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The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Monarchy of Ivan IV Peter the Great Faces of History: Peter the Great Catherine.

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Presentation on theme: "The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Monarchy of Ivan IV Peter the Great Faces of History: Peter the Great Catherine."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Monarchy of Ivan IV Peter the Great Faces of History: Peter the Great Catherine the Great Map: The Expansion of Russia Rulers of Russia and Central Europe

2 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Preview, continued Monarchy and Conflict in Central Europe Map: Central Europe Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Spain’s Golden Century Rulers of Russia and Central Europe

3 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Reading Focus How did Ivan IV strengthen the Russian monarchy? What reforms did Peter the Great make in Russia? How did the rule of Catherine the Great affect Russia? What states formed in Central Europe in the 1600s and 1700s? Main Idea The czars of Russia struggled with the westernization of their empire, while powerful families battled for control of Central Europe. Rulers of Russia and Central Europe

4 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 As a result of such achievements, the years from 1547 to 1563 are known as Ivan’s “good period.” In the 1500s Russia far behind western Europe in technical advancement and centralized government Russia run by church officials and boyars, or landowners Had conservative viewpoints 1546, young prince claimed title of czar, put Russia on different course Title was version of Latin word caesar, or emperor New czar, Ivan, intended to rule without limits on power His own madness created chaos Rule Without Limits The Monarchy of Ivan IV During early years, Ivan IV made many reforms—created general council that included merchants, lower-level nobles Promoted military officers on merit; drew up legal code Expanded Russia’s borders, trade Reforms of Ivan IV

5 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Private Police Force Created private police force to investigate, punish opposition Men dressed in black, rode black horses Controlled almost half of Russia’s territory in Ivan’s name Brutally punished anyone who spoke out against czar’s policies Ivan the Terrible During 1560s, Ivan changed Strict policies, violent actions sealed reputation as Ivan the Terrible Suspicious of closest advisors; sent them away, killed supporters Was convinced wife was murdered, people conspiring against him

6 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Death of Ivan’s son may have been accident, but left Russia without heir to throne Uncertainty about succession, economic problems, foreign invasions made chaotic period known as Time of Troubles 1613, Michael, relative of Ivan’s first wife, crowned czar; first of Romanov dynasty Dynasty lasted until 1917 Time of Troubles 1565, harshness continued; seized land from 12,000 boyars Ordered killing of thousands of people in Novgorod; suspected they wanted to separate from Russia 1581, killed his own son, next in line to be czar Descent into mental illness seemed complete Descent into Mental Illness Last Years of Ivan

7 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Contrast How did the early rule of Ivan IV differ from his later years? Answer(s): early years marked by many reforms that strengthened the government; later years marked by suspicion, creation of royal police, terror

8 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 About 70 years later, Peter I crowned czar. Became known as Peter the Great for his efforts to transform Russia into a modern state. 1682, Peter became czar while a child; sister ruled in his place Age 17, removed sister from throne, took power for himself –Tall, strong man –Had strong personality, boundless energy One of first acts, stormed Azov, Black Sea port held by Turks Early Rule Attack disaster, but inspired Peter to build navy Labored side-by-side with thousands of carpenters Built hundreds of ships New navy took up Azov campaign Turks surrendered Building a Navy Peter the Great

9 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Westernization Peter realized country needed to modernize to catch up with rest of Europe Wanted westernization; to bring elements of Western culture to Russia 1697, journeyed to western Europe to see what Russia needed to modernize Rebellion Trip cut short by rebellion of streltsy, military corps with political influence Thought streltsy wanted sister on throne; had members tortured, executed Disbanded streltsy, organized more modern army New Skills Peter traveled in disguise, was sometimes recognized anyway Learned hands-on skills, especially shipbuilding Recruited European experts to bring skills to Russia Modernization and Reform

10 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 In addition to modernizing army, Peter made many other reforms Brought church under state control Built up Russian industry Started first newspaper in Russia Sponsored new schools Modernized calendar, promoted officials on service, not social status Supported education; believed Russians needed to learn more about science from West Wanted Russians to adopt European-style clothing, grooming Cut off boyars’ traditional long coats, beards to look European Cues from West Through these, other reforms Peter tried to impose will on Russians Goal was to make Russia more modern country Not always successful, but considered founder of modern Russia for efforts Modern Russia Reforms

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12 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 St. Petersburg Peter also founded a new city Early 1700s, fought Sweden to acquire warm-water port –Other ports choked by ice much of year –Port farther south on Baltic Sea to keep Russia open to western trade all year, connect Russia to west On land won from Sweden, Peter built new capital, St. Petersburg –Russia’s government moved to new city –Featured Western-style architecture

13 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Recall Name three ways in which Peter the Great attempted to westernize Russia. Answer(s): by encouraging men to shave off their beards, encouraging people to adopt European styles of dress, building a new capital with Western-style architecture

14 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Russia’s next important ruler was actually a German princess who came to Russia to marry a grandson of Peter the Great. She became known as Catherine the Great. Husband became Czar Peter III Catherine and many nobles grew angry at his incompetent, weak rule Catherine seized power, was declared czarina of Russia Takes Power Catherine saw self as true successor of Peter the Great Worked to build on his westernization efforts To emphasize legitimacy of her claim, built statue honoring Peter Honoring Peter I Influenced by European thinkers— believed strong, wise ruler could improve life for subjects Reformed legal, education systems Removed restrictions on trade; promoted science, the arts Early Reforms Catherine the Great

15 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Conflicts Catherine tried to reform Russia, was distracted by conflict Faced war in Poland, where people wanted freedom from Russian influence 1768, Ottoman Empire joined Polish cause Strengthening the Monarchy In the end, man captured, beheaded, rebellion put down Rebellion convinced Catherine she needed to strengthen monarchy in rural areas; put local governments in hands of landowners, nobles War and Rebellion Eventually won war, took over half of Poland, territory on Black Sea While war raging, Catherine faced popular rebellion inside Russia Man claiming to be Peter III traveled countryside, leading ragtag army Challenges to Catherine’s Rule

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17 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Analyze What was one way that Catherine showed she was an absolute monarch? Answer(s): possible answer—she strengthened the monarchy's authority in rural areas

18 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 1500s, 1600s Central European rulers never became absolute monarchs Holy Roman Empire headed by single emperor, but did not have total authority Hapsburg Family Since 1450s, all Holy Roman Emperors came from single family—the Hapsburgs 1600s, Thirty Years’ War began Imperial Power Holy Roman Empire included dozens of small states Each had own ruler who fought vigorously against increased imperial power Continent-Wide Affair Attempt by Hapsburg emperor to exert authority launched war Alliances between Hapsburgs, other European monarchs, made war continent-wide affair Monarchy and Conflict in Central Europe

19 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Catholics against Protestants War began as religious dispute 1618, official representing Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, a Catholic, ordered two Protestant churches in Prague be shut down Rebellion Grew Nobles from 2 German states rebelled against emperor; nobles from other states soon joined them Rulers of other countries became involved as well Religious Revolt Local Protestants furious, threw emperor’s representatives out palace windows onto rubbish heap Emperor’s attempt to control religion sparked revolt throughout region The Thirty Years War

20 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Treaty and Toleration War dragged on until 1648, had devastating effects on Germany Two sides agreed to Treaty of Westphalia to end war Treaty extended religious toleration to both Catholics, Protestants Also reduced even more the power of the Holy Roman Emperor Strengthened rulers of states within it Choosing Sides Monarchs of Spain, also members of Hapsburg family, joined war on Ferdinand’s side King of France, Spain’s rival, joined Protestant opposition Kings of Denmark, Sweden also joined on Protestant side

21 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Frederick promised Maria Theresa to help her husband become the Holy Roman Emperor. Among the rulers who gained the most from the Treaty of Westphalia were the leaders of Austria and Prussia. Austria was governed by the Hapsburg family, while Prussia’s rulers came from a rival family, the Hohenzollerns. 1740, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died without male heir Before he died, approved document called Pragmatic Sanction, stating empire could be passed to female heir Pragmatic Sanction Austria and Prussia Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa could now take throne Hohenzollerns had different plan Frederick II of Prussia, Frederick the Great, seized Silesia Offered Maria Theresa an alliance Reforms of Ivan IV

22 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Monarchy and Conflict in Central Europe Maria Theresa turned Frederick’s offer down, War of Austrian Succession broke out, 1740 Spain, France, two German states entered war on Prussia’s side Each hoped to gain territory 1748, with so much against her, Maria Theresa asked for peace Prussia kept Silesia, putting Prussia in position of real power

23 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 During first part of war, Prussia on verge of defeat; at one point Austrian, Russian forces occupied capital of Berlin Russia pulled out, allowing Prussia to regain strength, eventually becoming strongest military power in Europe 1763, war ended, but rivalry far from over; struggle for control of Central Europe continued Prussia Rebounds Prussia’s victory only intensified rivalry between Austria and Hungary Not long until war broke out again 1756, Seven Years’ War began On one side Prussia, Great Britain; on the other Austria, France, Russia Another War Continued Rivalry

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25 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Recall What were three wars that affected Central Europe? Answer(s): Thirty Years’ War, War of the Austrian Succession, Seven Years’ War

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27 The Monarchs of Europe Section 4 Video The Impact of Spain’s Golden Century Click above to play the video.

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