Presentation on theme: "The Road To War 1914. Causes of World War 1 1. Militarism Britain had the largest Navy – to protect its empire Germany wanted a navy too, to acquire colonies."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of World War 1 1. Militarism Britain had the largest Navy – to protect its empire Germany wanted a navy too, to acquire colonies and then protect them Britain saw Germany’s naval growth as a direct threat!!!
3. Nationalism Pride in one’s country Citizens were prepared to do anything for their nation – even go to war Causes of World War 1
4. Imperialism (Clash of Empires) The Act of empire building Britain, France, Spain and Portugal have many colonies = big Empires Germany wants an empire too Causes of World War 1
Also… Emergence of Germany as a major power 1900 Most German speaking people are united under one nation – Germany Wish to be recognized as a world power Wants colonies and territory Causes of World War 1
5. The SPARK - the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Austrian heir, Archduke Ferdinand and his wife are killed by a Serbian terrorist group, the Black Hand, in Sarajevo, Bosnia – a state within the Austro-Hungarian Empire Causes of World War 1
The SPARK - the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Continued…… Black Hand – Serbian Nationalist Terrorist group. Resent being a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Serbia historically closer to Russia not Austria-Hungary Kill the A-H heir
The SPARK - the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Continued…… Summer 1914 Archduke Ferdinand is assassinated at Sarajevo June 28 July 23 July 25 July 28 Austria sends ultimatum (list of demands) to Serbia Serbia replies, rejecting them Austria invades Serbia July 29 Russia mobilizes Alliances kick in
The SPARK - the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Continued…… Summer 1914 - continued July 29 - Russia mobilizes army along borders with Austria and Germany - Germany declares war on Russia August 3- France mobilizes forces to assist Russia - Germany declares war on France August 4 - 5 Germany invades Belgium as a way to get to France Britain declares war on Germany – protecting Belgium Canada and the British Empire are at war
The Schlieffen Plan “Paris for lunch - St. Petersburg for dinner!”
World War 1 Begins The Schlieffen Plan http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animatio ns/western_front/index_embed.shtml Designed to prevent a war on two fronts Take France in 6 weeks, by surprise by going through Belgium Once France falls, move troops east to fight Russia
Schlieffen Plan – Why it Failed! 1. Belgium had a treaty with Britain, France and Germany guaranteeing its neutrality 2.German Generals altered the plan causing German troops to turn south towards Paris earlier than originally planned Britain objected when Germany invaded Belgium This was their reason to go to war German troops encountered both French troops moving out of Paris and British from the Channel ports World War 1 Begins
German advance was halted on the Marne River – both sides “dug-in” extensive trench systems protected by artillery and machine guns World War 1 Begins
Canada Prepares for War “When Britain is at war, Canada is at war. There is no distinction." Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier - 1910
The British Commonwealth in Arms This poster depicts New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, and South Africa supporting Britain in arms. These British Dominions would eventually contribute more than 1.4 million service personnel to the British war effort from 1914 to 1918.
Canada’s War -In 1914, Canada was a self-governing dominion of the British Empire, but it did not control its own foreign affairs. -The Canadian government would decide the nature and extent of Canada's war effort, but legally the country was at war the instant Britain declared one.
Enthusiastic Reaction to War -Canadians marched and sang in the streets at the declaration of war in early August 1914. -In an unprecedented burst of patriotic enthusiasm, Canadians enlisted from across the country. -Because prewar Canada had a very small permanent armed force, citizen-soldiers would form most of the new Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).
Valcartier, Quebec -Valcartier, Quebec was the primary training base for the First Canadian Contingent in 1914.
Daily Ration for Soldiers Training at Valcartier: Pepper and salt 11/4 pounds bread 1 ounce tea 13 ounce coffee 1 ounce cheese 2 ounces jam 2 ounces beans 2 ounces butter 2 ounces sugar 6 ounces fresh vegetables 1 pound fresh meat 1 pound potatoes 1 ounce oil 1 cubic foot wood Fruit is extra
Infantryman, Canadian Expeditionary Force, France 1915-1916.