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THE AGE OF EMPIRE Mr. Ermer World History AP Miami Beach Senior High.

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Presentation on theme: "THE AGE OF EMPIRE Mr. Ermer World History AP Miami Beach Senior High."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE AGE OF EMPIRE Mr. Ermer World History AP Miami Beach Senior High

2 MODERN IMPERIALISM  Imperialism: “domination of European powers—and later the United States and Japan as well—over subject lands in the larger world.” (p. 732)  Sometimes by force, other times by trade and investment  Colonialism: sending of colonists; as well as political, social, economic, and cultural structures to facilitate imperialism  Settler Colonies: ones with large population of colonists from colonizing power  Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa  Other colonies only have small colonizing force (India, Sub-Saharan Africa, SE Asia)  Many imperialists governments colonize for control of natural resources  Some colonies strategically important for trade, military reasons  Imperialism inspires patriotism, quells social tension  Paternalistic mission to “civilize” the “savage” world  Modern military, transportation, & communication tech makes imperialism possible

3 The Suez Canal

4 BRITISH INDIA  British East India Co. maintained mercantile activities since 1600s  1750s: British expands control over weak Mughal Empire, doctrine of lapse  Company rule enforced by British troops and sepoys  1856-57: British fight against Indian rebellion, victorious  Mughal Empire and East India Co. abolished, Queen Victoria appoints viceroy  British clear forests, restructure land holdings, build infrastructure  Encourage cultivation of high value trade items (tea, cotton, opium, coffee)  Promote education for bureaucratic class, not Christianity

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6 IMPERIALISM IN ASIA  1800s: Russia and India also compete for influence in India  Qing and Ottoman decline creates vacuum in Central Asia, Russia fills the void  French efforts at India fade after fall of Napoleon  1800s: Dutch tighten control over the Spice Islands—“Dutch East Indies”  1824: Thomas Stamford Raffles establishes port of Singapore  British command trade in Straits of Melaka  1870s-1880s: Singapore serves as base for British conquest of Malaya  British seek influence in Irrawaddy Delta, colonize Burma by 1880s  1859-1893: French colonize “French Indochina”  Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos  Siam (Thailand) retains independence as a buffer b/w French & British lands

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8 THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA  Between 1875-1900 European presences goes from limited to almost complete  Abundance of African natural resources to exploit, European nationalist rivalries = motivation  Missionaries, explorers, and adventurers begin to report about Africa’s interior  Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley  Improved knowledge of river systems (Congo, Nile, Niger, & Zambezi)  Richard Burton and John Speke find source of Nile River  Belgium’s King Leopold II hires Stanley to establish trade in the Congo  Leopold turns the “Congo Free State” into a personal colony with a brutal plantation economy  1652: Dutch establish colony at Cape Town on southern tip of Africa  Dutch Boers become “Afrikaners” after encroaching on tribal lands further inland  Khoikhoi and Xhosa tribes decimated and displaced by Afrikaners  British take control during the Napoleonic Wars, pushing Afrikaners further inland  British abolition of slavery hurts Afrikaner livelihood, economy—The Great Trek  Afrikaner’s establish independent republics, British attempt to take wealth—Boer War

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13 COLONIAL RULE  1884-1885: Berlin West Africa Conference establishes “rules” for African claims  African colonies proved very expensive for European imperialists  Initial colonization accomplished by concessionary companies  Company rule usually brutal and marginally profitable for colonizing nation  After 1900, most European nations imposed rule of law/government  French preferred direct rule, British preferred indirect rule  Direct Rule: administrative districts headed by European personnel, borders cut across ethnic lines to divide and weaken existing power structures, rulers  Indirect Rule: control through indigenous institutions, using existing “tribal” authorities and “customary laws,” sometimes successful, sometimes not for making erroneous assumptions

14 EMPIRE IN THE PACIFIC  1770s: British establish settler colonies in Australia and New Zealand  European population overwhelms indigenous people with superior tech and decease  Late-1800s: Europeans begin to establish outright control on Pacific islands  Contact first in terms of trading and religious missions  Nationalist motivations push European powers to create colonies in the Pacific  1841: France claims Tahiti, the Society Islands, and the Marquesas  1853: France claims New Caledonia  1874: British annex Fiji as a crown colony  1876-78: Germany colonizes several of the Marshall Islands  Rest of Oceania claimed by Britain, France, Germany, and U.S. at the Berlin Conference

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16 AMERICAN IMPERIALISM  Monroe Doctrine establishes the Americas as a U.S. protectorate  Mostly to protect free trade, discourage European imperialism, exploit resources  1867: U.S. buys Alaska from Russia as first expansion outside N. A. temperate zone  1875: U.S. establishes protectorate over Hawai’i and it’s American owned sugar fields, 1893 U.S. planters overthrow Queen Lili’uokalani, U.S. annexes Hawai’i  Spanish-American War  U.S. takes Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam from Spain, gives Cuba independence  U.S. puts down Filipino rebellion of Emilio Aguinaldo, William Taft appointed first governor of Phil.  U.S. assists Panamanian rebels gain independence from Colombia  Takes control of canal zone abandoned by French company, builds Panama Canal  Roosevelt Corollary and Dollar Diplomacy

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18 The Panama Canal

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20 IMPERIAL JAPAN  Japan resents unequal treaties of Tokugawa era, seeks equal footing  Japanese expand and migrate to islands north and south of homeland  1876: Japan buys British warships to bolster navy, force unequal treaty with Korea  Sino-Japanese War  Anti-foreign rebellion erupts in Korea, Qing China sends soldiers to pacify rebellion  Japan declares war on China, Qing forces decimated, Japan gains equal trade rights in China  China cedes Korea, Taiwan, other smaller islands to Japan, Japanese navy controls E. Asian waters  Russian and other Europeans surprised by Japanese strength, nervous  Russo-Japanese War  1904: Japanese overrun Russian installations in east Asia, Russia sends Baltic fleet to retaliate  Japan destroys Russian Baltic fleet, Russians cede interests in Manchuria and Sakhalin island  Japan considered a major imperialist power

21 LEGACIES OF COLONIALISM  Colonialism remakes production of traditional products, introduces new ones  Migration of peoples remakes the world’s population and demographics  Scientific Racism  Joseph Arthur de Gorbineau classifies the races in Essays on the Inequality of the Human Races  Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species argues tenant of evolution through natural selection  Others begin to categorize some human races as more evolved than others—Social Darwinism  Colonial tyranny pushes local populations to develop nationalist movements  Indian nationalism comes early on, Ram Mohan Roy and the Indian National Congress

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