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After Psychoanalysis Chapter 14. Splintered movement Within 20 years of its founding Freud never again spoke to the rebels Carl Jung: supposed to be Freud’s.

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Presentation on theme: "After Psychoanalysis Chapter 14. Splintered movement Within 20 years of its founding Freud never again spoke to the rebels Carl Jung: supposed to be Freud’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 After Psychoanalysis Chapter 14

2 Splintered movement Within 20 years of its founding Freud never again spoke to the rebels Carl Jung: supposed to be Freud’s “heir” Alfred Adler Karen Horney

3 de-emphasize biological forces; emphasize social and psychological forces minimize the import of infantile sexuality more independent role for ego Psychoanalysis after Freud

4 Anna Freud (1895-1982) Her life The youngest of Freud’s six children; not a welcomed child least preferred daughter, lonely and unhappy childhood became her father’s favorite child early interest in her father’s work attended meetings of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society from the age of 14

5 Contributions to psychoanalysis pioneered psychoanalysis of children considered children's relative immaturity considered children’s lack of verbal skills innovative methods the use of play materials the observation of the child in the home responsible for elaborating defense mechanisms

6 Carl Jung (1875-1961) Background Lonely childhood, filled with fantasy professional reputation established before he met Freud 1906: began correspondence with Freud Supposed to be Freud’s successor and heir age 38: severe emotional problems for 3-year period

7 Carl Jung autobiographical influences, particularly with regard to views of about sex Oedipus complex not relevant to his childhood experience no major adult sexual hang-ups preferred company of women had affairs isolation as child reflected in his theoretical focus on inner growth rather than social relationships sex plays a minimal role in explaining human motivation

8 Forces that influence personality Freud Jung

9 Archetypes: inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious predispose one to behave in a manner like one’s ancestors Examples: Shadow

10 Introversion and extraversion Extravert Introvert Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

11 Alfred Adler (1870-1973) Background Sickly as child, poor student Closer to father than mother

12 Individual psychology Some of his ideas: Social interest Inferiority complex

13 Comment So, how did Adler differ from freud? much more optomistic, sex not important social, not biological motivators emphasized conscious thoughts over unconscious ones

14 The Evolution of Personality Theory: Humanistic Psychology Some 15 to 20 theories represent were derived in some respect from Freudian psychoanalytic theory Like Wundt, Freud presented a system of thought that both brought followers and motivated revolt Freudian theory was a point of revolt, not a base, for humanistic psychology

15 The Zeitgeist: the 1960s protest against Western mechanism and materialism emphasis on the present hedonism and personal fulfillment belief in human perfectibility tendency to self-disclose

16 In general, humanistic psychology… intended to replace other two main “forces” in psychology Behaviorism Psychoanalysis Humanistic psychology Not just a revision or adaptation of prior schools

17 The nature of humanistic psychology Criticisms of behaviorism narrow, artificial, sterile too deterministic, no free will reduces humans to animal-like S-R components, dehumanizing

18 Criticisms of Freudianism also deterministic and mechanistic minimization of consciousness exclusion of normals from study The nature of humanistic psychology

19 basic themes of humanistic psychology emphasis on the positive rather than the negative in human traits and goals focus on conscious experience belief in free will confidence in unity of human personality The nature of humanistic psychology

20 Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Overview spiritual father of humanistic psychology garnered academic respectability for the movement goal: to understand the highest achievements of which humans are capable research: Identify characteristics of healthy people Wertheimer: prototype of healthy person

21 the hierarchy of needs physiological safety belonging and love esteem self-actualization Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)

22 Self-actualization: involves active use of all of one’s traits and talents involves the growth and realization of one’s potential peak experiences self-actualized persons: free of neurosis, middle-aged or older Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)

23 Comment criticism small sample sizes preclude generalizability subjects selected according to Maslow’s subjective criteria terms are ambiguous and inconsistently defined rebuttal: no other way to study self- actualization; perceived work as preliminary

24 Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Overview developed person-centered therapy client is responsible for change assumes one can consciously and rationally alter one’s thoughts and behavior

25 Self-actualization a drive to make oneself better unconditional positive regard: love and acceptance regardless of your behavior leads to self-acceptance (healthy) rather than conditions of worth (unhealthy) mother-child relationship: key to actualization

26 Did not become a part of the mainstream of psychological thought Why? Practitioners in private practice rather than academia Comparatively little research and few publications No graduate training programs Ill-timed attacks on the psychoanalytic and behaviorism, schools already in decline Humanistic psychology

27 The changing zeitgeist in physics Rejection of the mechanistic model of the universe Shift of focus of scientific investigation From an independent and objectively knowable universe To one’s own subjective observation of that universe I.E., objective knowledge is really subjective Scientific psychology resisted the new physics for at least 50 years

28 The founding of cognitive psychology No single founder Two scholars contributed groundbreaking work: George Miller Ulric Neisser

29 George Miller (1920- ) His life Behaviorism Miller accepted it as the primary school (had no choice) Mid-1950s: determined behaviorism was inadequate 1956: classic article “the magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information”

30 The nature of cognitive psychology Differs from behaviorism Focus on the process of knowing Interest in how the mind structures or organizes experience The person actively and creatively arranges the stimuli received from the environment

31 Unconscious cognition The new unconscious or nonconscious Not the same as Freud's concept More rational than emotional Is involved in the first stage of human cognition The response to a stimulus An integral part of information processing

32 Subliminal perception We can be influenced by stimuli that we are not aware of Process of acquiring knowledge Occurs at both conscious and nonconscious levels, but mostly at the nonconscious level Nonconscious information processing is faster and more complicated

33 Current status Cognitive psychology is a success Its impact is felt by most areas of psychology It has influenced psychology in Europe and Russia It has influenced areas outside psychology

34 Criticisms Opposed by behaviorists Considerable confusion about terminology and definitions Overemphasis on cognition Ignored other influences such motivation and emotion Became fixated on thought processes

35 Schools of Thought in Perspective All earlier schools (except psychoanalysis) absorbed into mainstream

36 How did each school of thought contribute to the science of psychology? Wundt’s psychology & Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt psychology Psychoanalysis Humanistic psychology Cognitive psychology

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