Presentation on theme: "Protection of the respiratory tract Protection of the respiratory tract Personal Protection is a temporary emergency solution Marianne Andersson Lab Technician."— Presentation transcript:
Protection of the respiratory tract Protection of the respiratory tract Personal Protection is a temporary emergency solution Marianne Andersson Lab Technician Arbets- och miljömedicin
Ways of Exposure Ways of Exposure Most contaminations enter the body by way of the respíratory tract Through oesophagus/eating Through the skin Through inhalation
Respiratory Ways & Lungs The total active surface of the 600 million alveoles is m 2
Program for protection of the respiratory tract Equipment for the protection of the respiratory tract cannot be given to the user expecting that it will automatically give enough protection. The program should contain as follows: Identification of dangerous target compounds Risk assessment Technical actions to minimize the risks The choice of suitable respiratory protection equipment Education in adjustment and maintenance of the equipment Appointment and education of a competent person Ddocument all actions SS-EN 529:2005 AFS 2001:03 ändringar AFS 2009:08, AFS 2010:11
Responsibilities The employer Create and operate a program for the protection of the respiratory tract Supply suitable protection for the breathing zone Educate users – adjustment and maintenance of the equipment Supervise that the program is followed Document The employee Follow the program Use the equipment in the prescribed way Report problems that may occur during use Standard EN 529:2005, AFS 2001:3
The use of filters has apparent limitations and must not be used when 1) there is a risk of shortage of oxygen (less than 17 volume percent) 2) the contamination is not known 3) there are levels so high that there is an acute risk for life and health 4) the contamination is so toxic that there is an acute risk for life and health 5) The authorities prescribe protection equipment with a higher protection level Limitations
1. Inhalable (≤100 μm) 2. Thoracic (≤10 μm) 3. Respirable (≤4,5 μm) Aerosols Divided into 3 groups
The protection needed will depend on the concentration of particles The particle filters P1, P2 och P3 should not be chosen from particle size All particle filters are tested for the particle size that is the most difficult to filtrate away. BUT Particle Filter P1 must not be used against cancerogenic, radioactive targets, microorganisms such as viruses and spores or biochemicals such as enzymes and hormones P1 och P2 must not be used against microorganisms such as viruses and spores or biochemicals such as enzymes and hormones P3 will protect against all kinds of particles
When should the Filters be changed? When it has been damaged or affected by violence When the breathing resistance has increased in an obvious way – the more particles in the filter the more efficient the filtering Changing Filters
Supposed to be used as a protection against most types of gases. Divided into different classes according capacity Divided into different classes according the target gas they are intended to stop OBS! There are substances which filter protection is inappropriate to use To decide whether a filter protection is suitable in a special case, please contact AV or the supplier of the equipment. Control what is recommended in AFS 2011:18 "Hygieniska gränsvärden och åtgärder mot luftföroreningar” (Occupational Exposure Limits and measures to be taken against air pollution). Gas Filters
Storing A gas filter starts working when the wrapping is opened. Storage of the gas filter (when not in use) is very important. Concentration The concentration of the target compound is a very important aspect when making decisions about the length of life for the filter. Humidity The humidity is an important parameter and normally one says that the higher the humidity the shorter length of life for the filter. Change of Gas Filters, No simple answers!
The calculation of the life span for the gas filter must be done individually and be updated continously according to the physical capacity of the wearer. The safest method is to ask the supplier to judge the life span of the filter, for instance through capacity measurements on filters that have been used in the environment in question. The most important part of the breathing protection program is to create a policy for the replacement of filters. Exchange of Gas Filters Summary
Fit testing of the Breathing Protection If the breathing protection is working correctly is always a question for the individual person, since everybody looks differently!!! Breathing protection should always be tested on the intended user before coming into use in a working place! Contact the supplier for guidance in selecting the best alternative when it comes to different alternatives (sizes, different models, different kinds of protection and so on). Education of the intended user is imperative for a breathing protection to be chosen and fit tested correctly.
Check your Breathing Protection Rapid test Tighten the filter or the air inlet with for instance a plastic film. Take a deep breath and hold your breath. Then the mask will tighten against your face. The mask has to stay tightened for at least 10 sec. Soak a rag with for instance Butyl acetate. Thereafter let the person who is to be tested enter the room. Wave the rag in front of him/her especially around the edges of the mask where it should be tightened around the face. The strong smell will penetrate the slightest opening. ADI 38
Leakage through : Filter Exhalation ventilation Between face and mask Breathing Protection
Mask with Fastened Filters Filtering half mask with inhalation and exhalation ventilation. Cover at least nose and mouth Standard EN 405:2001
Half Mask / Quarter Mask Standard EN 140:1999 Half masks cover nose, mouth and chin. Quarter masks cover nose and mouth. The air will pass either through a filter or be taken from, for example, a compressor. The expiration air will pass through the exhalation ventilation.
Whole Mask Cover eyes, nose, mouth and chin. The air will pass through a filter or be taken from, for instance, a compressor. The exhalation air will pass through ventilation ducts/tubes. Class 1 Whole masks for easy work Class 2 Whole masks for average work Class 3 Whole masks for special use, for example fire fighters equipped with smoke helmets Three classes Standard EN 136:1998
Fan Assisted Filter Protection The main part is not closely fitted against the face - visor or hood Suitable for users who cannot use a whole or half mask, for example people with beards. Standardized and approved as a full/complete equipment. The different parts of the breathing equipment have to be approved together to be allowed to be combined with each other. Standard EN 12941:1998