Presentation on theme: "Ch 2 Government Origins of American Government. Section 1 – The Colonial Period STGs: 1. What events led the American colonists to believe that they would."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 2 Government Origins of American Government
Section 1 – The Colonial Period STGs: 1. What events led the American colonists to believe that they would have a representative government? 2. In what ways were the American colonies democratic? 3.In what ways were they NOT democratic?
The Colonies 1600s - 1774 1.How many colonies were there? 2.Where were the colonists from? (list nations) 3.Out of all of the Home Countries, which were the Less Autocratic/More Democratic? 4.Where were MOST of the colonists from? 5.Which country became the Ruler of the American colonies?
Evolution of American Colonies
Why Colonists expected Representative Government under British rule. Pgs 35-38 1.British citizens demanded limited government in 1215: _________ ________ 2. Petition of ____ (1628): limited king’s power 1.Required Parliament’s consent to raise taxes 2.Just Cause – Can’t imprison a person w/o a reason 3.No Martial Law – unless during war 4.Must have Homeowner’s permission to house troops 3. English Bill of _____ (1688): Government by Constitution, Parliament rules along with Monarch. 4.Representative Government – English Parliament had played an increasing role in governing England since 1628. 5. Two Treatises of Government, John Locke (1690). Locke believed people were born with “NATURAL RIGHTS” and agreed to submit to rule and in return the ruler was supposed to protect those rights. Regarded as “The Textbook of the American Revolution”
Colonial Government 1600s – 1750s Common Practices 1.Written constitutions – protecting basic rights & limited power of gov’t 1.1620: 2.1629: 3.1639: 2.Elected Legislature 1.1 st legislature in America 1619 - 3.Separation of Powers – 1.Governor (King’s agent) 2.Colonial Legislature 3.Colonial Courts
Section 2 Uniting for Independence STGs: 1. What factors caused the British to allow the colonists to operate with little interference between 1607 and 1763? 2. Why were the colonists and the British unable to compromise and settle their differences?
What factors caused the British to allow the colonists to operate with little interference between 1607 and 1763? Colonies were a source of raw materials to England. As long as that happened, Britain had been content. Geography: over 3,000 miles apart – it took over 2 months to relay orders. Britain needed the good will of the colonists in order to keep them from swearing allegiance to France (in present-day Canada).
Why did Britain Tighten Control? 1.The French & Indian War: 1754-1763 1.Threatened Britain’s hold on colonies – made them want to tighten control. 2.The expense of the war – Britain wanted the American colonists to pay more of the expense. 3.At the end of the war, American colonists no longer needed British protection. 2.King George III Ascended to the Throne – 1760 1.He had different ideas about governing colonies that his predecessors. 2.His mental condition and policies towards the colonies made the American colonists question his “right” to rule.
Tightening Control 1.Increased taxes (in $ amount and on items previously not taxed) – To help pay the war debt – Stamp Act 1765: taxed on legal documents, pamphlets, newspapers, dice and playing cards. 2.Restricted Trade: – Colony could trade ONLY with Britain. – Hurts colonists economically. Couldn’t sell cotton to other nations even though the price was higher.
Reactions 1.Political protests & boycotts of British goods. 1.Led Britain to repeal the Stamp Act of 1765. Britain passed other tax laws to replace it. 1.Taxed tea. 1.Boston Tea Party 1773 – 1.Colonists dressed as Mohawks 2.Dumped tea in harbor 2.Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts – passed by Britain 1.Banned protests 2.Closed Boston Harbor 3.Massachusetts not allowed to govern itself
Result 1.Escalated tensions between Britain & colonists 1.Made it harder for either side to back down 2.Unified the Colonists 1.Created a common purpose & identity 2.Began to think of themselves as Americans
Colonial Leadership Stamp Act Congress _________ (year) – Nine colonies met in New York – Sent petition to King arguing only colonial legislatures had power to tax colonies Committees of Correspondence – Began in _________ (year) – 1 st committee - Samuel Adams in Boston – Over 80 committees throughout colonies – Urged resistance against Britain
First Continental Congress – Formed when petition to King George III fell on deaf ears – September 5, 1774 – Embargo of British goods Britain sent more troops/tightened control “Shot Heard Around the World” – Considered 1 st battle of the Revolutionary War – April 19, 1775 – Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts – Clash between Redcoats and Colonists
Moving Towards Independence Second Continental Congress – Met May __________ – Philadelphia, _______________________ – Congress assumed powers of Central Gov’t John _____________, President of this Congress _________ ___________________, Commander of the Continental Army – Generated support for their cause
Moving Towards Independence Common Sense written by _________ ________ – Encouraged independence – Characterized George III as “inveterate enemy to liberty” Samuel Adams – “Is not America already independent? Why not then declare it?” Richard Henry Lee – Introduced a motion to declare independence
The Declaration of Independence Pgs 770-773 This IS NOT THE CONSTITUTION. 1.Who drafted it? (NOT the same as an author. It had many authors.) 2.When was it signed? 3.Whose was the first signature? 4.What are the Three Parts? 1. 2. 3.
STATE Constitutions States had STARTED writing their STATE Constitutions around May __________ Most had a bill of rights of citizens Source of government’s power comes from the people _____________ government – government can do only what the people (as a majority) approve
Section 3 Articles of Confederation The FIRST CONSTITUTION of the United States 1771 – 1788 No Executive Branch (president) No Judicial Branch ONLY a ______________BRANCH (CONGRESS)
Weaknesses 1. Could not ______________________________ 2.No power to ____________________________ 3.Could not force __________________________ 4.Process to ratify laws: 1.Difficult to get the required # of states’ delegates together all at one time = hard to pass new laws 2.One small state could block legislation
Accomplishments of the Articles of Confederation 1.Fair policy of statehood: 1.Process for territories to become new states instead of being annexed by an existing state 2.New states were equal to older states in terms of representation and rights. 2.Peace treaty with _____________ __________________. 3.Established precedent for a ________________ (advisers). 4.“Full Faith and Credit” 1.States had to honor other states legal acts 1.If you married in New York, then Pennsylvania had to recognize that. 2.Can’t treat another state’s people differently than your own state’s people. Ex: Sales Tax same for all, not lower for your state’s citizens.
The Need for Stronger Government 1._______________ Disputes – between states 2.States imposing ________________ on neighboring states’ imports 3.No way to raise taxes – unpaid debts a.owed $ to other nations b.Revolutionary War soldiers still unpaid 4.Shay’s ______________________ 1.Former Revolutionary War soldier +1200 men 2.Put down by Massachusetts militia bc U.S. government had no army (no way to raise $)
The Annapolis Convention 1786, Annapolis, MD All delegates invited to attend to discuss: – Border disputes – Difference between states’ currencies – Inability to put down a revolt – Only 5 states sent delegates Successful because attendees later convinced the Congress of the Articles of Confederation to revise the articles.
Section 4 STGs: Explain/describe 1.How the Connecticut Compromise settled the MOST DIVISIVE ISSUE at the Constitutional Convention 2.Key arguments of the: 1.Federalists 2.AntiFederalists
What did the delegates agree that they wanted to accomplish? 1.Needed to abandon the old Articles, write new Constitution 2.Representative Government with power of government limited (Limited Gov’t) 3.Divide & Balance Powers. Create: 1.________________________ Branch 2._______________________ Branch 3._____________________________Branch 4.Limit the power of States to coin money or to interfere with a creditor’s rights 5.Strengthen the National Government
Plans & Compromises PlanIdeaProsCons Virginia Plan (by James Madison- Father of the Constitution) New Jersey Plan
Franklin’s Comment upon finalizing the Constitution “ “ What does that mean?
Ratifying the Constitution Debate over Ratification – 1787 – 1790 9 out of the 13 states HAD TO SIGN IT FOR IT TO TAKE EFFECT The 9 th state (New Hampshire) ratified it – June 21, 1788 Last state signed it - 1790
Federalists vs AntiFederalists FederalistAnti-Federalist Person(s) Wanted: Why did they want that? Result/Note: