Geography Cool Cool Wet Wet Many Harbors and Rivers (Trading) Many Harbors and Rivers (Trading) Many Resources, (oil, iron, minerals) Many Resources, (oil, iron, minerals)
Early Britain Norman invasions Norman invasions Made up of small kingdoms of Anglos and Saxons Made up of small kingdoms of Anglos and Saxons Constantly faced Viking invaders in early middle ages Constantly faced Viking invaders in early middle ages Used to be part of Roman Empire (Catholic) Used to be part of Roman Empire (Catholic)
William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy (France) Duke of Normandy (France) As former King’s cousin, claimed England was rightfully his As former King’s cousin, claimed England was rightfully his Challenged by other nobles, mainly Harold Godwinson Challenged by other nobles, mainly Harold Godwinson
Battle of Hastings- 1066 William fights nobles and defeats them, claiming all of England for himself William fights nobles and defeats them, claiming all of England for himself United England under one ruler Feudalism United England under one ruler Feudalism
William the Conqueror centralizes his power forces all nobles to pledge loyalty to him creates a Domesday book * census of all people & property in England * more efficient, centralized tax system over time, the French speaking Norman nobles culture blends with Anglo Saxon
Expansion of Kings Power King Henry II How did Henry II increase Royal Authority? created treasure to collect taxes, fines,etc. sent traveling justices to enforce royal law these decisions became the basis of common law- law that is the same for all people developed early jury system (grand jury)
John I Greedy, cruel, untrustworthy ruler Lost a war and land in northern France Conflict with Pope Innocent II over selection of Archbishop of Canterbury Pope interdicts all England until John gives in Raises taxes without consulting nobles
The Magna Carta - 1215 “The King is not above the law” The Nobles react to John’s abuses of power In 1215, barons corner John at Runnymede He is forced to sign the Great Charter Magna Carta It asserted the king must obey the law Nobles must be consulted (no taxation without representation) Asserted legal rights which over time extend to all
This is an example of a constitutional monarchy (King is limited in power) Magna Carta- 1215 Limited Power of King Created Parliament
The Model Parliament English rulers consulted the Great Council or Parliament to approve money for wars. Edward I wanted to war against France He wanted support from all groups He created an upper house (lords, clergy) He created a lower house (knights, townspeople) Evolved into House of Lords and House of Commons (Parliament)
100 Years War 1337- 1453 -Britain and France fight over heir to French throne -Britain's believe their King Edward III is rightful heir since he is Former French Kin Phillip’s grandson -- Joan of Arc -Britain eventually loses yet rivalry between two countries will continue for hundreds of years (Colonies in America)
Henry VIII- 1527 -He wanted to divorce his wife because she was not giving him a son -But there is a problem?
Henry VIII Created Church of England Created Church of England Act of Supremacy King is more powerful than church Act of Supremacy King is more powerful than church Converted England to Protestants Converted England to Protestants
Elizabeth I -Henry’ son Edward was to young to rule and his daughter Mary was catholic and brought Catholicism back to England When she dies Elizabeth, the daughter from mistress Ann Boleyn, restores Protestantism in England (law) Was able to make reforms to please Catholics and protestants created Anglican Church
Under Elizabeth I….. 1558-1603 (born in 1523) Was Renaissance period where writers like Shakespeare and arts flourished Began colonies in America England defeats Spanish Armada (war with Spain and Phillip II) Created huge debt to England
Parliament asks Stuart family to rule King of Scotland- James I King of Scotland- James I
Tudors vs Stuarts The Protestant Tudor Monarchs (Henry VIII, Elizabeth) had always consulted Parliament Elizabeth died unmarried, no children The Stuarts were asked to rule They were Catholic They believed in Divine Right They behaved like Absolute Monarchs
James I Agreed to rule by English laws, customs Began to lecture Parliament about Divine Right of Kings Dissolved Parliament when it refused to give him money for courts and wars Created King James Bible but rejected Puritan Protestant demands for fewer Catholic religious practices He imprisoned foes without trial
Charles I Behaves like his father Absolute monarch Divine Right Signs, and ignores Petition of Right (1628) (prohibits raising taxes without consent of Parliament or imprisoning without cause) Dissolves Parliament for 11 Years. Charles I finally summons Parliament - This conflict leads to Civil War
WAR!!!! Parliament and the Roundheads (Puritans) led by Oliver Cromwell Versus Charles I and the King’s Cavaliers. Who wins? ? ?
English Civil War 1642-49 King Charles I Cavaliers attack leaders of Parliament who escape. Oliver Cromwell heads the Puritan Roundhead Army and his military leadership defeats the Kings forces Charles I - an absolute monarch - is executed!!
1 st time in history a King was publicly executed Now who rules England?
Cromwell tries to rule England as a common- wealth for a decade (more like mil. dictatorship) Puritan Rule: No theater, sporting events, dancing (all were sins) Colonized Ireland
Cromwell dies, the Stuarts are asked back to power (the Stuart Restoration) People did not like Puritan ways
The Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights 1688- 89 James II behaves like an absolute monarch… - dissolves parliament - Very Catholic and shows favoritism to Catholics What will parliament do? Will they allow him to rule this way?
James flees to France (Glorious Revolution) It is glorious because it was bloodless! Glorious Revolution Parliament invites William and Mary to become rulers, tell James II to leave
William of Orange and Mary William was prince of the Netherlands Mary was James II oldest daughter but was protestant
William and Mary agree to sign the Bill of Rights (1688) limiting their power and recognizing Parliament’s supremacy English Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights- Parliament is superior to King
Reforms in the 20th Century 1911: Parliament’s House of Lords’ power is severely restricted; House of Commons is now Supreme. WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE: 1918:Women over 30 may vote 1928:Women Over 21 may vote