Presentation on theme: "Operational Hazards. Overview Common safety hazards Safe work practices Preventing and treating heat and cold stress Proper lifting and handling Confined."— Presentation transcript:
Overview Common safety hazards Safe work practices Preventing and treating heat and cold stress Proper lifting and handling Confined space procedures
Terminal Learning Objective Participants will recognize general safety hazards and safe work practices related to fixed facility work.
Enabling Learning Objectives Define a general safety hazard. Identify general methods to prevent accidents. Recognize general safety-hazard categories and related precautions. Identify symptoms and prevention measures for heat stress and cold stress.
Enabling Learning Objectives Recognize biological hazards. Recognize ergonomic hazards. Identify general precautions for confined space work. Identify potential fire hazards and fire prevention strategies.
Operational Hazard Anything on or around a work site which may compromise worker safety or health if appropriate control measures are not implemented.
Prevention of Accidents Be aware of changing conditions. Take initiative to correct potential safety hazards. Understand the task. Watch for weather conditions, wind direction and unusual odors.
Ten Common Causes of Accidents 1. Poor instructions 2. Poor planning 3. Improper design 4. Improper equipment provided or used 5. Failure to follow instructions
Ten Common Causes of Accidents 6. Neglect or improper use of equipment. 7. Faulty equipment 8. Untrained personnel 9. Uncooperative personnel 10. Uncontrollable or unexpected outside agents (e.g., weather or sudden illness)
Acts Conditions Near Hits Minor Injuries Reportable Injury Lost Time Injury Death Knowledge Ability Motivation Design Maintenance Action of Others
How Accidents Occur Heavy Equipment Small Power Tools and Equipment Hand Tools Lifting and Carrying Compressed Gas Cylinders Electrical Hazards
Lifting Safety Back injuries are the Nation’s number one workplace safety issue.
Lifting Safely Preparing to Lift ◦ Clear obstacles away ◦ Heft to check weight Performing the Lift ◦ Square with object ◦ Balance ◦ Squat, bend knees, grip object, tighten abdomen USE YOUR LEGS
Safe Lifting Tips Don’t life objects over your head Don’t twist Pace yourself Don’t reach over an obstacle Follow your workplace safety guidelines
Common Site Hazards Heat stress Cold stress Biological hazards Confined spaces
Heat Stress Occurs within 15 minutes Factors to consider : ◦ Poses serious health threats ◦ Environmental conditions (including air temperature and humidity) ◦ Clothing ◦ Workload ◦ Individual worker characteristics
Forms of Heat Stress Heat Syncope Heat Cramps Heat Exhaustion Heat Stroke Heat Rash Transient Heat Fatigue
Heat Syncope Fainting Frequently occurs when a worker is not acclimated to hot environments
Heat Cramps Caused by excessive loss of salt during sweating. Symptoms ◦ Muscle spasms in the extremities, abdomen, or back Treatment ◦ Massaging the cramped muscles ◦ Replenishing the victim’s water and electrolytes
Heat Exhaustion Victim suffers from a severe lack of fluids and salts Symptoms ◦ Pale or flushed skin ◦ Moist skin ◦ Headache ◦ Fatigue ◦ Nausea ◦ Normal or slightly elevated temperature ◦ Profuse sweating Treatment ◦ Victim must rest in a cool place ◦ Drink water
Heat Stroke Most severe form of heat stress Caused by a failure of the body’s temperature regulation mechanism Symptoms ◦ Absence or reduction of sweating ◦ Elevated body temperature ◦ Skin is red, hot, and dry ◦ Dizziness ◦ Nausea, ◦ Confusion Treatment ◦ Medical attention as soon as possible
Heat Rash Prickly heat and transpires in a hot, humid environment where sweat is unable to evaporate Prevention ◦ Worker must periodically rest in a cool place ◦ Skin must be bathed regularly and kept as dry as possible
Transient Heat Fatigue Causes temporary discomfort accompanied by mental and/or psychological strain, which affects task performance, coordination, and alertness Treatment ◦ Lessened by gradual adjustment to heat conditions
Prevention of Heat Stress Maintain adequate water intake Take breaks in a cool place Learn the signs and symptoms of heat stress and respond at the earliest point of detection Schedule heavy work or work in PPE for cool times of the day Move work location to shade or cooler area
Prevention of Heat Stress Have workers drink 16 ounces of water before beginning work Urge workers to drink a cup or two of water every 15 to 20 minutes Weigh workers before and after work to determine if fluid replacement is adequate
Cold Stress Superficial Frostbite Deep Frostbite Hypothermia
Superficial Frostbite Characterized by the freezing of only the outer skin layer Treatment ◦ Protect the exposed area by placing uncovered fingers under opposite armpits or placing bare frostbitten feet under clothes or against the skin of a companion until pain returns NOTE: DO NOT: ◦ Warm frostbitten parts by massaging ◦ Expose to an open fire ◦ Soak in cold water ◦ Rub with snow
Deep Frostbite Characterized by the freezing of tissue beneath the outer skin layer Treatment ◦ Protect frozen parts from further cold exposure ◦ Keep victim warm while being transported to a hospital NOTE: Protect frozen parts from additional injury Do not attempt to thaw them in the field
Hypothermia Characterized by subnormal body temperatures Treatment ◦ Keep victim warm ◦ Give warm beverages or soup NOTE: Alcohol consumption increases risk NOTE: Death can occur
Prevention of Cold Stress Wear proper clothing Maintain a proper diet Use shelter Monitor worker’s conditions
Biological Hazards Ticks Bees and Wasps Spiders and Scorpions Snakes Rabid Animals Plants
Ergonomic Hazards Study of how a human physically and mentally interacts with the workplace Notify manager or supervisor of hazards
Material Handling Use mechanical devices ◦ Drum dollies ◦ Pallet dollies ◦ Push carts and dollies so you can see ahead and around the load
Material Handling Push rather than pull Bend your knees, not your back Step with legs, don’t rotate Use ladders for high loads Wear steel-toed boots Pick up stacks in two steps Don’t block your visibility
Container Handling Hazard Recognition ◦ Detonation, fire and explosion ◦ Vapor generation ◦ Physical injury caused by lifting improperly or moving containers Drum Handling Safety ◦ Use forklifts, dollies and pallet jacks ◦ Wear protective PPE ◦ Check drum for sharp edges or rust ◦ Plan the move and clear obstructions ◦ Manually lift with good technique ◦ Do not handle or move if safety is questioned
Confined Space Adequate size and configuration for employee entry Limited means for entry and exit, one and/or small openings Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy, such as small utility spaces
Confined Space Permits Contains or has the potential for containing a hazardous atmosphere Contains a material that has a potential for engulfing an entrant Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped Contains any other recognized serious safety hazard
Atmospheric Hazards Flammable gas in excess of 10% LEL Airborne combustible dust which meets LEL Oxygen concentration 19.5% or less Oxygen concentration 23.5% or greater An atmosphere which could result in employee exposure in excess of the PEL
Other Potential Hazards Mechanical Hazards Slips, Trips and Falls ◦ ART - There is an “art” to preventing slips, trips and falls Awareness Responsibility Traction
Slips, Trips and Falls Awareness ◦ Be alert throughout the workday ◦ Look ahead from the knee level ◦ Know where there are existing step hazards ◦ Look for wet areas ◦ Look for obstructions and electrical cords
Slips, Trips and Falls Responsibility ◦ Everyone in the workplace must assume responsibility for keeping a safe work area. ◦ One is more likely to be injured from a slip, trip, or fall than from hazardous chemicals. ◦ Take the time to remove the hazard or notify those who are able to do so.
Slips, Trips and Falls Traction ◦ Be aware of changing conditions. ◦ Maintain good footwear with traction. ◦ Enhance traction by using rough surfacing, lowering slopes of ramps and replacing low-traction surfaces.
Fire Safety (Uniform Fire Code) Check with your local fire officials Flammables and combustibles may be a large proportion of waste accepted Multiple hazards PROPER STORAGE IS A MUST !