Rome’s last gasps … Theodoric the Great 489-526 - Ostrogoth king ruled Italy from Rome… after killing Odoacer His rule was enlightened, peaceful and just- praised by Romans & barbarians. Retained the Roman Senate, civil service and schools. Old, aristocratic families still held high positions in the government
The Byzantine Legacy… The codification of the laws of ancient Rome under Justinian Preserved and expanded the philosophy, science, mathematics and literature of ancient Greece. It prevented Muslim Arabs from advancing into Eastern Europe
The Muslim Golden Age The 8 th & 9 th Centuries The Arab Empire stretched from Spain to India and was unified by a common language-Arabic, religion-Islam and culture Muslims preserved and expanded the Greco-Roman-Byzantine achievements in science, philosophy and mathematics…
Muslim contributions to civilization Education- great universities at Cairo, Baghdad and Cordova… Mathematics- introduced Arabic numerals, furthered the study of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry… Science- discovered many chemical compounds, including sulfuric acid… Agriculture- improved farming by crop rotation Industry- Cordovan leather; Damascus swords; damask cloth; crystal glass; smooth paper; beautiful rugs … Navigation- they believed the world to be round… Literature- 1001 Arabian Nights… Medicine- used anesthetics, compiled medical texts
The Mongols: Genghis Khan In 1258, Baghdad was plundered and burned. 50,000 dead, including the last Baghdad Caliph… For 200 years, Mongols devastated palaces, libraries and universities
The cultural greatness of the Byzantine and Islamic Empires enriched the western world …but… did not produce the major breakthroughs that created the modern world. That is the singular achievement of western Europe.
Christianity gained many converts: People were dissatisfied with the old pagan religions and were attracted by the ideas of One God, equality, universal love and eternal salvation… Early Christians displayed courage and sincerity, willing to suffer persecution rather than renounce their faith. The concept of equality appealed to the poor and oppressed… Missionaries could travel and preach- Rome’s transportation system!
Pope Gregory The Great, 590-604 588 Lombard invasions Maintained productive lands - kept food coming into Rome Ransomed captives Organized defense of the city Sponsored hospitals and schools Aided women and orphans Negotiated truce in 598
The Church as Unifier Became the dominant institution after the collapse of Roman authority - assumed many political functions It preserved the high culture of the Greco- Roman civilization Membership in a universal religion (Catholic) replaced membership in a universal empire (Rome) Taught a higher morality than Germanic culture
The Medieval monk Monks and nuns built monasteries and converted the people… Maintained libraries with theological works and the ancient Latin classics Reclaimed the land and instructed peasants in farming -rejected classical disdain for manual labor Provided help to the old, the sick, the destitute Adopted a code of poverty
His religious duty: raise the educational level of the clergy so they read the Bible and properly teach the faith Teach reading and writing - scriptures free of copying errors Create an enjoyable experience for churchgoers- Gregorian chants
Alcuin of York (735- 804) oversaw the Palace School at Aachen, attracting the greatest minds of the age.