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European Politics and Diplomacy 1450-1750 AP World History Unit 3.

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Presentation on theme: "European Politics and Diplomacy 1450-1750 AP World History Unit 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Politics and Diplomacy AP World History Unit 3

2 STATE BUILDING Italian city-states. Italian city-states.  Flourished with industries and trade.  Each with independent administration and army.  Levied direct taxes on citizens.  More powerful absorbed smallest. France and England France and England  Hundred Years' War ( ) Fought for control of French lands. Fought for control of French lands. Imposed direct taxes to pay the costs of war. Imposed direct taxes to pay the costs of war. Central government over feudal nobility. Central government over feudal nobility.  English War of the Roses leads to Tudor Dynasty.  Louis XI reduces powers of feudal aristocracy.

3 STATE BUILDING Spain united Spain united  Marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile.  Sales tax supported a powerful standing army.  Conquered Granada from Muslims.  Seized southern Italy in  Sponsored Columbus's quest for western route to China. Competition among European states Competition among European states  Frequent small-scale wars.  Encouraged new military and naval technology.  Technological innovations strengthened armies. Dynastic Politics Dynastic Politics  Constant search for an heir.  Must marry for political advantage.  Gave women influence as regents, brides, mother of heir.

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5 NEW MONARCHS New Monarchs New Monarchs  Taxes and armies strong tool by late 15 th century.  Feudal powers mixed with new powers to become dominant in society.  Developing towards divine right. Monarchs answered only to God, not people. Monarchs answered only to God, not people.  Henry VII of England and Louis XI of France are two best examples. France, England and Spain France, England and Spain  All three united after long wars.  Kings have new, broad powers.  Nobles often weakened. New nobles created out of middle classes. New nobles created out of middle classes.

6 NEW MONARCHS Enhanced royal and centralized powers Enhanced royal and centralized powers  Wealthy treasuries by direct taxes, fines, and fees  State power enlarged and more centralized Standing armies in France and Spain Standing armies in France and Spain Professional bureaucrats loyal only to monarch, not church Professional bureaucrats loyal only to monarch, not church Nobility status often sold to wealthy merchants to raise funds Nobility status often sold to wealthy merchants to raise funds  Reformation increased royal power Kings confiscate wealth, land of the church Kings confiscate wealth, land of the church Kings sell off lands to middle class, making them loyal to state Kings sell off lands to middle class, making them loyal to state Even Catholic monarchs tended to follow this trend Even Catholic monarchs tended to follow this trend

7 NEW MONARCHS New law courts enhance royal power New law courts enhance royal power  Kings tend to function above the law  English Star Chambers. Do not require warrants or trials. Do not require warrants or trials.  The Spanish Inquisition, Catholic court of inquiry, founded 1478 Intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews Intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews Used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents Used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents  French Parliaments reduced to law courts not legislative assemblies.

8 CONTITUTIONAL MONARCHS Constitutional states of England and the Netherlands Constitutional states of England and the Netherlands  Divine Right Monarchs limited by war, nobles, and wealthy class. Characterized by Characterized by  Powers limited by constitutions, bills of right, and convention.  No one is above the law, property is protected by law.  Representative institutions.  Rights of oversight, taxation, review, and veto. Merchant classes enjoyed unusual prosperity. Merchant classes enjoyed unusual prosperity. Commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference. Commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference.  Dutch constitutional monarchy evolved out of religious wars.  Constitutional monarchy in England evolved out of a civil war.

9 ABSOLUTE MONARCHS Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia  Based on the theory of the divine right of kings Relied on bureaucrats and professional armies. Relied on bureaucrats and professional armies. Restricted power of aristocracy, legislatures, and church Restricted power of aristocracy, legislatures, and church Relied on mercantilism to generate taxable wealth. Relied on mercantilism to generate taxable wealth.  Spain and Austria united by Hapsburg marriage.  Cardinal Richelieu French chief minister French chief minister Crushed power of nobles. Crushed power of nobles.  Prussia began to rise in late 17 th century Based on absolutism and army. Based on absolutism and army. Eventually will unite Germany. Eventually will unite Germany.

10 EUROPEAN STATE SYSTEM The Peace of Westphalia,1648 The Peace of Westphalia,1648  Ended the Thirty Years' War.  Began system of independent sovereign states.  Abandoned notion of religious unity.  Did not end war between European states. The balance of power The balance of power  No state allowed to dominate others.  Diplomacy based on shifting alliances.  No permanent alliances.  Only permanent interests.  Religion unimportant to determining alliances.  Destroy no nation.  Make no permanent enemies.

11 EUROPEAN STATE SYSTEM Military development costly and competitive Military development costly and competitive  New armaments. Cannons and small arms. Cannons and small arms.  New military tactics.  Extremely intricate fortifications.  Professional navies with modern warships and weapons.  China, India, and the Islamic states did not keep up with Europe.  Small, well-trained armies become critical.

12 THE NATION-STATE Nation-State Nation-State  Ethnic group with common language, culture  Shared history, traditions  Shared institutions (faith, politics)  Occupying a common territory  Ruled by a common government  Government’s job Insure domestic tranquility and happiness Insure domestic tranquility and happiness Assumed many of the Church’s old social roles Assumed many of the Church’s old social roles  Multiple ethnic groups destroy nation-state

13 THE NATION-STATE Creation of a Nation-State Creation of a Nation-State  Ethnic group with common language and culture.  Shared history and traditions.  Shared institutions. Example: faith and/or politics. Example: faith and/or politics.  Occupying a common territory.  Ruled by a common government.  Government’s job: Insure domestic happiness. Insure domestic happiness. Assumed many of the church’s old social roles. Assumed many of the church’s old social roles.  Multiple ethnic groups destroy nation-state.

14 THE NATION-STATE Belief in Nation-state became new popular ideology Belief in Nation-state became new popular ideology  Nationalism is love of your nation above others.  Originated as an elite idea of the aristocracy and educated elite.  Loyalty to state and king more important than loyalty to the church and pope.  Martin Luther addresses the “German People”.  King James had the Bible translated into English  French have Joan of Arc fighting for France against English.  Dutch and Portuguese revolt against foreign Spanish rule.

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