Presentation on theme: "Henry VIII The English Reformation. The War of the Roses Two branches of the Plantagenet royal family, Lancaster and York, broke out into conflict with."— Presentation transcript:
The War of the Roses Two branches of the Plantagenet royal family, Lancaster and York, broke out into conflict with one another for the throne of England. Lancastrians (Red Rose) Yorkists (White Rose) Fighting continued on and off from 1455-1485.
The War of the Roses A Lancastrian claimant to the throne, Henry Tudor, eventually defeated the Yorkist king Richard III. He married Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth of York, and unified both the houses of Lancaster and York. This began the Tudor dynasty which will continue to rule England for the next 117 years.
Henry VII Henry VII’s rule was constantly being challenged by rebellion and strife. He spent most of his rule asserting royal power and unifying his country. Henry VII strengthened monarchal power England and closely regulated governmental spending. Royal income rose from an annual average of £52,000 to £142,000. Henry VII spent money shrewdly and left a full treasury on his death in 1509.
Henry VIII Henry VIII (1491-1547) became King of England in 1509. He was described in his youth as being very athletic and highly intelligent. An observer noted that “he speaks good French, Latin, and Spanish; is very religious; hears three masses daily when he hunted … He is extremely fond of hunting, and never takes that diversion without tiring eight or ten horses … He is also fond of tennis.”
Henry VIII Henry was a staunch Roman Catholic and was given the title “Defender of the Faith” by the pope because of his attacks on Martin Luther. Henry inherited a stable realm and a full treasury from his father. Henry quickly became bored with governmental administration and allowed his Lord Chancellor, Thomas Wolsey, to tend to England’s affairs.
Thomas Wolsey Wolsey was a butcher’s son who rose through the ranks due to his skills and abilities. Henry eventually appointed Wolsey as a Cardinal which effectively allowed him to “govern” the Church of England. Wolsey grew extremely powerful in a few short years and the extent to which his power grew can best be seen in the palace he had built for himself – Hampton Court.
Henry’s Ambitions Henry’s interest in foreign policy was focused on Western Europe. Henry became obsessed with waging war against his continental neighbors France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire. Through his family and marriage he was related to the kings of these different areas. Henry spent a huge amount of money on his wars and essentially emptied the treasury.
Military Spending Henry also invested in the navy, increasing the number of ships from 5 to 53.
The Beginning of Trouble Henry had married his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon, in 1509. The couple produced only one surviving child – Princess Mary. By the end of the 1520s, Catherine was in her forties and Henry was desperate for a son.
The Search for a Male Heir Henry desperately needed a son to solidify his family’s rule over England. Being the second Tudor ruler he was in no position to hand the crown over to his daughter. Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn, the sister of one of his many mistresses.
Anne Boleyn Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn so that their union could produce a legitimate heir. He sought to get his marriage annulled by the Church because Catholic law does not permit divorce. The pope, fearing the reaction of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (Catherine's uncle,) would not grant Henry the annulment. Wolsey, who had rallied for Henry’s cause, was dismissed by Henry for his failure and imprisoned (he later died in prison.)
Thomas Cromwell Henry then turned to Wolsey’s successor, Thomas Cromwell, to use his Parliamentary power to obtain the annulment Henry desired. The result was a series of Acts cutting back papal power and influence in England and bringing about the English Reformation.
The Acts The Act against Annates – Threatened ecclesiastical revenues to the Pope The Act in Restraint of Appeals – Forbade appeals to Rome The Act of Submission of the Clergy – Church laws could only be passed with the king’s consent The Act of Succession – Kings were allowed to determine their heirs The Act of Supremacy – Made Henry “the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England.”
Thomas Cranmer Henry appointed Thomas Cranmer as the new Archbishop of Canterbury. In May 1533 Cranmer declared Henry’s marriage as invalid and a week later Anne Boleyn was crowned queen. While Cromwell used the power of Parliament to increase Henry’s power, Thomas Cranmer manipulated church law to grant Henry his annulment.
Rome’s Reaction The pope responded to Henry’s actions by excommunicating him. Henry’s policies forced his followers to choose between the king and the pope – those who opposed Henry were executed. The most famous of these men killed was the Grand Chancellor Sir Thomas More who was beheaded in 1535 for treason.
Monastic Life Another victim of Henry’s policies was the monasteries and convents of England. Henry claimed the land holdings of these monasteries for the crown and sold them off to the highest bidder. This generated a huge source of revenue for the crown which was quickly spent on new palaces and wars. The large number of displaced monks and nuns created a growing Catholic population who hated Henry.
Anne Boleyn Henry’s second marriage to Anne Boleyn produced only one heir –Princess Elizabeth. When Anne failed to produce a male child Henry had her tried for treason and beheaded. In 1537, Henry married his third wife – Jane Seymour – who gave birth to Prince Edward VI. Jane died twelve days after the birth.
More Marriages Henry married three more times after the death of Jane Seymour. Anne of Cleves (divorced) Henry’s failed marriage to Anne manufactured Cromwell’s downfall – he was arrested and executed. Katherine Howard (beheaded on grounds of adultery) Catherine Parr (who survived) None of these subsequent marriages produced any more children.
To Recap … Wife 1 – Catherine of Aragon (divorced) Wife 2 – Anne Boleyn (beheaded) Wife 3 – Jane Seymour (died) Wife 4 – Anne of Cleves (divorced) Wife 5 – Katherine Howard (beheaded) Wife 6 – Catherine Parr (survived)
Henry’s Later Life Henry made sure that his sole male heir, Edward, received the best Protestant education possible. He essentially disowned his Catholic daughter Mary and mostly ignored his other daughter Elizabeth. The last years of Henry’s life were spent campaigning against the French. He quickly squandered all forms of income on pointless wars, plunged the crown into steep debt, and inflated the national currency.
Henry’s Death Henry died in London on January 28, 1547. Henry suffered from gout, morbid obesity, genetic deformities, and diabetes.
Henry’s Legacy Henry left behind a country in shambles. His wars and wasteful spending left his country nearly bankrupt. His religious changes created a large rift between the Catholic and Protestants in his country. He left behind only one sickly male heir and two daughters who were declared illegitimate. None of Henry’s children would produce any offspring. Henry’s policies radically changed royal power in England and established the Anglican Church.