Presentation on theme: "R313 Medical Terminology Ch. 7 Dermatology. Dermatology The anatomy and physiology of the Integumentary System. The diagnostic tests, medical and surgical."— Presentation transcript:
R313 Medical Terminology Ch. 7 Dermatology
Dermatology The anatomy and physiology of the Integumentary System. The diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures used to treat integumentary diseases and conditions.
Anatomy and Physiology Integumentary System: skin (epidermis and dermis) sebaceous glands sweat glands hair nails Function: protects the body and is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms; the sense of touch.
Characteristics of the Epidermis: -epithelial tissue -covers the external surface of the body and mucous membranes. -outer epidermis is the corneal layer. -lower epidermis is the basal layer. -external cells contain keratin, protein that gives skin a waterproofing ability. -cells also contain melanocytes that produce melanin, a protein pigment that gives skin its color; absorbs UV light from the sun. -dead cells are removed through a process called exfoliation.
Figure 7-2 Epidermis and dermis
Characteristics of the Dermis: -Connective Tissue -Thicker layer than the epidermis -Contains collagen fibers (firm, white protein) and elastin fibers (elastic, yellow protein). -Contains: blood vessles neurons (nerve cells) hair follicles sebaceous glands (oil glands; secrete sebum) sweat glands (sudoriferous glands; secrete water, sodium, waste products) -Has dermatome’s: specific area on the skin that sends sensory information to the spinal cord.
Hair -Covers most of the body. -Additional facial, axillary, and pubic hairs appear during puberty. -Contains melanocytes and keratin. -Forms in a hair follicle in the dermis. -Piloerection
Xie Qiuping Hair Length = 18’ 5.54” Tran Van Hay Hair Length = 20’ 3.6”
Nails -Cover and protect the distal ends of the fingers and toes. -Each nail consists of a nail plate, nail bed, cuticle, lunula, and nail root.
Characteristics of the Subcutaneous Tissue -Loose, connective tissue directly beneath the dermis of the skin. -Composed of adipose tissue that contains lipocytes (fat-storing cells). -Provides a layer of insulation to conserve internal body heat. -Acts as a cushion to protect the bones and internal organs.
Physiology of an Allergic Reaction -An allergy or allergic reaction is a hypersensitivity response to certain types of antigens known as allergens. Allergens: foods pollens molds animal dander dust chemicals drugs
-The basis of all allergic reactions is the release of histamine from basophils in the blood and mast cells in the connective tissue. -A local reaction occurs when an allergen touches the skin or mucous membranes. -Anaphylaxis is a severe systemic allergic reaction that can be life-threatening. (anaphylactic shock) Epi-pen
Neoplasm- benign or malignant growth occurring on the skin. Pruritus- itching Rash Wound Xeroderma- excessive dryness of the skin
Skin Color Conditions: Albinism- lack of pigment because of a genetic mutation. Cyanosis- bluish-purplish discoloration of the skin. Erythema- reddish discoloration of the skin. Jaundice- yellowing of the skin; liver cannot process bilirubin. Necrosis- blackish discoloration of the skin. Pallor- paleness due to lack of blood supply. Vitiligo- autoimmune disease where the melanocytes are destroyed causing white patches.
Figure 7-7 Necrosis and pallo Meyer/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Skin Injuries: Abrasion Blister Callus (corn)
Burn Types 1 st Degree Burns: -a burn that affects the epidermis only, causing erythema without blistering. 2 nd Degree Burns: -a burn that affects the epidermis and the dermis, classified as superficial (involving the epidermis and the papillary dermis) or deep (extending into the reticular dermis). Called also partial thickness burn. 3 rd Degree Burns: -a burn that destroys both the epidermis and the dermis, often also involving the subcutaneous tissue. Called also full-thickness burn 4 th Degree Burns: -a burn that extends deeply into the subcutaneous tissue; it may involve muscle, fascia, or bone.
First Degree Burn Second Degree Burn
Third Degree Burn Fourth Degree Burn
Cicatrix- collagen scar tissue; keloid scar tissue formed from an overproduction of collagen. Decubitus Ulcer (bed sore)
Excoriation- scratch on the skin Laceration- deep wound
Skin Infections: Abscess- local pus containing pocket Cellulitis- inflammation and infection of the connective tissues. Herpes- caused by a virus Type 1- lips (cold sores) Type 2- HSV; sexually transmitted (genital herpes) Herpes Whitlow- infection at the base of the fingernail Herpes Varicella Roster- skin rash; chickenpox; adult version is called Shingles.
Figure 7-13 Shingles Gill/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Tinea- fungal infection (ringworm, jock itch, athletes’s foot) Verruca (warts)- skin lesion caused by the human papillomavirus on the hands, fingers, or feet.
Allergic Skin Conditions: Contact Dermatitis- reaction caused by an allergen coming in contact with the skin. Urticaria- hives, wheal & welts.
Benign Skin Markings and Neoplasms: Actinic Keratoses- raised, dry, rough areas of the skin. Freckle- grouping of melanocytes from sun exposure. Hemangioma- growth of superficial blood vessels.
Nevus- birth marks Papilloma- small protrusion of epidermis and dermis. Premalignant Skin Lesions- abnormal skin lesions that are not yet cancerous. Senile Lentigo- light to dark brown macules from exposure to the sun. (sun spots) Syndactyly- webbed fingers or toes; polydactyly is extra fingers or toes. Xanthoma- benign growth that is a yellow nodule or plaque on the hands, elbows, knees, or feet.
Malignant Neoplasms of the Skin: Cancer- malignant Basal Cell Carcinoma- most common type Malignant Melanoma- can spread to other parts of the body. A- asymmetry B- border C- color D- diameter
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Kaposi’s Sarcoma- skin cancer that begins in the connective tissue or lymph nodes. Common in AIDS patients.
Autoimmune Diseases with Skin Symptoms: Psoriasis- excessive number of epidermal cells; causes redness and itching; scales and plaque. Scleroderma- skin and internal organs progressively harden due to deposits of collagen. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)- deterioration of the collagen in the skin and connective tissues; joint pain, sun sensitivity, fatigue.
Figure 7-22 Psoriasis NMSB/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Diseases of the Sebaceous Glands: Acne Vulgaris- during puberty, sebaceous glands secrete large amounts of sebum. Acne Rosacea- middle-aged patients, sebaceous glands secrete large amounts of sebum, causes blotchy redness and edema. Seborrhea- overproduction of sebum at times other than puberty; also called cradle cap in infants and eczema in adults.
Diseases of the Sweat Glands: Anhidrosis- absence of sweat glands. Diaphoresis- profuse sweating.
Diseases of the Hair: Alopecia- chronic loss of scalp hair. Folliculitis- infection of the hair follicle; often occurs after shaving. Hirsutism- presence of excessive, dark hair on the forearms and over the lip of women. Pilonidal Sinus- abnormal passageway that begins as a large, abnormal hair follicle that contains a hair that is never shed.
Diseases of the Nails: Clubbing- abnormally curved fingernails and stunted growth of fingers. Onychomycosis- fungal infection of the fingernails or toenails. Paronychia- bacterial infection of the skin next to the cuticle.
Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures: Allergy Skin Testing
Culture and Sensitivity (C & S)- test done on pus of a bacteria infection to determine course of treatment. RAST- blood test done to determine allergies. Skin Scraping- sampling of skin taken to be observed in determining if a patient has ringworm. Tzanck Test- skin scraping done to test fluid for the presence of a virus. Wood’s Lamp- UV light used to highlight areas of the skin in a darkened room.
Medical and Surgical Procedures: Botox Injections- the drug Botox is injected into the skin to paralyze the muscle. Collagen Injections- collagen is a protein, helps to plump the skin to reduce wrinkles and scarring.
Cryosurgery- liquid nitrogen is put onto a wart or mole to remove it. Curettage- a tool called a curet is used to remove a superficial skin lesion. Debridement- procedure to remove necrotic tissue from a burn, wound, or ulcer. Electrosurgery- electricity is used to remove a nevus, wart, or small malignant lesion. Incision and Drainage- a scalpel is used to make a cut to drain infection from an abscess or cyst.
Laser Surgery- a laser is used to remove birthmarks, tattoos, enlarged blood vessels, or hair. Skin Examination- examining a patient’s skin. Skin Resurfacing- removal of acne scars, tattoo’s, wrinkles. Chemical Peel- use a chemical to remove the outer layers of the epidermis. Dermabrasion- removal of the outer epidermal layers using a spinning wire brush or diamond surface.
Laser Skin Resurfacing- use of a laser to remove outer layers of the epidermis and/or dermis. Microdermabrasion- skin resurfacing done using aluminum oxide crystals. Suturing- use of sutures to bring edges of skin together to allow for better healing.
Surgical Procedures: Biopsy- procedure done to remove a skin lesion for testing and diagnosis. Excisional Biopsy- use of a scalpel to remove a skin lesion. Incisional Biopsy- uses of a scalpel to remove part of a skin lesion. Needle Aspiration- use of a needle to remove cells for testing from a skin lesion.
Punch Biopsy- circular metal cutter is used to remove a plug shaped core of skin. Shave Biopsy- use of a razor blade to shave of a skin lesion. Dermatoplasty- any type of plastic surgery of the skin. Liposuction- produce used to remove excess adipose tissue.
Mohs’ Surgery- procedure used to remove skin cancer. Rhytidectomy- also called a facelift; done to tighten up loose skin and remove wrinkles.
Skin Grafting: Autograft- skin graft taken from the patient’s own body. Allograft- skin graft taken from a cadaver. Xenograft- skin graft taken from an animal (pig). Synthetic Skin Graft- artificial skin made from collagen; new skin grows replacing the collagen.