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Henry VIII The English Reformation. The War of the Roses  Two branches of the Plantagenet royal family, Lancaster and York, broke out into conflict with.

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Presentation on theme: "Henry VIII The English Reformation. The War of the Roses  Two branches of the Plantagenet royal family, Lancaster and York, broke out into conflict with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Henry VIII The English Reformation

2 The War of the Roses  Two branches of the Plantagenet royal family, Lancaster and York, broke out into conflict with one another for the throne of England.  Lancastrians (Red Rose)  Yorkists (White Rose)  Fighting continued on and off from 1455-1485.

3 The War of the Roses  A Lancastrian claimant to the throne, Henry Tudor, eventually defeated the Yorkist king Richard III.  He married Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth of York, and unified both the houses of Lancaster and York.  This began the Tudor dynasty which will continue to rule England for the next 117 years.

4 Henry VII  Henry VII’s rule was constantly being challenged by rebellion and strife.  He spent most of his rule asserting royal power and unifying his country.  Henry VII strengthened monarchal power England and closely regulated governmental spending.  Royal income rose from an annual average of £52,000 to £142,000.  Henry VII spent money shrewdly and left a full treasury on his death in 1509.

5 Henry VIII  Henry VIII (1491-1547) became King of England in 1509.  He was described in his youth as being very athletic and highly intelligent.  An observer noted that “he speaks good French, Latin, and Spanish; is very religious; hears three masses daily when he hunted … He is extremely fond of hunting, and never takes that diversion without tiring eight or ten horses … He is also fond of tennis.”

6 Henry VIII  Henry was a staunch Roman Catholic and was given the title “Defender of the Faith” by the pope because of his attacks on Martin Luther.  Henry inherited a stable realm and a full treasury from his father.  Henry quickly became bored with governmental administration and allowed his Lord Chancellor, Thomas Wolsey, to tend to England’s affairs.

7 Thomas Wolsey  Wolsey was a butcher’s son who rose through the ranks due to his skills and abilities.  Henry eventually appointed Wolsey as a Cardinal which effectively allowed him to “govern” the Church of England.  Wolsey grew extremely powerful in a few short years and the extent to which his power grew can best be seen in the palace he had built for himself – Hampton Court.

8 Hampton Court Palace

9 Henry’s Ambitions  Henry’s interest in foreign policy was focused on Western Europe.  Henry became obsessed with waging war against his continental neighbors France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire.  Through his family and marriage he was related to the kings of these different areas.  Henry spent a huge amount of money on his wars and essentially emptied the treasury.

10 Military Spending  Henry also invested in the navy, increasing the number of ships from 5 to 53.

11 The Beginning of Trouble  Henry had married his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon, in 1509.  The couple produced only one surviving child – Princess Mary.  By the end of the 1520s, Catherine was in her forties and Henry was desperate for a son.

12 The Search for a Male Heir  Henry desperately needed a son to solidify his family’s rule over England.  Being the second Tudor ruler he was in no position to hand the crown over to his daughter.  Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn, the sister of one of his many mistresses.

13 Anne Boleyn  Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn so that their union could produce a legitimate heir.  He sought to get his marriage annulled by the Church because Catholic law does not permit divorce.  The pope, fearing the reaction of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (Catherine's uncle,) would not grant Henry the annulment.  Wolsey, who had rallied for Henry’s cause, was dismissed by Henry for his failure and imprisoned (he later died in prison.)

14 Thomas Cromwell  Henry then turned to Wolsey’s successor, Thomas Cromwell, to use his Parliamentary power to obtain the annulment Henry desired.  The result was a series of Acts cutting back papal power and influence in England and bringing about the English Reformation.

15 The Acts  The Act against Annates – Threatened ecclesiastical revenues to the Pope  The Act in Restraint of Appeals – Forbade appeals to Rome  The Act of Submission of the Clergy – Church laws could only be passed with the king’s consent  The Act of Succession – Kings were allowed to determine their heirs  The Act of Supremacy – Made Henry “the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England.”

16 Thomas Cranmer  Henry appointed Thomas Cranmer as the new Archbishop of Canterbury.  In May 1533 Cranmer declared Henry’s marriage as invalid and a week later Anne Boleyn was crowned queen.  While Cromwell used the power of Parliament to increase Henry’s power, Thomas Cranmer manipulated church law to grant Henry his annulment.

17 Rome’s Reaction  The pope responded to Henry’s actions by excommunicating him.  Henry’s policies forced his followers to choose between the king and the pope – those who opposed Henry were executed.  The most famous of these men killed was the Grand Chancellor Sir Thomas More who was beheaded in 1535 for treason.

18 Monastic Life  Another victim of Henry’s policies was the monasteries and convents of England.  Henry claimed the land holdings of these monasteries for the crown and sold them off to the highest bidder.  This generated a huge source of revenue for the crown which was quickly spent on new palaces and wars.  The large number of displaced monks and nuns created a growing Catholic population who hated Henry.

19 Anne Boleyn  Henry’s second marriage to Anne Boleyn produced only one heir –Princess Elizabeth.  When Anne failed to produce a male child Henry had her tried for treason and beheaded.  In 1537, Henry married his third wife – Jane Seymour – who gave birth to Prince Edward VI.  Jane died twelve days after the birth.

20 More Marriages  Henry married three more times after the death of Jane Seymour.  Anne of Cleves (divorced)  Henry’s failed marriage to Anne manufactured Cromwell’s downfall – he was arrested and executed.  Katherine Howard (beheaded on grounds of adultery)  Catherine Parr (who survived)  None of these subsequent marriages produced any more children.

21 To Recap …  Wife 1 – Catherine of Aragon (divorced)  Wife 2 – Anne Boleyn (beheaded)  Wife 3 – Jane Seymour (died)  Wife 4 – Anne of Cleves (divorced)  Wife 5 – Katherine Howard (beheaded)  Wife 6 – Catherine Parr (survived)

22 Henry’s Later Life  Henry made sure that his sole male heir, Edward, received the best Protestant education possible.  He essentially disowned his Catholic daughter Mary and mostly ignored his other daughter Elizabeth.  The last years of Henry’s life were spent campaigning against the French.  He quickly squandered all forms of income on pointless wars, plunged the crown into steep debt, and inflated the national currency.

23 Henry’s Death  Henry died in London on January 28, 1547.  Henry suffered from gout, morbid obesity, genetic deformities, and diabetes.

24 Henry’s Legacy  Henry left behind a country in shambles.  His wars and wasteful spending left his country nearly bankrupt.  His religious changes created a large rift between the Catholic and Protestants in his country.  He left behind only one sickly male heir and two daughters who were declared illegitimate.  None of Henry’s children would produce any offspring.  Henry’s policies radically changed royal power in England and established the Anglican Church.

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