Presentation on theme: "Antihypertensives By: Carolyne Barnes 5/6/09. Facts! Antihypertensives are medications used to treat high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a sign."— Presentation transcript:
Facts! Antihypertensives are medications used to treat high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a sign that the heart and blood vessels are being overworked. Antihypertensives lower blood pressure by opening and widening the blood vessels, preventing the blood vessels from closing and tightening, or reducing the workload of the heart. If left untreated, the disease can lead to atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure. Heart disease contributes to 75% of all heart attacks and strokes. Whether or not medication is required to control hypertension, patients may be advised to make lifestyle modifications to help control their condition.
More Facts! Hypertensives are also known as: High Blood Pressure Medications Hypertension Medications Antihypertensive Drugs Blood Pressure Medications
Medical Conditions! Antihypertensives are medications used primarily to treat high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. They are often prescribed for diabetic patients. About 60 percent of people with diabetes also have high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major contributor to the development of the kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, atherosclerosis heart conditions, stroke and eye diseases. Although some patients do not need to take medication to control their high blood pressure, anyone who is prescribed medication needs to take it exactly as prescribed to avoid the serious medical problems associated with the condition.
Medication Examples! ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors)- Block the production of angiotensin II that causes blood vessels to tighten. Preventing this constriction allows more blood to flow into the heart and lowers blood pressure. Brand name- Lisinopril Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs)- Instead of preventing the production of angiotensin II, they inhibit the action of this substance by blocking it from entering angiotensin II receptors in the body. Brand name- Ratacand Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)- Reduce the workload of the heart by blocking calcium ions from signaling the blood vessels to constrict or tighten. Brand name- Procardia Central adrenergic inhibitors- Act directly on the brain to prevent it from signaling the central nervous system to increase heart rate or narrow blood vessels. Brand name- Captopril Renin inhibitors- Help blood vessels relax and widen by reducing the effect of renin, an enzyme made in the kidneys. Brand name- Rasilez
Benefits and Risks! !Benefits! The chance of getting high blood pressure which leads to kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, atherosclerosis heart conditions, stroke and eye diseases is decreased. !Risks! The chance of getting high blood pressure and all other diseases are increased.
Side Effects! Allergic reaction Low blood pressure Palpitations Dizziness or lightheadedness Fainting Headache Increased sensitivity to sunlight causing severe sunburn or rash Drowsiness, weakness or fatigue Unusual bleeding Back or joint pain Abdominal discomfort, nausea, diarrhea Unusual skin appearance Shallow, dry cough Swelling in the legs Depression Constipation
Interactions! Patients should consult their physician before taking any other medication, nutritional supplements or herbal remedies. Substances that can intensify the effects of antihypertensives and possibly lead to low blood pressure include: Other antihypertensives Nitrates- Medications that relax the arterial walls, causing a drop in blood pressure. Nicotinic acid- A form of vitamin B3 used as a cholesterol- reducing drug. Medications for sexual dysfunction. Alcohol. Grapefruit juice- Grapefruit juice interferes with the liver’s ability to rid the body of some substance.
Five “Rights” of Medication Administration! Right time Right patient Right dosage Right drug Right route of administration And a sixth has been added!!! Right documentation
Dosages! Your doctor will prescribe your dosage. Overdosing could lead to serious health issues, even death. Dosages vary from patient to patient.