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Chapter 18 The Rise of Russia. Themes of the Chapter Territorial state huge land empire Territorial state huge land empire Power of the tsars & the Romanov.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 The Rise of Russia. Themes of the Chapter Territorial state huge land empire Territorial state huge land empire Power of the tsars & the Romanov."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 The Rise of Russia

2 Themes of the Chapter Territorial state huge land empire Territorial state huge land empire Power of the tsars & the Romanov Dynasty ( ) Power of the tsars & the Romanov Dynasty ( ) Dominant aristocracy Dominant aristocracy Reliance on coercive labor systems Reliance on coercive labor systems Lack of a merchant class Lack of a merchant class Dependence on the West Dependence on the West

3 Russia Under the Czars Remember from Ch. 14 that Moscow would become the center for resistance of Mongol rule Remember from Ch. 14 that Moscow would become the center for resistance of Mongol rule

4 The Need for Revival (The Ivans) Mongol Rule = limited cultural development, economic stagnation, dependence on peasant labor. Mongol Rule = limited cultural development, economic stagnation, dependence on peasant labor. Ivan III (the Great) Ivan III (the Great) reclaims early Roman, Byzantine Christian traditions reclaims early Roman, Byzantine Christian traditions Emphasis on military rule Emphasis on military rule Begins an expansionist policy Begins an expansionist policy

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6 Light Green = land held by the end of Catherine the Great’s reign

7 Policies toward Native Peoples Siberia is home to 26 ethnic groups, who responded to Russians in different ways Siberia is home to 26 ethnic groups, who responded to Russians in different ways Russian gov’t uses cossacks and westerners (fur trade) to inhabit the area, but many inhabitants are social misfits Russian gov’t uses cossacks and westerners (fur trade) to inhabit the area, but many inhabitants are social misfits Russians wanted tribute in the form of furs, and resorted to violence to get it Russians wanted tribute in the form of furs, and resorted to violence to get it By 1763, 420,000 Russians live in Siberia By 1763, 420,000 Russians live in Siberia

8 Patterns of Expansion Focused on Central Asia (lack of natural barriers made expansion easier) Focused on Central Asia (lack of natural barriers made expansion easier) Volga River (Astrakhan) becomes a bustling center for Eurasian trade Volga River (Astrakhan) becomes a bustling center for Eurasian trade Tsars use new lands to reward faithful nobles/bureaucrats Tsars use new lands to reward faithful nobles/bureaucrats New trade contacts w/Asia (Ottomans, Iran and India) New trade contacts w/Asia (Ottomans, Iran and India)

9 Question Slide Compare contrast the map of the Mongol Empire & Russian Empire on the next two slides: Compare contrast the map of the Mongol Empire & Russian Empire on the next two slides: How accurate was the Russian claim that it was the heir of Chinggis Khan and the unifier of Central Asia? How were the empires different? How accurate was the Russian claim that it was the heir of Chinggis Khan and the unifier of Central Asia? How were the empires different?

10 The Mongol Empire

11 The Russian Empire

12 Ivan IV got his nickname after murdering his eldest son Ivan IV got his nickname after murdering his eldest son Ivan IV (the Terrible) expanded borders and terrorized boyars

13 Western Contact Tsars eager to make up for cultural isolation from Mongol polices by increasing contacts with Western Europe. This included: Tsars eager to make up for cultural isolation from Mongol polices by increasing contacts with Western Europe. This included: Diplomatic missions to Europe Diplomatic missions to Europe Western merchants establishing Russian trade centers Western merchants establishing Russian trade centers Using foreign artists to design Russian churches/public buildings Using foreign artists to design Russian churches/public buildings

14 Romanov Policies Time of Troubles = Ivan IV’s death (no heir) leads to a boyar power struggle Time of Troubles = Ivan IV’s death (no heir) leads to a boyar power struggle Romanov Dynasty ( ) begins when boyars choose a Romanov to be Tsar Romanov Dynasty ( ) begins when boyars choose a Romanov to be Tsar Michael= stabilizes gov’t, expands borders, drives out foreigners Michael= stabilizes gov’t, expands borders, drives out foreigners Alexis = limits the power of nobility; resumes state control over the church Alexis = limits the power of nobility; resumes state control over the church

15 Russia’s 1 st Westernization 17 th c. Russia = unusually agricultural compared to Europe & Asia 17 th c. Russia = unusually agricultural compared to Europe & Asia Peter the Great begins policies of westernization while continuing to old polices of expansion and tsarist control Peter the Great begins policies of westernization while continuing to old polices of expansion and tsarist control

16 Peter the Great ( ) Autocrat: Autocrat: Used capital punishment, suppressed power of nobility, used secret police, militaristic Used capital punishment, suppressed power of nobility, used secret police, militaristic Westernization Westernization Political = streamlines bureaucracy Political = streamlines bureaucracy Economic= built up mining/ iron industry Economic= built up mining/ iron industry Social = encourages western styles among the upper classes (did not encourage gender equity); education for nobility Social = encourages western styles among the upper classes (did not encourage gender equity); education for nobility

17 Results of Westernization Changes were selective (did not impact the lower classes) Changes were selective (did not impact the lower classes) Serf labor expanded Serf labor expanded Encouraged the autocratic state; didn’t challenge it Encouraged the autocratic state; didn’t challenge it Widespread resentment as people clung to Russian traditions Widespread resentment as people clung to Russian traditions

18 Catherine the Great ( ) Claims power from husband after many years of weak rulers Claims power from husband after many years of weak rulers Expands tsarist power (puts down the Pugachev Rebellion) Expands tsarist power (puts down the Pugachev Rebellion) Enlightened Despot = courts Enlightenment ideals while being a traditional Russian ruler Enlightened Despot = courts Enlightenment ideals while being a traditional Russian ruler Selective Westernizer = picks and chooses what she wants from the West Selective Westernizer = picks and chooses what she wants from the West

19 Her Policies Political = increases power of nobility over the serfs, censors revolutionary ideas, crushes rebellions Political = increases power of nobility over the serfs, censors revolutionary ideas, crushes rebellions Economic = further entrenches Russia into serfdom Economic = further entrenches Russia into serfdom Territorial= campaigns against the Ottoman Empire, claims Siberia and Alaska, claims part of Poland Territorial= campaigns against the Ottoman Empire, claims Siberia and Alaska, claims part of Poland Cultural = patronized Western art, architecture and clothing styles, but avoided other influences (French Revolution) Cultural = patronized Western art, architecture and clothing styles, but avoided other influences (French Revolution)

20 Palace of Catherine the Great

21 Themes in Early Modern Russian History Serfdom Serfdom Economic dependence on the more industrially developed West Economic dependence on the more industrially developed West Social Unrest Social Unrest Influence/control over Eastern Europe Influence/control over Eastern Europe

22 Serfdom Before Mongols, peasants were relatively free Before Mongols, peasants were relatively free 16 th c. = serfdom used to appease nobles and extend state control 16 th c. = serfdom used to appease nobles and extend state control 1649 = serfdom become hereditary 1649 = serfdom become hereditary 17 th & 18 th c. = laws tie serfs to land, give nobles great rights 17 th & 18 th c. = laws tie serfs to land, give nobles great rights Serfs were almost slaves Serfs were almost slaves

23 Peasants in Russian village

24 Trade & Economic Dependence 95% of population is rural; few are artisans or merchants 95% of population is rural; few are artisans or merchants Little incentive for agricultural or industrial innovation Little incentive for agricultural or industrial innovation Still manages to support nobility and a growing population Still manages to support nobility and a growing population

25 Social Unrest 17 th c. = revolutionary and Enlightenment ideals increase peasant discontent (Pugachev Rebellion) 17 th c. = revolutionary and Enlightenment ideals increase peasant discontent (Pugachev Rebellion) 18 th c. = reformers called for an end to serfdom and increased innovation 18 th c. = reformers called for an end to serfdom and increased innovation Tsars made few changes Tsars made few changes

26 Eastern Europe Borders in this area fluctuate Borders in this area fluctuate Easter region help spread revolutionary Enlightenment ideas & take part in the Reformation Easter region help spread revolutionary Enlightenment ideas & take part in the Reformation Still, E. Europe remains a place w/ a weakened central government and little economic development Still, E. Europe remains a place w/ a weakened central government and little economic development

27 Russia and the World Becomes an absolute monarchy characterized by a “dominant aristocracy, coercive agricultural labor systems, and the absence of a a substantial merchant class.” Becomes an absolute monarchy characterized by a “dominant aristocracy, coercive agricultural labor systems, and the absence of a a substantial merchant class.”


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