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Origins of American Government

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Government"— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of American Government
Ch 2 Government Origins of American Government

2 Section 1 – The Colonial Period
STGs: What events led the American colonists to believe that they would have a representative government? In what ways were the American colonies democratic? In what ways were they NOT democratic?

3 The Colonies 1600s - 1774 How many colonies were there?
Where were the colonists from? (list nations) Out of all of the Home Countries, which were the Less Autocratic/More Democratic? Where were MOST of the colonists from? Which country became the Ruler of the American colonies? 13 Mainly European nations: England, Spain, Netherlands, present-day Germany, Sweden, France AND West Africa (slave). England and the Netherlands were the most democratic Most of the colonists were from England. England had a superior navy and army, so England became the ruler.

4 Evolution of American Colonies

5 Why Colonists expected Representative Government under British rule.
Pgs 35-38 British citizens demanded limited government in 1215: _________ ________ Petition of ____ (1628): limited king’s power Required Parliament’s consent to raise taxes Just Cause – Can’t imprison a person w/o a reason No Martial Law – unless during war Must have Homeowner’s permission to house troops English Bill of _____ (1688): Government by Constitution, Parliament rules along with Monarch. Representative Government – English Parliament had played an increasing role in governing England since 1628. Two Treatises of Government, John Locke (1690). Locke believed people were born with “NATURAL RIGHTS” and agreed to submit to rule and in return the ruler was supposed to protect those rights. Regarded as “The Textbook of the American Revolution” 1215 Magna Carta 1628 Petition of Right 1688 English Bill of Rights

6 Colonial Government 1600s – 1750s
Common Practices Written constitutions – protecting basic rights & limited power of gov’t 1620: 1629: 1639: Elected Legislature 1st legislature in America Separation of Powers – Governor (King’s agent) Colonial Legislature Colonial Courts 1620 Mayflower Compact 1629 Great Fundamentals 1639 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

7 Section 2 Uniting for Independence
STGs: What factors caused the British to allow the colonists to operate with little interference between 1607 and 1763? Why were the colonists and the British unable to compromise and settle their differences?

8 What factors caused the British to allow the colonists to operate with little interference between 1607 and 1763? Colonies were a source of raw materials to England. As long as that happened, Britain had been content. Geography: over 3,000 miles apart – it took over 2 months to relay orders. Britain needed the good will of the colonists in order to keep them from swearing allegiance to France (in present-day Canada).

9 Why did Britain Tighten Control?
The French & Indian War: Threatened Britain’s hold on colonies – made them want to tighten control. The expense of the war – Britain wanted the American colonists to pay more of the expense. At the end of the war, American colonists no longer needed British protection. King George III Ascended to the Throne – 1760 He had different ideas about governing colonies that his predecessors. His mental condition and policies towards the colonies made the American colonists question his “right” to rule.

10 Tightening Control Increased taxes (in $ amount and on items previously not taxed) To help pay the war debt Stamp Act 1765: taxed on legal documents, pamphlets, newspapers, dice and playing cards. Restricted Trade: Colony could trade ONLY with Britain. Hurts colonists economically. Couldn’t sell cotton to other nations even though the price was higher.

11 Reactions Political protests & boycotts of British goods.
Led Britain to repeal the Stamp Act of Britain passed other tax laws to replace it. Taxed tea. Boston Tea Party 1773 – Colonists dressed as Mohawks Dumped tea in harbor Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts – passed by Britain Banned protests Closed Boston Harbor Massachusetts not allowed to govern itself

12 Result Escalated tensions between Britain & colonists
Made it harder for either side to back down Unified the Colonists Created a common purpose & identity Began to think of themselves as Americans

13 Colonial Leadership Stamp Act Congress _________ (year)
Nine colonies met in New York Sent petition to King arguing only colonial legislatures had power to tax colonies Committees of Correspondence Began in _________ (year) 1st committee - Samuel Adams in Boston Over 80 committees throughout colonies Urged resistance against Britain 1765 1773

14 First Continental Congress
Formed when petition to King George III fell on deaf ears September 5, 1774 Embargo of British goods Britain sent more troops/tightened control “Shot Heard Around the World” Considered 1st battle of the Revolutionary War April 19, 1775 Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts Clash between Redcoats and Colonists

15 Moving Towards Independence
Second Continental Congress Met May __________ Philadelphia, _______________________ Congress assumed powers of Central Gov’t John _____________, President of this Congress _________ ___________________, Commander of the Continental Army Generated support for their cause May 1776 PA John Hancock, President of the Congress NOT THE NATION George Washington

16 Moving Towards Independence
Common Sense written by _________ ________ Encouraged independence Characterized George III as “inveterate enemy to liberty” Samuel Adams “Is not America already independent? Why not then declare it?” Richard Henry Lee Introduced a motion to declare independence * Thomas Paine

17 The Declaration of Independence
Pgs This IS NOT THE CONSTITUTION. Who drafted it? (NOT the same as an author. It had many authors.) When was it signed? Whose was the first signature? What are the Three Parts? Intro-Purpose of this document, included ideas of rights and government’s role Middle: Lists complaints against the king Conclusion: States colonists determination to separate from Britain

18 STATE Constitutions States had STARTED writing their STATE Constitutions around May __________ Most had a bill of rights of citizens Source of government’s power comes from the people _____________ government – government can do only what the people (as a majority) approve *States began writing their STATE CONSTITUTIONS – May 1776 * Limited

19 Section 3 Articles of Confederation
The FIRST CONSTITUTION of the United States 1771 – 1788 No Executive Branch (president) No Judicial Branch ONLY a ______________BRANCH (CONGRESS) Legislative

20 Weaknesses Could not ______________________________
No power to ____________________________ Could not force __________________________ Process to ratify laws: Difficult to get the required # of states’ delegates together all at one time = hard to pass new laws One small state could block legislation Collect/raise money to pay for government expenses or a military No power to regulate trade Could not force anyone to obey the laws

21 Accomplishments of the Articles of Confederation
Fair policy of statehood: Process for territories to become new states instead of being annexed by an existing state New states were equal to older states in terms of representation and rights. Peace treaty with _____________ __________________. Established precedent for a ________________ (advisers). “Full Faith and Credit” States had to honor other states legal acts If you married in New York, then Pennsylvania had to recognize that. Can’t treat another state’s people differently than your own state’s people. Ex: Sales Tax same for all, not lower for your state’s citizens. 2. Great Britain 3. Cabinet

22 The Need for Stronger Government
_______________ Disputes – between states States imposing ________________ on neighboring states’ imports No way to raise taxes – unpaid debts owed $ to other nations Revolutionary War soldiers still unpaid Shay’s ______________________ Former Revolutionary War soldier men Put down by Massachusetts militia bc U.S. government had no army (no way to raise $) Border Tariffs Shay’s Rebellion

23 The Annapolis Convention
1786, Annapolis, MD All delegates invited to attend to discuss: Border disputes Difference between states’ currencies Inability to put down a revolt Only 5 states sent delegates Successful because attendees later convinced the Congress of the Articles of Confederation to revise the articles.

24 Section 4 STGs: Explain/describe
How the Connecticut Compromise settled the MOST DIVISIVE ISSUE at the Constitutional Convention Key arguments of the: Federalists AntiFederalists

25 What did the delegates agree that they wanted to accomplish?
Needed to abandon the old Articles, write new Constitution Representative Government with power of government limited (Limited Gov’t) Divide & Balance Powers. Create: ________________________ Branch _______________________ Branch _____________________________Branch Limit the power of States to coin money or to interfere with a creditor’s rights Strengthen the National Government Legislative Executive Judicial

26 Plans & Compromises Plan Idea Pros Cons Virginia
(by James Madison-Father of the Constitution) New Jersey Plan

27 Plans & Compromises Pgs 55-56
Connecticut Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Slavery Other Representation President: Term:

28 Franklin’s Comment upon finalizing the Constitution
“ “ What does that mean?

29 Ratifying the Constitution
Debate over Ratification 1787 – 1790 9 out of the 13 states HAD TO SIGN IT FOR IT TO TAKE EFFECT The 9th state (New Hampshire) ratified it June 21, 1788 Last state signed it

30 Federalists vs AntiFederalists
Person(s) Wanted: Why did they want that? Result/Note:

31 The End

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