Presentation on theme: "Heirs of Rome The Byzantine Empire The Muslim Empire Christian Europe The Franks."— Presentation transcript:
Heirs of Rome The Byzantine Empire The Muslim Empire Christian Europe The Franks
The Empire at its height, c 250
Diocletian, The Tetrarchy, 285 CE
In 324, Constantine moves East
The Germanic Tribes c. 362
Rome’s last gasps … Theodoric the Great Ostrogoth king ruled Italy from Rome… after killing Odoacer His rule was enlightened, peaceful and just- praised by Romans & barbarians. Retained the Roman Senate, civil service and schools. Old, aristocratic families still held high positions in the government
Roman culture lived on: The Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire, The East Roman Empire, 550
Justinian the Great, Three principal goals: 1) restore the western provinces 2) reform the laws and institutions 3) promote art and architecture
Corpus Juris Civilis, the Body of Civil Law
Trade and Industry flourished
The Byzantine Legacy… The codification of the laws of ancient Rome under Justinian Preserved and expanded the philosophy, science, mathematics and literature of ancient Greece. It prevented Muslim Arabs from advancing into Eastern Europe
Around 610, Muhammad was a prosperous merchant
Islam in 632
The Muslim Golden Age The 8 th & 9 th Centuries The Arab Empire stretched from Spain to India and was unified by a common language-Arabic, religion-Islam and culture Muslims preserved and expanded the Greco-Roman-Byzantine achievements in science, philosophy and mathematics…
Muslim contributions to civilization Education- great universities at Cairo, Baghdad and Cordova… Mathematics- introduced Arabic numerals, furthered the study of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry… Science- discovered many chemical compounds, including sulfuric acid… Agriculture- improved farming by crop rotation Industry- Cordovan leather; Damascus swords; damask cloth; crystal glass; smooth paper; beautiful rugs … Navigation- they believed the world to be round… Literature Arabian Nights… Medicine- used anesthetics, compiled medical texts
The Mongols: Genghis Khan In 1258, Baghdad was plundered and burned. 50,000 dead, including the last Baghdad Caliph… For 200 years, Mongols devastated palaces, libraries and universities
The Mongol Empire at its height
The cultural greatness of the Byzantine and Islamic Empires enriched the western world …but… did not produce the major breakthroughs that created the modern world. That is the singular achievement of western Europe.
Christianity gained many converts: People were dissatisfied with the old pagan religions and were attracted by the ideas of One God, equality, universal love and eternal salvation… Early Christians displayed courage and sincerity, willing to suffer persecution rather than renounce their faith. The concept of equality appealed to the poor and oppressed… Missionaries could travel and preach- Rome’s transportation system!
Pope Gregory The Great, Lombard invasions Maintained productive lands - kept food coming into Rome Ransomed captives Organized defense of the city Sponsored hospitals and schools Aided women and orphans Negotiated truce in 598
The Church as Unifier Became the dominant institution after the collapse of Roman authority - assumed many political functions It preserved the high culture of the Greco- Roman civilization Membership in a universal religion (Catholic) replaced membership in a universal empire (Rome) Taught a higher morality than Germanic culture
The Medieval monk Monks and nuns built monasteries and converted the people… Maintained libraries with theological works and the ancient Latin classics Reclaimed the land and instructed peasants in farming -rejected classical disdain for manual labor Provided help to the old, the sick, the destitute Adopted a code of poverty
Monks worked in a Scriptorium
The Merovingian Dynasty, King Clovis I, united the various Frankish tribes and conquered most of Gaul In 496, he married Clothild who converted him to Christianity
King Clovis r After Clovis – 250 years of “do-nothing” kings! Mayors of the palace ran the kingdom
Pepin of Heristal, Mayor of the Palace, 687
Pepin’s son Charles Martel, later known as “Charles the Hammer,” cultivated this new aristocracy while also giving substantial support to Christian missionaries and Monasteries
The Battle of Tours, 732.
Military innovation: The stirrup
The Carolingian Dynasty Pepin III (the Short) r
Carolus Magnus Charles the Great Karel de Grote Charlemagne King of the Franks ( ) & Holy Roman Emperor ( )
Charlemagne: Conqueror Defender of the Church Patron of the Arts & Learning State-builder: missi dominici
Missi dominici among the people….
Missi dominici… reporting back to Charlemagne
The Holy Roman Emperor, 800
His religious duty: raise the educational level of the clergy so they read the Bible and properly teach the faith Teach reading and writing - scriptures free of copying errors Create an enjoyable experience for churchgoers- Gregorian chants
Alcuin of York ( ) oversaw the Palace School at Aachen, attracting the greatest minds of the age.
The Carolingian Renaissance- A flowering of art, architecture, literature, music and education in an attempt to recapture the past glory of the Roman Empire