, sugar, and coffee. Bring to a rolling boil, stirring constantly until the temperature reaches 235 degrees. Remove from heat and and raspberry chocolate chips and the bittersweet chocolate. Stir the mixture until all ingredients are melted. Add the marshmallow crème and stir until blended. Stir in the vanilla. Pour into a lightly greased 9 X 13 inch pan. Cut in bite sized squared when cooled.
- 700 AD – All of England Christian (St Patrick) religious unity before political - 7 Stable Kingdoms established -Alfred the Great - Divides into Shires (counties) Rules by an Earl Broke into hundreds, ruled by Thegn
JUSTICE SYSTEM ESTABLISHED WItAN (council of earls, thegns) thegnJudge DoomsmenJury EDWARD THE CONFESSOR Told to many secrets, ha
King Arthur Arthur Pendragon, Artorius, Aurelianus Figure of Mythology Ideal King in War & Peace Born in 5 th C.
Arthur Celtic Legend? Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain Excalibur Merlin, Guinevere
Arthur Knights of the Round Table Camelot (Avalon) Much Myth and Fiction Exciting Tale of Medieval History
3 way struggle for English Throne Harold Godwinson Harald Hardrada (king of Norway) Duke William King Edward the Confessor (no heir to throne) Last Anglo-Saxon
William fights E.C. Weather (curse or blessing?) Meanwhile… Harald defeated by Harold at Battle of Stamford Bridge Battle of Hastings Harold rushes down William Wins
Results Harold killed, Normans win England Oriented toward Europe, not Scandinavia French Becomes language of the Courts Basic unit of govt remains shire, now ruled by shire reeve (sheriff) All estates of SaxonsWilliam’s Lords serve or Feudalism
King Edward. Where Harold, Earl of the English, and his retinue ride to Bosham. Harold sails to Stamford Bridge to meet Hardrada
Where Harold gave his oath to Duke William. The death of King Edward the Confessor
Eustace. Here the French do battle. A bad omen, a comet appears in the sky
And the English fled. And those who were with Harold fell. Here King Harold was killed.
Feudalism System of govt. w/land, estatecontractual ownership Lord – dukes, marquis, counts, earls, viscounts, barons, etc. Vassal – serve the lord Carolingian (8 th & 9 th C.) based on wealth (stirrup) vs. Classical (11 th C.) hereditary lineage Responsibilities?
Feudalism Obligations of the Vassals Give 40 days/nights annually (scutage –shield money) Contribute to lord’s expenses (knighting, wedding, ransom) Work the land, give “contributions” Entertain and maintain estate Absolved if Lord (tries to kill, enslave, steal, or seduce wife) Obligations of the Lords Could wage war, coin $, collect tolls, make alliances Grant land (fief) Protect, provide castle Lead vassals & knights into battle Maintain roads, bridges, defenses
Stephen (1135-54) Weak Ruler Constant fighting with Barons Power struggle with cousins Young Henry II (cousin succeeds him)
Henry II (King of England) 1164 issues Constitution of Clarendon Clergy member may be punished by Royal Court No appealing sentences to Pope without King’s Permission Concept of Juries (Grand & Petit) and Exchequer, Common Law Thomas ‘a Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) Opposed Constitution Murdered by Henry’s Knights (4)
Henry II Fight for the Throne Sons all want it William, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John WHO WILL WIN?
Seems to win fight for crown (1189-99) Unknown to English –6 months of 10 yr reign in England –3 rd Crusade v. Saladin –Captured in Austria (Leopold V) Imposed heavy taxes (nearly bankrupted) Shot and Killed w/ arrow Richard I (the Lion-Hearted)
King John Richard’s younger bro (1199-1216) Fought many battles w/ French Dispute with Pope Innocent III Imposed illegal dues on his barons –Pay for war and bro Barons were upset, had enough in 1215!
Magna Carta 1215 Barons forced John to sign document Defined Rights & Responsibilities Protected Barons against unnecessary taxes Clergy allowed to choose their own bishops Could appeal to Pope for justice *It did nothing for the large population (serfs) Eventually led to provisions for all citizens of England
Parliament Issue of taxes led to Parliament Divided into 2 Houses House of Lords - bishops & nobles House of Commons - knights & burgesses
Civil War in England King Edward I sits on the Throne North the Scottish want Independence One Man is about to change History! Here is his Story
Scottish Independence William Wallace (1272-1305) Hero of Scotland Battles - Stirling Bridge - Falkirk - Captured at Falkirk Robert the Bruce (king of Scotland) 'Tell your commander that we are not here to make peace but to do battle, defend ourselves and liberate our kingdom. Let them come on, and we shall prove this in their very beards.’
The bell "Emmanuel" in the south tower weighs over 28,000 pounds. The clapper alone weighs about 1,100 pounds. It is said that when "Emmanuel" was recast in 1631, women threw their gold and other jewelry into the molten metal, giving the bell its unique, pure F sharp tone. The main vault inside the cathedral is 112 feet high. The towers of the western façade are 226 feet tall. 422 steps in a spiral staircase lead to the very top of the bell tower.
Hundred Years War 1337-1453 Two families fought for French Crown House of Valois v. House of Plantagenets 3 Phases of War Significant Influences to World –Warfare, Weapons, Nationalism
Major People & Events Cavalry replaced by Standing Army No need for horses with longbow, later firearms Joan of Arc (1412-1431) Savior of France, burned at the stake Henry V (English King) bloody revolt to take France back French eventually win in 1453
History of Cup - Joseph of Arimathea - Taken to Britain (bodyguards) Legends - develop 12 th -13 th c. - Chrétien de Troyes - Arthurian Legend - Knights Templar
Four medieval relics 1.Jerusalem – silver chalice in reliquary (7 th c.) 2.Constantinople – costly dish captured in 4 th crusade, lost in Fr. Revolution 3.Genoa* - carved from emerald, brilliant green dish 4.Valencia* - gold chalice, brought by St. Peter to Rome * these survive today
This tapestry is entitled The Quest for the Holy Grail. This tapestry was designed by Edward Burne-Jones and woven by Morris & Co. in 1895-96 and is one of six panels illustrating the story of The Holy Grail. It represents the arming and the departure of the knights of the Round Table, amongst which are Sir Bors, Sir Percival and Sir Galahad.
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