Meiji Restoration: Lead-up Choshu incident 1863 –Choshu tries to sink Western ships –Choshu marches against Kyoto to capture Emperor but fails Tokugawa fails to punish Choshu
Meiji Restoration: Lead-up Review: 1864: Ships from England, France, Holland and the US all attack the Choshu –Choshu leaders recognize futility of resistance – for now –Map out new response including modernization/Westernization Young Choshu leaders visit London 1860s
Meiji Restoration 1868 Choshu and Satsuma draw up alliance Plot revolution Young Samurai decide to reform Japan March on Kyoto and seize new young Emperor Meiji Declare Restoration of the Emperor to his rightful place –Liberate the Emperor from Tokugawa’s rule –Emperor to rule directly Satsuma/Choshu Plotters
Meiji Restoration 1868 Declare Restoration of the Emperor to his rightful place –Liberate the Emperor from Tokugawa’s rule –Emperor to rule directly Emperor issues decree ending the rule of the Tokugawa Shoguns Young Emperor Meiji
Meiji Restoration Tokugawa Shogunate counter attacks Satsuma/Choshu alliance wins Meiji Emperor assumes leadership with Satsuma and Choshu based committee of advisors –New Government made up of young Samurai with a smattering of nobles
Meiji Restoration Why Satsuma and Choshu? Two richest Han Choshu: 100 + years of illegal, secret investment in commercial enterprises –They were secretly running a merchant trade Satsuma: Profitable sugar monopoly Both: Secretly and illegally traded with Western nations for technology and military equipment Satsuma Choshu
Meiji Leadership Collective leadership with the Emperor 20-30 young leaders –Mostly samurai –Mostly from Satsuma or Choshu –Includes some reformers among the royal court Known as the Meiji Oligarchy
Imperial Role?? Note: Emperor Meiji is still the heir to the Yamato clan dynasty –His ancestors had reigned from @ 300 CE –Since the beginning of the Kamakura period, Shoguns ruled while the emperor reigned Meiji Restoration: Still the Yamato heir is relevant. –Does he rule or reign?
Meiji Oligarchy: Ruling Platform To survive Japan must modernize… Become a Rich nation with a Strong Army: Fukoku Kyohei Japan must learn from the West Japan must Adapt to a Western-dominated world By learning and adapting, Japan can become modern By becoming modern they can become rich By becoming rich they can build a strong army With a strong army they can become truly independent Fukoku Kyohei!
Meiji Oligarchy Ruling Platform Iwakura Mission Japan sends diplomatic mission to Western nations San Francisco across the US London Continental Europe Goals: Build relationships: earn Western respect Gain knowledge: patterns of business, science, and government
Meiji Restoration: Rapid Westernization / modernization Japan launches wholesale Westernization drive Wholesale rejection of all things Japanese Even Japanese art takes on a strictly modern tone
Meiji Restoration: Rapid Westernization / modernization Abolish Caste Structure Strip Daimyo of Han and special privilege Compensate Daimyo for lost land with cash Abolish Samurai class and privileges Adopt conscript army of commoners Forbid wearing of swords Assign many former samurai as government officials
Satsuma Rebellion – 1877: Reaction to too much modernization Saigō Takamori: a Meiji Oligarch Saw too much change Feared Japan was losing its soul Angered by Korea’s refusal (1873) to recognize Emperor (they called him a king) Wanted war with Korea – (got unequal treaty with Korea, 1874) Oligarchy saw war with Korea as a distraction – would not attack Saigo stormed out
Satsuma Rebellion: 1877 Saigo leads failed attack against the too-modern Meiji government Tries to reinstitute special role of Samurai Failed last throe of traditional Japan Basis for “The Last Samurai” movie with Tom Cruise
Meiji Program Following the Iwakura Mission –Japanese Business largely borrows American and British models –Japanese Government patterns itself after Germany Sovereign monarch (Germany’s Kaiser) Weak legislative branch (Germany’s Diet) Constitution as a gift from the Emperor Powerful, professional, prestigious bureaucracy Iwakura Mission departs from Japan, 1871
Meiji’s Economic Plan Government supported rapid development Market-based economy Former Daimyo stripped of land but paid compensation –Daimyo fortunes become source of CAPITAL for new manufacturing firms –Merchant fortunes also fund new manufacturing Government plays strong role in directing investment
Political/economic theory: Alexander Gerschenkron: “Late Development State” Late developing nations need strong government Private business cannot compete with advanced foreign competitors Strong Government must coordinate and lead development Strong, development state necessary to succeed A government strong enough to succeed in late development, generally is too strong for participatory democracy
Meiji Oligarchy: Successful Late Developing State Dramatic Economic take-off Motivated by feelings of insecurity Driven by need to achieve equality with West Spurred by desire to become powerful and thus independent Fukoku Kyohei!!
Meiji Constitution Prince Ito Hirobumi –Iwakura Mission Meiji Constitution –a gift from the Emperor Imperial Sovereignty Transcendental cabinet –doesn’t answer to parliament (Diet) Independent military –Answers only to the Emperor –Strong position in Cabinet Elite Bureaucracy –Well educated –Powerful, professional, prestigious –Insulated from electoral pressure
Bureaucracy in Japan Difficult Civil Service Exam Political appointments minimal Elite educational requirements –Tokyo National University, Dept. of Law Extraordinary policy-making authority –Patterned after Kaiser Wilhelm's Germany –Similar to France – elite education
Legislature in Meiji Constitution Diet –Two Houses –Commoners and Lords –Commons elected (but only 5% male suffrage) –Little power except BUDGET On budget, if impasse occurs, last year’s budget automatically rolls over This power surprisingly became the source of an expanded legislative role
Cabinet in Meiji Constitution Transcendental –Doesn’t answer to Diet –Only to Emperor Special Military Ministers –In later periods military ministers had to be active duty officers –Cabinet was incomplete without military ministers –Gave military extraordinary power to drive government