Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Origins of American Government Ch 2 GovernmentOrigins of American Government
2Section 1 – The Colonial Period STGs:What events led the American colonists to believe that they would have a representative government?In what ways were the American colonies democratic?In what ways were they NOT democratic?
3The Colonies 1600s - 1774 How many colonies were there? Where were the colonists from? (list nations)Out of all of the Home Countries, which were the Less Autocratic/More Democratic?Where were MOST of the colonists from?Which country became the Ruler of the American colonies?13Mainly European nations: England, Spain, Netherlands, present-day Germany, Sweden, France AND West Africa (slave).England and the Netherlands were the most democraticMost of the colonists were from England.England had a superior navy and army, so England became the ruler.
5Why Colonists expected Representative Government under British rule. Pgs 35-38British citizens demanded limited government in 1215: _________ ________Petition of ____ (1628): limited king’s powerRequired Parliament’s consent to raise taxesJust Cause – Can’t imprison a person w/o a reasonNo Martial Law – unless during warMust have Homeowner’s permission to house troopsEnglish Bill of _____ (1688): Government by Constitution, Parliament rules along with Monarch.Representative Government – English Parliament had played an increasing role in governing England since 1628.Two Treatises of Government, John Locke (1690). Locke believed people were born with “NATURAL RIGHTS” and agreed to submit to rule and in return the ruler was supposed to protect those rights. Regarded as “The Textbook of the American Revolution”1215 Magna Carta1628 Petition of Right1688 English Bill of Rights
6Colonial Government 1600s – 1750s Common PracticesWritten constitutions – protecting basic rights & limited power of gov’t1620:1629:1639:Elected Legislature1st legislature in AmericaSeparation of Powers –Governor (King’s agent)Colonial LegislatureColonial Courts1620 Mayflower Compact1629 Great Fundamentals1639 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
7Section 2 Uniting for Independence STGs:What factors caused the British to allow the colonists to operate with little interference between 1607 and 1763?Why were the colonists and the British unable to compromise and settle their differences?
8What factors caused the British to allow the colonists to operate with little interference between 1607 and 1763?Colonies were a source of raw materials to England. As long as that happened, Britain had been content.Geography: over 3,000 miles apart – it took over 2 months to relay orders.Britain needed the good will of the colonists in order to keep them from swearing allegiance to France (in present-day Canada).
9Why did Britain Tighten Control? The French & Indian War:Threatened Britain’s hold on colonies – made them want to tighten control.The expense of the war – Britain wanted the American colonists to pay more of the expense.At the end of the war, American colonists no longer needed British protection.King George III Ascended to the Throne – 1760He had different ideas about governing colonies that his predecessors.His mental condition and policies towards the colonies made the American colonists question his “right” to rule.
10Tightening ControlIncreased taxes (in $ amount and on items previously not taxed)To help pay the war debtStamp Act 1765: taxed on legal documents, pamphlets, newspapers, dice and playing cards.Restricted Trade:Colony could trade ONLY with Britain.Hurts colonists economically. Couldn’t sell cotton to other nations even though the price was higher.
11Reactions Political protests & boycotts of British goods. Led Britain to repeal the Stamp Act of Britain passed other tax laws to replace it.Taxed tea.Boston Tea Party 1773 –Colonists dressed as MohawksDumped tea in harborCoercive Acts/Intolerable Acts – passed by BritainBanned protestsClosed Boston HarborMassachusetts not allowed to govern itself
12Result Escalated tensions between Britain & colonists Made it harder for either side to back downUnified the ColonistsCreated a common purpose & identityBegan to think of themselves as Americans
13Colonial Leadership Stamp Act Congress _________ (year) Nine colonies met in New YorkSent petition to King arguing only colonial legislatures had power to tax coloniesCommittees of CorrespondenceBegan in _________ (year)1st committee - Samuel Adams in BostonOver 80 committees throughout coloniesUrged resistance against Britain17651773
14First Continental Congress Formed when petition to King George III fell on deaf earsSeptember 5, 1774Embargo of British goodsBritain sent more troops/tightened control“Shot Heard Around the World”Considered 1st battle of the Revolutionary WarApril 19, 1775Lexington and Concord, MassachusettsClash between Redcoats and Colonists
15Moving Towards Independence Second Continental CongressMet May __________Philadelphia, _______________________Congress assumed powers of Central Gov’tJohn _____________, President of this Congress_________ ___________________, Commander of the Continental ArmyGenerated support for their causeMay 1776PAJohn Hancock, President of the Congress NOT THE NATIONGeorge Washington
16Moving Towards Independence Common Sense written by _________ ________Encouraged independenceCharacterized George III as “inveterate enemy to liberty”Samuel Adams“Is not America already independent? Why not then declare it?”Richard Henry LeeIntroduced a motion to declare independence* Thomas Paine
17The Declaration of Independence PgsThis IS NOT THE CONSTITUTION.Who drafted it? (NOT the same as an author. It had many authors.)When was it signed?Whose was the first signature?What are the Three Parts?Intro-Purpose of this document, included ideas of rights and government’s roleMiddle: Lists complaints against the kingConclusion: States colonists determination to separate from Britain
18STATE ConstitutionsStates had STARTED writing their STATE Constitutions around May __________Most had a bill of rights of citizensSource of government’s power comes from the people_____________ government – government can do only what the people (as a majority) approve*States began writing their STATE CONSTITUTIONS – May 1776* Limited
19Section 3 Articles of Confederation The FIRST CONSTITUTION of the United States1771 – 1788No Executive Branch (president)No Judicial BranchONLY a ______________BRANCH (CONGRESS)Legislative
20Weaknesses Could not ______________________________ No power to ____________________________Could not force __________________________Process to ratify laws:Difficult to get the required # of states’ delegates together all at one time = hard to pass new lawsOne small state could block legislationCollect/raise money to pay for government expenses or a militaryNo power to regulate tradeCould not force anyone to obey the laws
21Accomplishments of the Articles of Confederation Fair policy of statehood:Process for territories to become new states instead of being annexed by an existing stateNew states were equal to older states in terms of representation and rights.Peace treaty with _____________ __________________.Established precedent for a ________________ (advisers).“Full Faith and Credit”States had to honor other states legal actsIf you married in New York, then Pennsylvania had to recognize that.Can’t treat another state’s people differently than your own state’s people. Ex: Sales Tax same for all, not lower for your state’s citizens.2. Great Britain3. Cabinet
22The Need for Stronger Government _______________ Disputes – between statesStates imposing ________________ on neighboring states’ importsNo way to raise taxes – unpaid debtsowed $ to other nationsRevolutionary War soldiers still unpaidShay’s ______________________Former Revolutionary War soldier menPut down by Massachusetts militia bc U.S. government had no army (no way to raise $)BorderTariffsShay’s Rebellion
23The Annapolis Convention 1786, Annapolis, MDAll delegates invited to attend to discuss:Border disputesDifference between states’ currenciesInability to put down a revoltOnly 5 states sent delegatesSuccessful because attendees later convinced the Congress of the Articles of Confederation to revise the articles.
24Section 4 STGs: Explain/describe How the Connecticut Compromise settled the MOST DIVISIVE ISSUE at the Constitutional ConventionKey arguments of the:FederalistsAntiFederalists
25What did the delegates agree that they wanted to accomplish? Needed to abandon the old Articles, write new ConstitutionRepresentative Government with power of government limited (Limited Gov’t)Divide & Balance Powers. Create:________________________ Branch_______________________ Branch_____________________________BranchLimit the power of States to coin money or to interfere with a creditor’s rightsStrengthen the National GovernmentLegislativeExecutiveJudicial
26Plans & Compromises Plan Idea Pros Cons Virginia (by James Madison-Father of the Constitution)New Jersey Plan