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Chapter 18 Section 1 Origins of the Cold War. Former Allies Crash Problems building between the US and SU before and during WWII Economic and political.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Section 1 Origins of the Cold War. Former Allies Crash Problems building between the US and SU before and during WWII Economic and political."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Section 1 Origins of the Cold War

2 Former Allies Crash Problems building between the US and SU before and during WWII Economic and political systems incompatible Resentments had built up over previous events

3 Former Allies Crash Soviet Communism: –State controlled all property –All economic activity –Totalitarian Communist Party allowed no opposition party –Resented the US for not recognizing communist govmt for 16 years

4 Former Allies Crash The United States: –Capitalist system –Private citizens controlled almost all property and economic activity –Elect politicians from competing political parties-unlimited number of political parties

5 Former Allies Crash US furious at Stalin- Signed nonaggression pact with Hitler in 1939 Stalin angry with the US for not opening a second front in Europe until 1944 Stalin also angry that we kept the development of the atomic bomb a secret

6 Truman Becomes President Key American figure in early part of the Cold War Became President when FDR died 82 days as Vice President-met with FDR only twice

7 Truman Becomes President FDR left Truman uninformed on military matters Truman knew nothing about the development of the atomic bomb

8 Truman Becomes President With the war ending Truman would have to 1.Make difficult military decisions 2.Deal with world leaders of greater experience 1.Churchill 2.Stalin

9 Potsdam Conference Truman’s 1 st meeting with other major world leaders-Potsdam, July 1945 By this time, the Soviets had broken their promise for free elections in Poland

10 Potsdam Conference Not only did the Soviets not allow free elections in Poland, but they banned democratic parties The was a violation of Poland’s rights according to Truman

11 Potsdam Conference Truman pushed for free elections-Stalin refused With the Soviet army occupying Eastern Europe, the West could do little

12 Tension Mounts Refusal to allow free elections convinced Truman that American and Soviet goals were at odds Truman feared giving Stalin too much land and reparations –Soviets wanted all of German stripped of industry

13 Tension Mounts Americans and British opposed Soviet demands Agreed that each occupying nation could collect reparations from the German zone it occupied

14 Tension Mounts At odds over Eastern Europe US wanted Eastern Europe to stay open to trade US wanted to be able to sell their goods to Eastern European Nations

15 Soviets Tighten Grips on Eastern Europe Soviets felt justified to stay in Eastern Europe Lost more than 20 million in WWII and felt vulnerable to attack from the west Needed friendly neighbors

16 Soviets Tighten Grips on Eastern Europe Stalin propped up communist governments in Eastern European nations The Satellite Nations- were countries dependent upon and dominated by the Soviet Union

17 Soviets Tighten Grips on Eastern Europe Stalin seized the industry of these nations to rebuild the Soviet Union 1946- Stalin announces that communism and capitalism are incompatible –Stated that war was inevitable –US say this as a declaration of war

18 United States Establishes a Policy of Containment US institutes a policy of Containment towards the Soviet Union –An effort to block the Soviets’ attempts to spread their influence

19 United States Establishes a Policy of Containment Containment Policy worked by: –Creating alliances –Supporting weaker nations This policy guided the Truman administration’s foreign policy

20 United States Establishes a Policy of Containment March 1946 Churchill gives his “Iron Curtain” speech Stalin stated that Churchill’s words were a “call to war”

21 Cold War in Europe Conflicting US and Soviet aims in Eastern Europe led to the Cold War –State of hostility short of direct military confrontation between the 2 superpowers until the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991

22 Cold War in Europe During the Cold War, the US and Soviet Union tried to spread their economic and political influence wherever they could –Eventually spread to Asia, Africa, and Latin America

23 The Truman Doctrine US 1 st tried to contain communism in Greece and Turkey Britain was helping to prevent a communist takeover-but could no longer afford it Asked the US to take over the responsibility

24 The Truman Doctrine US spent $400 million to help Greece and Turkey Truman Doctrine- The US should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by “armed minorities” or “outside pressures”

25 Marshall Plan After WWII, Europe was in economic chaos Many homeless with no jobs and no where to go Governments had to figure out where to out these people

26 Marshall Plan 1946-47-harsh winter Food shortages Fuel shortages British could only use electricity a few hours a day British rations lower than during the war

27 Marshall Plan June 1947 US Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the US help US would send aid to all European Nations that needed it Known as the Marshall Plan

28 Marshall Plan Congress debated plan for several months Then… February 1948 Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia –Took over the country

29 Marshall Plan Invasions showed the need for congress to move quickly and help create strong, stable governments in Europe –To resist communism –Congress quickly approved Marshall Plan

30 Marshall Plan The Plan was a success By 1952 Western Europe was flourishing Communist parties lost their appeal to voters

31 Superpowers Struggle Over Germany Europe starts to get back on its feet Western allies and Soviets arguing over German reunification Soviets want Germany weak and divided West wants stable productive Germany

32 Berlin Airlift 1948-Western Zones combine into 1 nation Soviets respond by holding Berlin Hostage Berlin divided into 4 zones as well Lays deep in Soviet Zone

33 Berlin Airlift Soviets cut off all access to Berlin No supplies could get in City faced starvation unless Western nations would surrender Berlin

34 Berlin Airlift Americans and British started the Berlin Airlift-fly food and supplies to West Berlin Lasted 327 days- planes landed and took off every few minutes

35 Berlin Airlift 277,000 flights made delivering 2.3 million tons of supplies West Berlin survived American prestige grew in the world Soviet prestige dropped May 1949 Soviets lift blockade

36 Berlin Airlift May 1949 West Germany becomes known as the Federal Republic of Germany with its capital at Bonn East Germany becomes German Democratic Republic with its capital in East Berlin

37 NATO Blockade increased fear of Soviet aggression In response, 10 western European nations, the US and Canada formed a defensive military alliance-NATO

38 NATO NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization An attack on one regarded as an attack on all First time the US entered a military alliance in peacetime

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