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This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: MC0092 "Good luck, boy! Go out and seek your fortune"

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Presentation on theme: "This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: MC0092 "Good luck, boy! Go out and seek your fortune""— Presentation transcript:

1 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: MC0092 "Good luck, boy! Go out and seek your fortune" Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon seems in the spirit of the policy announced in July 1943 by the Colonial Secretary, Oliver Stanley, to the House of Commons that the aim of British colonial policy was to guide the colonies toward eventual self- government within the Empire. It implies that the 1955 colonial subject is ready to embark on the same path as his 1855 Victorian predessor. MartinMaguire

2 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC3544 Illegal aliens Michael Heath : The Mail on Sunday(c) The British Cartoon Archive A witty reference to the sci-fi cliche 'take me to your leader' and the anti-immigrant cliche 'they are only here to take our benefits'.

3 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption William Papas : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive 1968, The Manchester Guardian. Enoch Powell's "River of blood' speech ignites the immigration issue. Here Powell is Satan offering the apples of bigotry.

4 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "Hi there! Great to see you.... Hi there! Great to see you...." Bill Caldwell : Daily Star(c) The British Cartoon Archive By the 1990s illegal immigration and people smuggling had replaced former concerns about liberal government policies. The use of international freight transport networks to evade immigration controls was a widespread European problem in the context of the collapse of states and economies from the Balkans to Afghanisation. The figure 'welcoming' the illegal immigrants is clearly a former immigrant. The implication is that the human trafficing is directed by 'non-white' British. Published in the Daily Star, March The Daily Star tabloid featured topless models, sport, celebraties and aggressive headlines. martin maguire

5 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC1951 No caption David Austin : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon depicts two immigration officials debating the scrapping of the primary purpose rule, which required foreign nationals married to British citizens to prove that the primary purpose of their marriage was not to obtain British residency. Brian, 07/10/12

6 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "You mean to tell me you've All written to your MPs?" Peter Maddocks : Sunday Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive This was a time when border controls were in crisis in Britain because of the number of people immigrating to the country. There were staff shortages in this sector with untrained recruits at immigration control desks. Fustration began, and there were queues at peak times up to two hours for incoming tourists at ports and airports. The problem was the greatest at Heathrow Airport as the cartoon depicts this. In 1985 there was a total of 55 million people living in the United Kingdom with over 1 million Asians and 1 million from West Indies origin. Certainly there were racial problems and is evident that the legislation of the 1960's, 1970's, and 1980's was designed to limit and then stop the movement into Britain people of colour from Africa, the Caribbean and the Indian sub-continent. The cartoon depicts all ethnicities mentioned arriving at Heathrow and immigration control is predominantly emphasised. The cartoon suggests that the British Government sought to limit entry of immigrants for settlement to Britain on grounds of colour. Fergus Maguire

7 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "Announcing the arrival of East African Airlines - all change here for Bradford, Wolverhampton, Brix... Paul Rigby : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive By the 1970s, the British government had restricted immigration but this had not completely stopped it was the most significant year as it was the year when the Ugandan dictator, Idi Amin, expelled 80,000 African Asians, families who had settled during the age of the Empire. The British government had excepted 28,000 of these people in the first two months. This cartoon shows the influx of Africans coming to Britain, forced to flee from their homelands after being expelled by Amin. Rachel McMahon, 25/10/2012

8 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: cu2206 No caption Michael Cummings : Sunday Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive The beginning of the 1980s saw the introduction of the British Nationality Act This made new provisions about citizenship and nationality and also amended the Immigration Act It solved the problem of citizenship, putting it into 3 different categories: British Citizenship, British Dependent Territories' Citizenship and British Overseas Citizenship. People who fell into the first two categories could register as full British citizens after they have been living in the UK for at least 5 years. This cartoon shows how, despite the growing immigration problems in England during the 80s, the Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher did little to solve the burdening immigration issue in Britain. She decided to ignore Powell's arguments over the crisis which he foresaw and instead choose to sweep it under the carpet, allowing 10,000 Vietnamese refugees, who were fleeing the communist regime, entry into the UK. Rachel McMahon 25/10/2012

9 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: SBD0630 No caption Steve Bell : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive With the fall of the Iron Curtain in the 1990s, a new movement of people from Eastern to Western Europe began. Thousands of asylum seekers fled to Britain to escape the conflict in the Balkans. The Asylum and Immigration Act 1996 created a new offence to anyone employing asylum seekers unless they had permission to live and work in the UK. The Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 removed entitlements to benefits for all asylum seekers and established the National Asylum Support Service. This cartoon illustrates how the British government under Tony Blair had proposed to give asylum seekers food stamps instead of money while awaiting residency. This was a counter measure in case they decided to return to their home country. At this time Macedonia had announced that it was willing to offer shelter to more than 173,000 Kosovo refugees. The British government were unsure if anyone was going to take the Macedonian government up on this offer and proposed the food stamps to try to encourage them move to there. Rachel McMahon 25/10/2012

10 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC5162 No caption Dave Gaskill : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive Cartoon shows a group of Romanians entering Britain. This was printed after the government announced that its would fund English language lessons in the hope that it would help settle the immigrants. As most Romanians were illegal immigrants this caused outrage in the media. This cartoon was printed in the Sun, which has always led the way in matters relating to race and immigration. The cartoon also features Agusto Pinochet, the former Chilean dictator and former Thatcher ally. Pinochet had been granted asylum in Britain but was eventually forced to stand trial for war crimes. Brian, 08/10/12

11 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: MW2417 "Off-colour supplements"Published captions: "Well you can't say he's not a loyal British subject!"... Emmwood [John Musgrave-Wood] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive British PM Harold Wilson was always anti-racialist, but he did not try to repeal the 1962 Commonwealth and Immigrants Act, with its controversial quota system and in 1965, he tightened it, cutting down the dependants allowed in, and giving the Government the power to deport illegal immigrants, offering the first Race Relations Act as a sweetner. In 1967 immigrants were coming in very large numbers to make Britain their refuge. This caused major concern, with Enoch Powell calling for an end to work permits and complete ban on dependants coming into Britain. Duncan Sandys the Conservative politican who had made the promise originally, was now leading calls to cancel it. This cartoon in 1968 makes reference to the restrictions on immigration, cutting down the dependants allowed in, Irish entry, the governments position on immigration. Powell and Sandys are seen speaking about Wilson. Fiona 13/10/12

12 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: 'Cut down on my drinking! That's the last time I'm seeing a doctor that speaks English' Jonathan Pugh : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon refers to the health service and the fact that it is unusual to get a doctor who speaks fluent English. The man complaining to his wife implies that the doctor is normally an immigrant. The doctor tells him to stop drinking is it that other doctors have said the same and he did not understand them because of the language barrier. Mary Dowdall

13 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "And now a few words from my shadow spokesman on immigration." Kenneth Mahood : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon depicts Enoch Powell and Edward Heath, Powell is introducing him as his spoke person on immigration. Enoch Powel was a member of the shadow cabinet; he was very out spoken on immigration as is evident in his speech, rivers of blood made in 1968 after this speech he was dismissed from the cabinet. Edward Heath will be PM as the conservatives win the general election in1970. This cartoon gives the impression they are friends but Powell resigns from the conservative party in 1974 over disagreements with Heath. Mary Dowdall

14 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: CA0471 No caption Mel Calman : The Times(c) The British Cartoon Archive The British Nationality Act 1981 and came into force on Jan This act was to amend the Immigration Act of 1971 as regards the right to abode in the United Kingdom. This cartoon is showing how relieved Santa is with the news!!! Fiona 13/10/12

15 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: MW2908 " and avoid being compromised later!" Emmwood [John Musgrave-Wood] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive The cartoon portrays the three wise monkeys. It refers to the lack of response to the crises which developed by the Ugandan leader Idi Amin decision to evict 70,000 Asians form Uganda. The Labour government of 1968 had promised to allow them in to Britain and nowas they were not in goverment seamed not to be prepared to make any statement on what was happening in Uganda Mary Dowdall

16 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: SBD0317 No caption Steve Bell : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon refers to an incident in 1979 when a number of asylum seekers and refugees staged a hunger strike in Rochester Prison in Kent. The protest was against their detention i.e. being treated like criminals, and also against the conditions under which they were being held. The refugee council was of the opinion that the reason for detention was to act as a deterent to those who may wish to seek asylum, especially those who enter the country for economic reasons. Pictured in the cartoon is Anne Widecome, a conservative MP, who at the time was Minister for Prisons. Widecome was a supporter of the detention policy. Brian 14/10/12

17 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: 'Morning, Alf, I've been expecting you..' Stanley Franklin : Daily Mirror(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon depicts the character Alf Garnett from the popular British sitcom Till Death Do Us Part, being arrested after the passing of the Race Relations Act The act made it illegal to ‘refuse housing, employment, or public services to a person on the grounds of colour, race, ethnic or national origins.’ The desk sergeant is non-white and the caption reads ‘Morning Alf, I’ve been expecting you…’ signifying that the character Garnett, who was portrayed as a bigot and overtly racist in his political views is finally being chastised for his behaviour. The cartoon appeared in the widely read tabloid newspaper The Daily Mirror. The fact that such an extreme character was depicted on television and was so popular reflected the racist views held by an overwhelmingly amount of British people. The paper in making light of the issue which was having such serious implications at the time suggests that it held the same populist views. Lisa 16/10/12.

18 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: Hokusai's print "The Wave" was auctioned at Sotheby'sduring the week. John Jensen : Sunday Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive When Kenya became dependant in 1963, people of non- African origin living in Kenya were given two years to apply for citizenship. However the majority of Asian Kenyans chose to retain citizenship of the United Kingdom and colonies status. This meant that under the Immigration Act of 1962, only holders of British passports were free to enter the United Kingdom. Asian Kenyans were among them, therefore many decided to settle in Britain whom they never experienced before. The cartoon is a reflection of the exodus of Kenyans whom thousands entered before the date of the 1st of March This was the date when the Commonwealth Act was introduced. The cartoon known as 'The Wave' accentuates the-beat -the-ban rush to get to the United Kingdom before legislation is enforced. The 'mother country' now has even more complications and issues relating to immigration. Fergus Maguire

19 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: A concise history of British immigration Leslie Gibbard : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon appeared in The Guardian a broadsheet newspaper centre left and social- liberal in its politics, in It gives ‘A concise history of British immigration’ beginning in 1880 with the bringing in of black slaves from the colonies while simultaneously expelling white British convicts. It then refers to the impending Immigration Act brought in by the Conservative government which was to tighten immigration. One of the restrictions was to disallow Commonwealth citizens to automatically immigrate to Britain unless they had a parent or grandparent born there. This was seen as a way of excluding blacks and other coloureds while still allowing in white citizens from the Commonwealth countries such as Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. The second image predicts that 1972 would see a complete reversal from 1800 with Edward Heath literary kicking out non-white Commonwealth citizens as they are no longer of value while whites enter. Lisa, 17/10/12.

20 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "Why don't you immigrants stay in your own country?" Nicholas Garland : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive

21 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "The Commonwealth can be an example to other nations." - Mr. Macmillan, adressing the Commonwealth P... Vicky [Victor Weisz] : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon depicts a number of black immigrants, possibily from Africa or Jamacia, at the door of Britain but with a "NO ENTRY" sign hanging from the door. This cartoon is in response to the upcoming Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 which allowed members of the British Commonwealth to travel freely to the United Kingdom. However members of the Conservative Party called on tighter restrictions due to the huge influx of immigrants into Britain, which led to members of the Labour Party calling it "cruel and brutal anti colour legislation". Which explains why there is no white people not allowed into Britain, the cartoon only depicts them as black. Conor Murphy, October 17th 2012

22 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "Sure, an' how could Oi be an immigrant, me not possessing a British passport?" Osbert Lancaster : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon depicts an Irishman and two Indians at what looks like a customs office at an airport. The two indians looks though they are excluded in some form as the Irishman says "Sure, an how could Oi be an immigrant, me not possessing a british passport". This is in reference to the immigration act of 1968 which said members of the commonwealth who didn't have a british grandparent or parent could travel freely to Britain. The Irishman looks old enough to have a parent or grandparent from British rule in Ireland, which is relevant because under the British Nationality Act of 1948 irish people who had parents or grandparents from British rule in Ireland could travel freely to Britain. The act of 1968 didn't really make a difference to Irish people at all which might explain why he's at the top of the queue. Conor Murphy, October 17th 2012

23 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: VY1927 "You got a job to go back to?" Vicky [Victor Weisz] : New Statesman(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon shows a gentlemen with a customs officer going into the Central African Federation. This was also known as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which was a semi independent state in Southern Africa, a federal realm of the British Crown. This cartoon is out around the same time the 1962 immigration bill comes into effect, which states that there would be tighter immigration into Britain. There was also a minority white population within the Central African Federation. The Customs Officer is telling him sarcastically does he have a job to go BACK to in reference to the fact that there are plentiful jobs in Britain and he won't let him into the Central African Federation just like Britain is now not letting in as many immigrants prior to the 1962 immigration bill. Conor Murphy, October 17th 2012

24 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: ILW3430 [Illingworth cartoon ILW 3430] Illingworth, Leslie Gilbert, : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon shows white immigrants being allowed in to the British Commonwealth Hotel while a black immigrant family is refused entry. The white men and the black man's suitcases being identical suggests that they are all immigrants. The woman's hand on the back of the white immigrant shows that she is eager to hurry the white immigrants inside, perhaps in the hope that the black family will not notice others being allowed in. The woman's old fashioned, almost Victorian attire and hair style suggest that she is an old-fashioned sort, which may reflect on her decsion to not allow the black family entry. This cartoon was published in the Daily Mail, a conservative daily tabloid newspaper, on the 3/11/61. It comments on the issue of the opposition of black immigrants while white immigrants were viewed more favourably. In 1960 Rab Butler, Home Secretary, began to call for tighter controls of the strong influx of immigration into Britain. Consequently an immigration bill was introduced. This bill was supposedly not meant to be discriminative or racist but ultimately would be as it would "operate on coloured people almost exclusively". Holly Gunapala 17/10/2012

25 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "We're not trying to get in, sahib, we're trying to get out." Mac [McMurtry; Stan] : Daily Sketch(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon was published in the Daily Sketch, a paper which was later absorbed by the Daily mail, a right-wing conservative paper. Published in 1970, it depicts a number of Middle Eastern men on a lifeboat reading a paper being picked up by a police boat. This incident actually occured (minus the paper) at this time which brought up the question as to what should happen to such immigrants. However the caption, along with the newspaper headline saying 'Government Cuts', implies that the new tax legislation (the Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1970) is too harsh and makes the country not worth moving to. Jamie Staudt 17/10/12

26 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: CU1260 "What terrifies me, Prime Minister, is that if the troubles don't stop the REST of the Irish will... Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive Published in March 1971 by the Daily Express, a conservative newspaper, Cummings work shows British PM Edward Heath and Home Secretary Reginald Maudling looking at the changing relationship between Ireland and Britain. At this stage Irish immigration to the UK had almost doubled in the last ten years; with over 950,000 Irish immgrants making up the largest miniority group in England. Later that year the Immigration Act of 1971 was introduced and despite this apparent 'problem' with the Irish they were still legally to be allowed entry to Britain as if they were actual citizens. Jamie Staudt 17/10/12

27 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: LSE8807 Family entrance David Low ( ) : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive Before 1962, the United Kingdom had an open door policy regarding immigration- all Commonwealth citizens were recognized as British subjects. However, the constant flow of immigrants coming into the country and many race riots that ensued caused much debate regarding this open door policy. The threat of possible new legislation- The Commonwealth Immigrants Act led to a great influx of migrants coming into Britain before the law was actually passed. There was 125,400 immigrants to Britain in 1961, which was a huge number. This cartoon by David Low depicts the anti- immigration feelings people had that led to this new legislation. It shows middle class or "snobbish" people rejecting the immigrants wanting to get in, and they are left on the outside. This cartoon was published in The Guardian, which is quite a middle class paper, and its readers are generally known for being on left of Britsih political opinion. Ciara McEntegart 17 Oct 12

28 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC4405 No caption Dave Gaskill : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon was printed in The Sun newspaper in 1998 and refers to what were seen as lax immigration and asylum controls allowing an influx of Eastern European immigrants into Britain. The signs welcoming them to ‘rape and pillage’ housing and the Department of Social Services refers to the government encouraging this migration by making ‘hand outs’ available as incentives. This in turn sees a rise in support for the British National Front represented by the skin heads. Lisa, 17/10/12.

29 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "We hear you've a vacant suite at the Carlton Tower." Keith Waite : Daily Mirror(c) The British Cartoon Archive In 1972, nearly 80,000 Asian Ugandans were expelled from the country by President Idi Amin. Amin wanted Britain to assume all responsiblity for Ugandan Asians holding British passports, and as a result of the mass exodus, huge numbers of these Asians flooded in to Britain. Around 27,000 Asians came to Britain, and Britains first reaction to this was quite negative. Such huge numbers came in such a short period of time. This cartoon depicts these huge numbers of people that were coming into the country, and it shows Britain didn't really know how to deal with it. The cartoon was published by The Daily Mirror- which is a tabloid newspaper. Ciara McEntegart 18 Oct 12

30 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Mac [McMurtry; Stan] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive The 1980's brought increasing numbers of asylum seekers to Britain. This is a very interesting cartoon, showing Britains general fears that they are being made fools of by asylum seekers. It shows how unhappy they were about these asylum seekers coming into the country and straight away getting some of the taxpayers money. The general feel of this cartoon is that these people coming into Britain are laughing at the British behind their backs, as they are getting things very easily. Most likely as a response to this fear, the following year, in 1987, Britain introduced the Immigration Carriers Liability Act which stated that a fine of £1,000 would be issued to any ship or airline company for each passenger brough to Britain without the proper travel documentation. Within weeks of this new legislation, the number of asylum seekers coming into the country fell by half. This cartoon was published in the Daily Mail, which is conservative tabloid newspaper. Ciara McEntegart 18 Oct 12

31 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Stanley Franklin : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive The Sun published this cartoon in 1992 as a commentary on the huge influx of immigrants to the country. A conservative paper aimed at the working class, the representation of immigrants taking over the carboard boxes of the homeless served to enforce the viewpoint held by many that this was out of control, that it detracted from the homes and lifestyle of the ordinary working man. The Sangette Protocol was introduced this year which allowed for the setting up of control points at either end of the Channel Tunnel in order to cut down on the amount of illegal immigrants who entered the country this way. Jamie Staudt 18/10/12

32 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: VY3287 "Sorry, er - this is hurting me more than it hurts you..." Vicky [Victor Weisz] : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive See next slide for accompanying annotation.

33 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: VY annotation Before the Commonwealth Immigration Act came to pass in 1962, citizens of any British Commonwealth were eligable to go and live in the UK. This act was brought into law due to the large amounts of people that were coming into the country. It detailed that only people with government issued permits could enter the country and many of these permits were issued to skilled workers only. This act led to a lot of opposition from many other parties in the country who suggested that it was quite racist, but there were also the parties that supported it's inclusion to law. The cartoon depicts a white man closing a door on a black man and telling him "Sorry, er - this is hurting me more than it hurts you..". It suggests that the white man does not want to refuse access to this man but I think that this statement could be the cartoonist Weisz' way of being sarcastic. The cartoonist himself was an immigrant from Germany, so he may sympathise with the people that are being rejected. The cartoon shows the early stages of this act since it was published in 1962, so it is all a new occurance for the people. It was published in the Evening Standard which was a free evening newspaper for the people. It was widely available and read covering all home and foreign affairs. Caoilionn Moran, 18/10/2012

34 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Trog [Wally Fawkes] : London Daily News(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon was published on the 4/3/87 in the London Daily News, a short-lived daily paper that only ran for five months. In 1985 Tamil immigrants began to seek asylum in Britain. As the number of asylum seekers arriving in Britain steadily rose the government responded by introducing restrictive policies and legislative measures. On the 17th February 1987 fifty-eight Tamil asylum seekers protested this at Heathrow Airport. The High Court ruled that the deportation of the Tamils be put on hold. A week later the protesters were granted the right to judicial review. The Home Office initially planned to contest the ruling but later backed down. This cartoon shows Sir Geoffrey Howe, Secretary for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs , being forced by a member of the 'UK Immigration Advisory Service' to let the Tamil protesters stay in Britain. It is obvious that Howe does not want to let the protesters stay as his hand that holds a sign saying 'Go Away' is being held down. The cartoon displays how the government were strongly advised or pressured to let the Tamil asylum seekers stay in Britain even if they really did not want to. Holly Gunapala 18/10/2012

35 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: Enoch's coloured spectacles... Trog [Wally Fawkes] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive See next slide for accompanying annotation.

36 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: annotation Enoch Powell was a member of the conservative party, and he was well known for his controversial ideas which included the government's policy on immigration. In 1968, he hit out at the government for what he believed to be an enormous influx of immigrants into Britain. He believed that if this was not stopped soon then in future, people with an immigrant background will outnumber the British people. He wanted the immigration policy to be changed, and for remaining immigrants to be sent back to their homes abroad. This cartoon follows a speech that he made in 1970 which was condemned by the newly elected Prime Minister Ted Heath. Heath described the latest speech on immigration as being "an example of man's inhumanity in a Christian civilised society". The cartoon shows how Enoch felt towards immigrants that were settled in Britain, it shows how he had them all stereotyped as being from one ethnical group. It depicts how Enoch felt towards these people, and how he generalised them. The cartoon shows that he saw almost everyone as being an immigrant in Britain now. The cartoon was published in the Daily Mail, which is a conservative daily newspaper in Britain. Caoilionn Moran, 18/10/2012

37 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC2774 The open door Bill McArthur : The Glasgow Herald(c) The British Cartoon Archive See next slide for accompanying annotation.

38 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC annotation In November 1997, a large group of people from the Czech Republic and Slovakia arrived in Dover, Britain seeking asylum after they heard that Britain were very generous with welfare benefits. It is suggested that they gathered this information through a television show about the topic. This year saw a huge amount of applications for asylum into Britain, and also the deportation of several illegal immigrants. This wave of asylum seekers led to discussions in both Britain and Ireland on the issue of restricting access and dealing with the upsurge in applications for citizenship. This cartoon states that the 'New Britain' does not have any more room for 'Czech Gypsies' and that they now have new internment centres, etc. I think that it aims to show that the laws for immigration and asylum seekers is changing in Britain and it is depicted as being on the cliffs when you enter Britain in order to give a clear message to those arriving. It mentions Enoch Powell who had strong views on immigration in the 1960's and then Norman Tebbit who was a member of the House of Lords at the time. It seems to have an 'out with the old, and in with the new' feel to it. The Glasgow Herald is a broadsheet newspaper that is available throughout Scotland. Caoilionn Moran, 18/10/2012

39 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "And stop callling me 'Grandad', young man!" Tony Holland : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive The Immigration Act of 1971 fixed many of the gaps left in the wake of the previous Commonwealth Immigrant Acts of 1962 and The Act was introduced in order to prevent a debacle occurring similar to the one which had ensured following the immigration of Kenyan Asians to Britain. The concept of partriality and the right of abode which had been introduced by the previous Act of 1968 was strengthened with membership being extended exclusively to the white Commonwealth of New Zealand, Canada and Australia. The Act also replaced the work voucher scheme of 1962 with a work permit scheme. The above cartoon refers to the concept of partriality in which full British citizen is only available to those who had a parent or grandparent, born in, or a citizen of the UK. Sean Connolly

40 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Edward McLachlan : Sunday Mirror(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon represents the conundrum which Kenyan Asians faced following the introduction of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act of In 1967 a process of “Africanisation” in Kenya left prosperous Asian Africans who lived there exposed and in fear of discrimination by their national government they began to immigrate to Britain having retained their British citizenship following Kenya’s independence. With over one thousand arriving every week into Britain in the autumn of 1967 the Labour Home Secretary James Callaghan moved to create new legislation which would exclude Asian Kenyans from arriving into Britain. With the introduction of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act of 1968 Full citizenship was only available to those who had a parent or grandparent, born in, or a citizen of the UK. This cartoon illustrates the then British Prime Minister Harold Wilson on the left while the president of Kenya Jomo Kenyatta is depicted on the right. In between both is portrayed a Kenya Asian unsure of which direction to take as both Wilson and Kenyatta refuse them. Sean Connolly

41 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: ILW3531 Published caption: Net result Illingworth, Leslie Gilbert, : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive See next slide for accompanying annotation.

42 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: ILW annotation The British Nationality Act of 1948 created an “open door” policy for those who were designated as citizens of the Commonwealth. By 1958 over 210,000 citizens of the Commonwealth were either living or working In Britain with the migrant population consisting of 115,000 West Indians, 55,000 Indian or Pakistani, 25,000 West Africans and 10,000 Cypriots. By the late 1950’s the British economy was beginning to slowdown from its post-war boom with a rise of unemployment to over half a million. With the rise in unemployment came a corresponding rise in tensions between the newcomer migrants and the native white Britain’s. By 1959 racist agitation against immigration from the Commonwealth had reached new highs following the Notting Hill Riots during the summer of 1958 and the murder of Kelso Cohcrane in 1959 at the hands of racist vigilantes. It was within this context that increasingly the influx of immigrant workers was perceived to be the root of social and economic problems which needed a solution. The British government, alarmed at the arrival of 300,000 coloured immigrants in just a decade and with the added prospect of an even greater influx of migrants arriving from the Caribbean colonies arriving in the future decided that the only “solution” to the “problem” created by these immigrants was to introduce anti-immigration legislation. The Commonwealth Immigrant Act of 1962 was introduced by the Home Secretary Richard Butler who suggested that such discriminatory legislation was a sad necessity yet also one which due to popular demand was inevitable. The Act basically led to a new arrangement for migrant workers which took the form of a work voucher scheme. The Act divided migrants into three groups; those with job offers, skilled and qualified workers, and those with neither of these attributes while the Act also authorised the deportation of Commonwealth citizens convicted of crime. The above cartoon of Home Secretary Richard Butler depicts the Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1962 acting as a barrier to immigrants from the Caribbean colonies. Sean Connolly

43 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: NG3956 No caption Nicholas Garland : The Independent(c) The British Cartoon Archive Normal 0 false false false EN-IE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Independent 19 June 1989 (Liberal/radical centre) Sarah O'Brien 19/10/12 This cartoon depicts Margaret Thatcher as a sheep dog on the left keeping the sheep in their pen who are Deng Xiaoping the leader of the communist party of China and Geoffrey Howe who was Thatcher’s foreign secretary between 83 and 89. It became apparent that Thatcher felt it was quite wrong for Asian immigrants to get council houses ahead of white citizens in Britain. On contrary to this Howe suggested that a number of Vietnamese refugees should be welcomed into the country. The agreement to transfer Hong Kong to China was largely Howe’s policy. Thatcher’s comments about Immigration were responsible for the collapse in support for the National Front.

44 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "As far as I can make out, we Irish are two-and-a-half per cent more sexy than the rest of you!" Jak [Raymond Jackson] : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive Normal 0 false false false EN-IE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Evening Standard 12 Mar 1970 (Labour) Sarah O'Brien 19/10/12 The largest group to come to Britain after the war were Irish workers and they continued to be the majority up to This cartoon conveys the fact that immigration birth rates in Britain were still overwhelmingly from Irish decent. Yet the Immigration act was to be altered in 71 restricting Immigration, Enoch Powell announced that there would be no difference between alien and British Subjects not belonging to the UK. The supposedly special treatment that the Irish were granted would be diminished according to this act.

45 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Peter Brookes : The Times(c) The British Cartoon Archive Normal 0 false false false EN-IE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Times 2000 (Conservative) Sarah O’Brien 19/10/12 Jack Straw a politician for the Labour Party was accused of a secret plot to open up the UK to mass immigration in Straw claims that his policy was to do the opposite and seek better control of immigration. In this cartoon we see an abundance of Asylum Seekers calling his name while he turns his back to them, looking quite unsure that his ‘open door’ policy was the right one. Yet in an interview with the Evening Standard he stands by his policy claiming that ‘Asylum applications are now a third of their peak in 2009’. It is clear from this cartoon that the conservatives were heavily critical of Straws views on Immigration making accusations that his policy was deliberate.

46 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Dave Brown : The Independent(c) The British Cartoon Archive Published in the Independent newspaper of April This cartoon refers to the policy of the Shadow Home Secretary Ann Widdicombe that called for secure reception centres for immigrants seeking asylum in Britain. She recorded that the reference to entrance to the Auschwitz concentration camp deeply offensive and that this was the only cartoon that hurt her. The Independent was a left of centre newspaper. The quasi- prison conditions under which asylum seekers were kept proved very controversial

47 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "How dare they say we're useless at spotting terrorists!" Tom Johnston : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive In July 2005, train stations in London on July 5th amd two weeks later on July 21st; four more attacks were attempted. Johnson's cartoon depicts seven Muslims entering Britain from the airport. At the immigration check desk are what appear to be two lazy officers not doing their jobs. The message behind this cartoon is that anyone can enter Britain because National Security is too relaxed and security are not doing their jobs. Johnson's cartoon also has xenophobic element to it. From looking at this cartoon there is a suggestion that all Muslims are terrorists. Niall Mc Keogh

48 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Nicholas Garland : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive The people depicted in this cartoon are Prime Minister Harold Wilson, the Minister for Technology Tony Benn and Aviation Minister Roy Jenkins. The man who is shown to be a robot is conservative politician Enoch Powell. The cartoon is refering to the 'Rivers of Blood' speech made by Powell on April 20th His speech was critical towards the immigration into Britain from Commonwealth countries. The reform papers that are in Powell's hands suggest reforms that he would want on immigration. I think they also reference the Commonwealth Immigration Act of Modifications were made to this act in 68 which restricted immigration rights to obtaining British Citizenship through either being British born or havin at least one grandparent already in Britain. I think that Powell is shown to be robotic because his message theme is repeated over and over suggesting the feeling towards immigration in Britain at the time. Niall Mc Keogh

49 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: SC0163 No caption Peter Schrank : The Independent(c) The British Cartoon Archive

50 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Leslie Gibbard : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive The three people in the cartoon are Prime Minister Edward Heath, the Home Secretary Reginald Maulding and conservative politician Enoch Powell. The cartoon shows Maulding to be a detergent that will wash Britain free of immigration by Edward Heath. Powell is sown in the background as a small daughter also holding the same product with the word 'Tiber' on it refering to his 'Rivers of Blood Speech'. This cartoon is a refernece to the news that Commonwealth immigrants could no longer settle under the Immigration bill. After working five years in Britain, Immigrants could obtain the rightn to settle and would be taken off of police registration. Gibbards cartoon suggest that under this government, immigrants will be driven out of Britain. Niall Mc Keogh

51 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: 'Man, he's GOT to be thinking about the Black and Tan...' Trog [Wally Fawkes] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon was published on the 9/2/70 in the Daily Mail, a conservative daily tabloid, middle-market newspaper. This cartoon shows Enoch Powell shouting "foreigner!" at a man. We can assume that the man is Irish as the tag on his suitcase says 'Dublin to London'. The captain refers to the black and tans, the Irish man is saying that Powell must be thinking of the black and Tans if he is shouting "foreigner!". Perhaps this is because in the Irish man's homeland the Black and Tans were foreign not the Irish.There are two black men in the background looking on as Powell shouts at the Irish man. They both look quite shocked, probably because they are not used seeing such things shouted at white people but could have been more used to such remarks being aimed in their direction. The cartoon comes shortly after Powell in no un-certain terms, told a group of protesters at Enniskillen that Irish immigrants should not be treated any differently than any other foreign immigrant wishing to enter Britain. Powell stressed the point that Irish immigrants were trying to gain citizenship in a country in which they had been fighting to gain independence from. Holly Gunapala 21/10/12

52 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: AH0319 Homecoming : sour note from an ungrateful patrial - Arthur Horner : New Statesman(c) The British Cartoon Archive See next slide for accompanying annotation.

53 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: AH annotation This image depicts the new immigration act of 1971 in Britain. This act was enforced to control immigration, although the act had clearly favoured white commonwealth immigrants. This can be seen in the introduction to the “right of abode”. This introduction had lifted all restriction on white immigrants through ancestral or direct link with Britain. The act had caused many reefs among immigrant communities. In the picture it shows to politicians, one being Enoch Powell (in the window) and Reginald Maudling (as the officer). Enoch Powell was a member of the conservative party. In 1968 he had made a controversial speech on immigration, slating the immigration policy at the time. In his speech he had wanted the government to stop immigration and send the people that were already being living there back to their countries. He had also believed that the Race relation act would be like “throwing a match to a gunpowder”. Reginald Maudling was home secretary who had announced the Immigration Bill. In a BBC interview, when asked if this was an undercover colour bar, he had replied "Certainly not. Of course they are more likely to be white because we have on the whole more whites than coloureds in this country, but there is no colour bar involved." This picture clearly shows these issues of this time. The image was published in the New Statesman, which was a left-wing newspaper. Shauna Lennon 21/10/12

54 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: MC1027 No caption Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive

55 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "Just thought you'd like to know, Bwana - it's forty-seven thousand and three now!" Bernard Cookson : Evening News(c) The British Cartoon Archive The image shows Enoch Powell, who was a politician and a member of the conservative party. Powell had predicted that immigration would rise in England. In 1970, the immigration birth rate had reached 47,000. This had asserted Powell prediction. The following year a new immigration act had being enforced which tried to control immigrant coming into the country. In the image we can see that Powell is looking at the man in disgust. Powell, in 1968, had made a speech on immigration posting his view on how immigration should be dealt with. This speech was very controversial because Powell wanted to rid all immigrants from the country and deny them access. Shauna Lennon 21/10/12

56 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC5100 No caption Dave Gaskill : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive This picture shows a doctor asking a patient who seems to be very sick (as you can see with all the medical equipment around him) to leave the hospital because his room will be given to a refugee. The newspaper next to the bed relates the fact that three disused wards were re-opened to house illegal Romanian immigrants who have been fed, clothed and kept warm. This event provoked strong reactions. The cartoon exaggerates the situation because no patient were excluded to leave the rooms to the refugees. The cartoonist wants to denounce the fact that these refugees take advantage of Britain, he wants to show that British people shouldn't accept this. Alexis Vin, 21/10/2012

57 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: "My father was a Congolese head-hunter who married an Indo-Austrlian missionary domiciled in Uganda,... Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive See next slide for accompanying annotation.

58 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: annotation In 1972, the government had restricted access to England due to the massive increase of immigrants. There was a sum of 83,000 immigrants that settled in the UK from 1968 to 1975 from the Commonwealth. In 1972, it had showed the most significant increase in immigration to date. This was due to General Idi Amin expelling 80,000 African Asians from the country. These exiles had all acquired British passport through the commonwealth giving them access to the country. This image shows the issue that the English government had on defining an English citizen. With immigration increasing in England, the government had to determine what an English citizen was and who fitted under this title. Since the commonwealth counties fell under British rules, they had the concern of who will be entitled to live in Britain. It was a sensitive issue because if the allowed one country and not another there would be conflict among them. This picture displays the issue of multi-ethnic groups that don’t fall into any particular race or country. On each gate is written certain groups in which people can go into, but the policeman is confused on which this man belongs to. The Daily Express is considered a conservative newspaper. Shauna Lennon 21/10/12

59 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: PC5222 "Oh no, Albanian asylum seekers!" Patrick Blower : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive Thousands of Albanians were smuggled into Britain in this particular period. There was an upsurge in assylum applicants. Most Albanians were travelling for the UK and traffickers were hiding them in trucks departing for the UK from Belgian ports. The UK wanted to speed up and change its assylum system due to this. If the applications were rejected they were removed from the country within seven days. The cartoon is trying to cleverly portray the UK's stringent policies when that year Jack Straw emphasised through the media and issued a warning to future illegal immigrants, 'Do you think you will get through.' He was also looking for a European solution and was preparing to sign up to the European Task Force on imigration and assylum which was the first step to common law in the EU. This is a witty cartoon elucidating that the state will find illegal immigrants no matter were they are hiding, even in outer space as the cartoon intelligently conveys. Fergus Maguire

60 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: VY2814 No caption Vicky [Victor Weisz] : New Statesman(c) The British Cartoon Archive This add was published in 1965 by the magazine the New Statemen. This magazine has always been associated with the Left in British politics and was founded by members of the Fabian Society. In this cartoon we see how both the conservatives and Labour by 1965 had begun to put in place stricter rules on immigration. We see a Jamaican family attempting to enter Britain but are stopped by the new immigrants controls that both major political parties now supported. This cartoon was published in a response to the Labour Prime Minister suggestion that immigration control would be implemented. In 1968 the Labour Government put through the Commonwealth immigration act. Matthew O’Reilly 21/10/2012

61 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: No caption Steve Fricker : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon appeared in the Daily Telegraph, which is a strong right wing and conservative newspaper. Following the events of September 11th 2001 in the USA the public in many countries were put on high alert concerning the possibility of further attacks from Islamic Terrorists. At this point the War in Afghanistan was already taken place and the Iraq invasion would begin three months after this cartoon. In this cartoon we see immigrant from Algeria and Iraq sneaking into Britain. We see many of them armed with explosives and guns which suggest that they are sneaking into the country in the hope of committing a terrorist attack on Britain. It is critical of the Labour governments not putting in place stricter rules on people seeking asylum in Britain. Matthew O’Reilly 21/10/2012

62 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: CU0992 No caption Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive This Cartoon ws published in the Daily Express and drawn by Michael Cummings March The Daily express at this time was a strong supporter of the Tory party and this is evident from this cartoon. We see the American president, Lyndon B Johnson, having serious trouble in appeasing the black community in America, with the black activist, Malcolm X, having a strangle hold on the President. In Britain we see an MP who supports immigration into Britain, watering a small plant representing the black populaution. The cartoon is suggesting that this small population of black people, with the continued support of some MP’s, will evantually grow to strangle the white population like it is doing in America. The Labour government had only taken over power the previous March, and had began to agree with the conservitives on the issue of immigration. Later in 1965 the Government passed the Race Relation Act, which was the first type of legislation that addressed the issue of discrimination. Matthew O’Reilly 21/10/2012

63 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: Blood sports... Ben Jennings : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive

64 This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: MC1019 "Begorrah - can't have you fearful English living with us... and mind you do nothing to prevent us f... Michael Cummings : Sunday Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive Britain had been closing its doors to immigration for quite some time. With the withdrawal of naturalisation for most of its former colonies and the reduction on the amount of work permits available for foreign labour. It was a sign of the times. Yet immigration from Ireland steadily increased. The massive public works projects that were being undertaken at the time brought in a huge number of people seeking work from Ireland. This cartoon I think reflects a certain level of British bemusement over the mass waves of Irish immigrants. On the one hand they had assertions of Irish independence and their differences from the Britain but at the same time they have waves of Irish economic migrants. The British were a little confused by this and this is shown within the cartoon.


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