Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Question 19 Question 1 Senate and Optimates/4 Militeray reform/4 Military commander and Populares/4 Structure + content/5 Language/3 Total/20 Question.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Question 19 Question 1 Senate and Optimates/4 Militeray reform/4 Military commander and Populares/4 Structure + content/5 Language/3 Total/20 Question."— Presentation transcript:

1 Question 19 Question 1 Senate and Optimates/4 Militeray reform/4 Military commander and Populares/4 Structure + content/5 Language/3 Total/20 Question 2 Land/6 Citizenship/6 Structure and content/5 Language/3 Total/20

2 The Age of Augustus (44 BC – 14 AD) CLAB06H3, Week 6 Feb. 11, 2009

3 Outline 1.Sources 1.The Year after Caesar’s Death (44-43 BC) 2.The Second Triumvirate and its Aftermaths (43-30 BC) 3.Octavian-Augustus’ Reign (30 BC – 14 AD)

4 1. Sources

5 Literary – Cicero – Appian’s Civil War – Suetonius (Augustus, Tiberius) – Plutarch’s Life of Antony – Cassius Dio’s History

6 1. Sources Papyrological (Egypt) Epigraphical – Augustus’ Res gestae – Monumental inscriptions – Funerary stelae Archaeological Iconographical

7 2. The Year after Caesar’s Death ( BC)

8 Mar. 15: Caesar’s murder Mar. 17: Antony’s compromise – No action against the murderers – No reversal of Caesar’s measures

9 2. The Year after Caesar’s Death (44-43 BC) Caesar’s public funerals Massive outcry against the assassins Mid-April: Brutus and Cassius away from Rome August: Governors of Crete + Cyrene Cleopatra and Caesarion back to Egypt

10 Caesar’s Will Roman people – Extensive property – 300 sesterces per individual Gaius Octavius (Octavian) – Sole heir – Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus

11 Caesar’s Will Roman people – Extensive property – 300 sesterces per individual Gaius Octavius (Octavian) – Sole heir – Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Antony vs Octavian

12 Born Sept. 63 BC Son of Caesar’s niece Atia + Gaius Octavius (novus homo) 45: With Caesar in Spain 44: Studies in Apollonia (Illyricum) – Back to Rome

13 Marc Antony Born 83 BC son of M. Antonius (equites) 57-54: Cavalry commander in Palestine + Egypt 53-50: With Caesar in Gaul 51: Quaestor 49: Tribune of the plebs 44: Consuls

14 Lepidus 49: Quaestor, supports Caesar 46: Consul 46-44: Magister equitum 44: Supports Antony Pontifex Maximus

15 44-43 BC Spring 44: Lepidus in Gaul and Nearer Spain – Vs Sextus Pompey Nov. 44: Antony towards Cisalpine Gaul – Besieges Mutina

16 44-43 BC Jan 43: Anti-Antony campaign (Cicero) – Philippics – 2 pro-senate consuls – Octavian propraetor + place in the Senate

17 Antony and Octavian April 43: – Antony’s defeat at Mutina + alliance with Lepidus – Octavian hailed as imperator

18 Antony and Octavian August 43: – Octavian consul (19 yrs old) Secures rewards for his veterans Caesar’s assassins + Sextus Pompey condemned + outlawed

19 3. The Second Triumvirate and its Aftermath (43-30 BC)

20 3. The Second Triumvirate (43-30 BC) Private meeting in Bononia Triumviri reipublicae constituendae = Triumvirs for the restoration of the State

21 3. The Second Triumvirate (43-30 BC) Legalized settlement: – Authority to make laws without reference to Senate or people – Juridiction without appeal – Authority to name all magistrates – Antony + Octavian = 20 legions each – Division of the Roman World (West)

22 Wars a. Caesaricides (42) b. Perusine War (41-40) c. Sextus Pompey (39-36) d. Antony vs Octavian (36-30)

23 a. War against the Cesaricides Need for money (soldiers) ?

24 a. War against the Cesaricides Need for money (soldiers) Confiscations (18 towns) + Proscriptions

25 a. War against the Cesaricides Need for money (soldiers) Confiscations (18 towns) + Proscriptions Political cleansing

26 Battle of Philippi (42) Brutus + Cassius + 100,000 vs Antony + Octavian + 100,000

27 Battle of Philippi (42) Brutus + Cassius + 100,000 vs Antony + Octavian + 100,000 End of the Republican cause

28 After Philippi Octavian: Italy – Veterans’ discharge – More confiscations – Sextus’ blockades Rome’s supply Antony: East – Cleopatra Misery + Famine + violence in Italy

29 b. Perusine War (41-40 BC) Why?Discontent against Octavian (confiscations) Who?Antonius (consul) + Fulvia vs Octavian Where?Perusa Outcome?Octavian’s victory (spring)

30 b. Perusine War (41-40 BC)

31 Brundisium Agreement (40 BC) Summer: – End of Anthony’s govenorship – Octavian takes Gaul + Spain

32 Brundisium Agreement (40 BC) September:Octavian + Antony meet at Brundisium – Antony marries Octavia – Territorial agreement Octavian = West Antony: East Lepidus: Africa

33 b. War against Sextus Pompey (39-36) Summer 39: Agreement (Misenum) – Sextus: Corsica + Sardinia + Peloponese for 5 years Fall 39: Octavian divorces 38: Sextus’ victories at Cumae + Messina

34 b. War against Sextus Pompey (39-36) – 37: Triumvirate renewed (Tarentum) Antony’s help (120 warships) – 36: Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa’s victory Naulochus (N Sicily) – 35: Sextus killed in Asia Minor

35 Octavian vs Lepidus Lepidus wants Sextus’ land forces Octavian gains the recongnition of Lepidus’ troop

36 Octavian vs Lepidus Lepidus wants Sextus’ land forces Octavian gains the recongnition of Lepidus’ troop Naulochus = turning point Sextus + Lepidus

37 Octavian vs Lepidus Lepidus wants Sextus’ land forces Octavian gains the recongnition of Lepidus’ troop Naulochus = turning point Sextus + Lepidus Antony vs Octavian

38 Antony in the East (42-30) 41: Tarsus (Cleopatra VII) 40: Parthian invasion of Syria + Asia Minor 40-39: Marries Octavia Spring 37: Tarentum = renewal of the triumvirate

39 Antony in the East (42-30) 37: Syria with Cleopatra 36: Counterattack against Parthia – Defeat – Important losses 35-34: Subdues Armenia – Octavian embarassing plan

40 d. Antony vs Octavian 34: Donation of Alexandria 33: Antony and Cleopatra in Greece 32: Antony divorces Octavia

41 d. Antony vs Octavian 32: Octavian’s propaganda – Cleopatra declared an enemy of Rome – Exhibition of Antony’s will – Oath of loyalty 31: Actium battle

42 What was the issue of the Actium Battle? a.Octavian won b.Antony and Cleopatra won c.Cleopatra switched side and helped Octavian win d.All sank e.Actually, this battle never happened

43 Augustus’ Reign (30 BC – 14 AD)

44 Octavian-Augustus (30 BC – 14 AD) a.Octavian and the Republic b.Military reform c.Provincial + external policies d.Urbanism e.Literature f.Augustus’ succession

45 How did Augustus manage to keep the power for so long? a.He killed all potential opponents b.He imposed himself as a king c.He used the army to strengthen his power d.He used the traditional institutions of the Republic e.He abolished all old institutions and created new political rules

46 a. Octavian and the Republic Basis of Octavian’s strategy to exert + keep power = Use of traditional Republican institutions

47 a. Octavian and the Republic Basis of Octavian’s strategy to exert + keep power = Use of traditional Republican institutions X dynastic or divinely-based power X military based power

48 The first Years 30:Still rules as triumvir 31-23:Consul every year 28:Agrippa and him coequal consuls Jan. 27: Hands back all his authority to the Roman people but…

49 The First Settlement Octavian: – Consul of Spain, Gaul, Cilicia, Cyprus, Syria, Egypt for 10 yrs Legati – Named Augustus, ‘revered’

50 The First Settlement (27 BC) Octavian: – Consul of Spain, Gaul, Cilicia, Cyprus, Syria, Egypt for 10 yrs Legati – Named Augustus, ‘revered’ Restoration of the Republic + Octavian-Augustus turns away from his violent past

51 The Second Settlement (23 BC) Augustus resigns consulship but Keeps – Provinces – Imperium Gains – Imperium maius – Tribunicia potestas

52 Other ‘Honors’ 19:Consul insigna 12:Pontifex maximus 2:Pater patriae

53 Senate From 1,000 to 600 members (Sulla) Entry condition: Quaestor (Sulla) Fortune: 400,000 to 1,000,000 sesterces Cursus honorum respected – Augustus’ control

54 New offices 5 BC: Consulship = 6 months = Suffect consuls 2 BC: Praetorian cohorts (supervised by 2 equestrian prefects) 6 AD: Vigiles (3,500, freedman status) 7-8 AD:Annona prefecture (5-6 AD = famines) 13 AD:Urban cohorts

55 How did Augustus retain effective power? a.Through force b.Through intimidation c.Through briberies d.Through his influence e.Through flattery

56 How did Augustus retain effective power? a.Through force b.Through intimidation c.Through briberies d.Through his influence e.Through flattery Unauthoritative leadership

57 Some Important Latin Words… New cognomen (family name) taken by Octavian in 27 BC, which later became an imperial title. It has a semi-religious connotation and means ‘revered’. a.Auctoritas b.Princeps c.Augustus d.Imperium e.Imperator

58 Some Important Latin Words… Unofficial influence exerted by, and prestige enjoyed by, those individuals or corporate bodies whose advice and recommendations gain special respect. a.Auctoritas b.Princeps c.Augustus d.Imperium e.Imperator

59 Some Important Latin Words… Originally a title for successful military commanders. From Augustus’ time it was used of the ‘emperor’ and from the Flavians (68 on) onwards it was a regular imperial title. a.Auctoritas b.Princeps c.Augustus d.Imperium e.Imperator

60 Some Important Latin Words… From the verb imperare, ‘to command’. Supreme authority in Rome’s affairs vested in certain officeholders, who could alone command troops and impose the death penalty. The one held by emperors was made maius (‘greater’) so that it outranked that of all other holders. a.Auctoritas b.Princeps c.Augustus d.Imperium e.Imperator

61 Some Important Latin Words… Lit. ‘leading figure’. During the Republic, an informal general term for the senators who carried the greatest weight in matters of state. It appealed to Augustus as the unassuming term that best fitted the position which he developed for himself. a.Auctoritas b.Princeps c.Augustus d.Imperium e.Imperator

62 b. Military Reforms Size (Expenses) – At least 300,000 men discharged – Land and $ for veterans Control + allegiance – Almost all in imperial provinces – Rise of centurions’ pay – Oath in the name of Augustus + his family

63 b. Military Reforms 6 AD: Aerarium militare = fund for veterans – Tax on inheritance + sales 13 AD: Professionalization – Volunteer citizens – Military service = 20 years and + – Bounty: $, land

64 c. Provincial + External Policies Doubled Empire’s size: – Egypt – Whole Iberian peninsula – Up to the Rhine (Raetia, Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Moesia) – All the Alps – Galatia – Judaea

65 c. Provincial + External Policies Doubled Empire’s size: – Egypt – Whole Iberian peninsula – Up to the Rhine (Raetia, Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Moesia) – All the Alps – Galatia – Judaea Diplomatic relationships with Parthia

66 Augustean Empire Reached natural boundaries

67 Augustean Empire 2 types of provinces – Senatorial – Imperial

68 Augustean Empire Senatorial provinces – Stable ones – Not a lot of soldiers – Governed by proconsuls former consuls or praetors

69 Augustean Empire Imperial provinces – instable + new ones – Bulk of the soldiers – Governed by legati Augusti pro praetore equestrian Former consuls or praetors With an equestrian procurator ($)

70

71 d. Urbanism 3 new aqueducts Senate house (Curia Julia) New forum + temple to Mars Avenger Extensive development of the Campus Martius Augustus’ mausoleum + Ara pacis

72 Which one of the following was not an aim of Augustus’ urban projects? a.To give work to masses of unemployed men b.To glorify Augustus c.To glorify Rome d.To glorify the Senate e.To bring prosperity back to Rome

73 e. Literature Literary boom: – Patronage – Biased – Model = Greece

74 e. Literature Literary boom: – Lucretius (~94-54 BC) = philosophy – Catullus (~84-54 BC) = love poems – Virgil (70-19 BC) = epic poem, Aeneid – Horace (65 BC- 8 AD) = poems – Propertius (47 BC – 15 AD) = poems – Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD) = poems

75 e. Culture Augustus’ Res gestae – For admiration – Self-representation = restraint, responsibility, honor, pacifier

76 f. Augustus’ Succession Succession = constant issue 2 wives: – 39: Scribonia Julia – 38 - : Livia Drusilla Tiberius Claudius Nero (42 BC) Drusus (38 BC)

77 Strategy 1: Natural grandson adopted as son 21: Agrippa + Julia – Gaius (20 BC) – Lucius (17 BC) Adopted by Augustus

78 Strategy 2: Another natural grandson 12 BC: Agrippa dies – Asks Tiberius to marry Julia Dead born child 6 BC: Tiberius = imperium + tribunicia potestas Soon after: Gaius favored + Tiberius out of Rome

79 Step 3: Tiberius 2 BC: Julia exiled + Lucius dies 1 AD: Gaius dies 4 AD: Tiberius adopted 13 AD: Powers equal to Augustus’ 14 AD: Augustus dies


Download ppt "Question 19 Question 1 Senate and Optimates/4 Militeray reform/4 Military commander and Populares/4 Structure + content/5 Language/3 Total/20 Question."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google