2Before the Tudors…Prior to British mainland was defined by the feudal system-Lesser kings from different Scandinavian regions werevying for power for centuries
3Before the Tudors…William of Normandy is victorious at the Battle of HastingsFor us, TWO major results:1) Consolidates power over the region2) Imposes French culture
4Before the Tudors… 1087 - William dies (and the corpse…) -His death = MASSIVE competition for the crownEngland basically at war with itself off and on until 1485
5Before the Tudors… 1450-1485 – The War of the Roses -A thirty-five year power struggle for between the House of Lancaster and the House of YorkHenry of Lancaster wins and the conflict ends
6Before the Tudors…A politically crafty Henry extends an olive branch by marrying Elizabeth of York (daughter of the enemy)Their marriage unifies EnglandHe becomes Henry VIIFamily is known as the House of Tudor
7Henry VII Henry has two focuses during his reign: 1) Consolidating Power2) Acquiring vast amounts of money for the crown*** Henry’s efforts build the foundation for Britain’s rise as a world power
8Henry VIII 1509 - Henry VII dies -His second son, Henry VIII, ascends throneHenry VIII’s priority is maintaining, strengthening, and securing the kingdom his father established*** What is the main ingredient in this recipe for success? A MALE HEIR!
9Henry VIII At 19, Henry VIII marries Catherine of Aragon (a Spanish queen)They are married for about 20 years-Despite multiple pregnancies, they have only one surviving child……a daughter (Mary Tudor)
10Henry VIII Henry desperately needs a son to secure his kingdom… … So he makes a BIG decision, and life in England becomes really interesting…
11Henry VIIIHenry decides to “rid himself” of Catherine and try again with Anne BoleynThe Catholic Church did not recognize divorce, so he had two options:1) Execute her – definitely lead to war with Spain2) Divorce her – possibly lead to war with Spain, and definitely lead to excommunication
12Henry VIIIHenry chose divorce, but since he could not rule as an excommunicated king, he wisely first divorced himself and England from the Catholic Church
13Henry VIII1530s - Through massive legislation, Henry and Parliament refuted the Pope’s authority and severed England’s ties with RomeThe Anglican church (Protestant) is established, and Henry acts as its headHe “sold” this concept to his subjects in three ways:1) Emphasized the Divine Right of Kings2) Make the Pope out to be fraud.3) Sacked monasteries, churches and cathedrals throughout the country
14Henry VIII And now back to the business of begetting an heir… Henry does marry Anne Boleyn, but she gives birth to another daughter (Elizabeth)Henry = Not Happy. Anne = Beheaded.
15Henry VIII A list of Henry’s wives and their demise: Catherine of Aragon – divorced-daughter, Mary Tudor2) Anne Boleyn – beheaded-daughter, Elizabeth3) Jane Seymour – died-son, Edward4) Anne of Cleves - divorced5) Catherine Howard – beheaded6) Catherine Parr - survived
16Henry VIII 1547 – Henry VIII dies Historically, the most important decision he made was to divorce Catherine of Aragon***Henry’s decision to split from the Catholic Church was based solely on politics, but it had a massive impact on not only England’s history, but also the social, political, and religious climate around the world
17Edward VIEdward VI (son Henry VIII and Jane Seymour) ascends the throne at the ripe old age of 9During his reign, he absolutelyreinforces his father’s break from theCatholic ChurchWhy? If he doesn’t, he is considered an illegitimate child and likely faces execution
18Edward VI He’s a sickly child, and doesn’t last long… 1533 – Edward dies(without an heir)
19Lady Jane GreyOnce Henry’s only male heir had died, the power struggle beganEdward’s will forbade his sisters from succeeding him, so Lady Jane Grey, a cousin, is placed on the throneHer ascension is deemed unacceptable by her political enemies, and her reign lasts only nine days (she is beheaded)
20Mary Tudor Mary Tudor (daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon) assumes the throneBefore she ever took power, her reign was viewed as “problematic”Why? Mary is thoroughly Catholic (born into Catholic marriage, raised Catholic)
21Mary Tudor Mary’s reign was defined by an ideological religious quest to undo everything her father had doneOne of her first acts was to marry Phillip ofSpainThis was a blatant and bold political move for several reasons:1) Reaffirmed her mother’s reputation/honor2) Reestablished ties between Spain andEngland (Spain is powerhouse at thispoint)3) Sent a clear message that she supported Catholicism, not Anglicanism
22Mary TudorA strong, stubborn leader, Mary legislated the “undoing” of the English reformationEarned the nickname “Bloody Mary” for the following:1) Killed about 300 religious dissenters who refused to convert2) Imprisoned her sister Elizabeth3) Forcibly moved England back to Catholicism
23Mary Tudor 1558 - Mary dies, and without an heir Side note: She was so psychologically desperate to produce an heir, Mary had several “phantom” pregnancies during which she actually stopped menstruating and physically appeared pregnant
24Elizabeth I1558 – Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn) ascends the throneIn a Catholic England, she could not lawfully reign because shewould be considered anillegitimate childSo…
25Elizabeth I…Elizabeth sets about undoing everything Mary did in order to restore the Protestant England her father establishedThe “Virgin Queen” reigns until 1603 (45 years), during which:-England experienced its own renaissance-England became the world’s strongest naval power
26Elizabeth I This is the world Shakespeare was born into (1564) -Religion and politics went hand in hand, and bothseemed arbitraryElizabeth I was anactive and generouspatron of the theatre-Had her own actingcompany calledthe “Queen's Men”
27Elizabeth IElizabeth stood against the Puritans who wished to close down the theatres-Without her support the Elizabethan theatres would not have survived1590s - Court performances by acting companies became popular and Shakespeare's company was selected more than any other*** Shakespeare does not refer to his queen very often, but he certainly benefited from her love of the theater
28Elizabeth IAs you read Hamlet, consider the social, political, and religious turmoil the people of England had experienced in the past 50 yearsKeep watch for Shakespeare’s dealing with such issues embedded in the text!
29History ROCKS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_monarchs -List of all the English monarchs; pictures-Tudor family tree-European timeline during the Tudor reign-Tudor signatures; awesome!