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The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters.

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Presentation on theme: "The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters."— Presentation transcript:

1 The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters

2 World Urgently Needs Sanitation of Rural Waters Waterborne epidemics start in rural areas More and more contamination of water sources Growing population..Growing Industries..Growing Agriculture = LESS DRINKING WATER Better to prevent epidemics than to combat them FACTS

3 UNSAFE DRINKING WATER is the MAIN Problem the world face today

4 For people who live in developed countries, safe drinking water is as close as the nearest tap

5 HOWEVER, MANY PEOPLE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE NOT SO FORTUNATE

6 People hauls and drinks water from contaminated rivers, rain ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers =

7 World Facts 5 million people die each year from diseases transmitted through contaminated water5 million people die each year from diseases transmitted through contaminated water 50% of all hospitalizations in developing countries are from waterborne diseases50% of all hospitalizations in developing countries are from waterborne diseases 80% of all illnesses in the developing world result from waterborne diseases80% of all illnesses in the developing world result from waterborne diseases At any one time about 1 billion people are suffering from waterborne diseasesAt any one time about 1 billion people are suffering from waterborne diseases

8 WATER is the MOST important need we have in life Emergencies are more and more frequent Aid MUST go first to the basic = WATER Not just provide water but SAFE drinking water Diarrhea endemic in many countries Cholera and hepatitis at the turn of the corner Improving the water quality improves quality of life, and generate savings to the country

9 World Rural Areas Reality World Rural Areas Reality School children with parasites and diarrhea…how can they learn being chronically ill? Drop of productivity Other social programs prone to fail do to unsafe water Large government cost to cure waterborne diseases Poor quality of life

10 WHO’s Statistic “Acute diarrhea with dehydration is the leading cause of death in children under 5” CAUSED BY UNSAFE DRINKING WATER

11 Common Water Disinfectants Oxone Bromine UV Solar Boiling Filtering CHLORINE

12 Application in Rural Areas Oxone…………...N/A Bromine ………..N/A UV…………………N/A Solar……………. Very Limited Boiling……..……It works..but damages the environment killing trees Filtering………... Does not disinfects. Only works for dissolved and suspended solids CHLORINE…..the most used in history

13 Chlorine Proven benefits Excellent residuals Effective killer of micro-organisms

14 Different Forms of Chlorine Chlorine gas Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH) Commercial Sodium Hypochlorite Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On-site

15 Chlorine Gas Extremely Dangerous High Dependency from Manufactures High Dependency on Transportation Unstable Pricing Unsure Logistic Constant Replacement of Equipment Poor Alternative for Small Aqueducts Impossible for household-based point of use

16 Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH) The MOST EXPENSIVE form of chlorine Few manufacturers in the world Total dependency from intermediaries Unstable, Dangerous Expensive Inventories Unfriendly Dosing Controlled Airlines Transportation

17 Commercial Sod. Hypo Expensive inventories Dangerous to the environment and Operator Unstable Dependency from others Imported Item in most countries Requires large storage tanks

18 Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On- Site Generated from common salt and electricity Low concentration..not dangerous, fresh, stable Easy and friendly to dose Excellent residuals Inexpensive Proven in thousands installations Rapidly accepted by the communities Specially Designed for Small Communities

19 History Originates in New York en 1893 (Wool Process) Used in 1st World War to cure open wounds (Carrel Dankin Solution.) Used by YMCA in 1930 as pool disinfectant Not economic compared to gas chlorine Development of DSA in the 70’ made it economic

20 On-Site Technology Anodes coated with precious metal oxides (DSA) Iridium – Platinum - Rhodium Cathodes made out of Titanium H 2 O + NaCl + e -  NaOCl + H 2 Minimum electrodes life 5 years Operation and maintenance extremely easy

21 Parameters Considered in design Lack or deficient electricity Tropical heat and humidity Poor preparation of operators Easy to operate and maintain Strong, manageable, durable Inexpensive

22 AQUACHLOR Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On –Site AQUACHLOR Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On –Site Easy to use and maintain. Designed for harsh tropical conditions Reliable Not hazardous to the operator Most economic way to obtain chlorine. Generates Sustainable Projects

23 Perspective Salt is inexpensive and abundant SALT + SOLAR ENERGY + WATER = HEALTH 2 lbs of salt can sanitize 160,000 lit of water and reach more than 5,000 people

24 COST $ LESS THAN US$ 3 CAN SANITIZE THE WATER CONSUMED BY MORE THAN 10,000 PEOPLE

25 SUSTAINABILITY Generate more chlorine than needed for water sanitation. Bottle it and sell the excess to the community to generate funds for buying more salt…..

26 The Center for Disease Control (CDC) along with CARE, Pan American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World Please visit the following website to access it WWW.CDC.ORG/SAFEWATER/

27 AQUACHLOR NaOCl On-Site Technology Anodes & Cathodes made out of Titanium Anodes coated with special metal oxides (DSA) Electrolytic-grade copper cables H 2 O + NaCl + e -  NaOCl + H 2 Minimum electrodes life 6 years at 24 hours/day

28 DESIGN PARAMETERS DESIGN PARAMETERS Lack or deficient electricity Tropical heat and humidity Poor preparation of operators Easy to operate and maintain Strong, manageable, durable Inexpensive Simple look..Not complicated

29 Raw Materials 2.8 lbs salt 2.5 KWh 15 Gallons of water Generate 1 lb of equivalent chlorine good to disinfect 227,000 lit of water AT 2 PPM

30 Various Models for Different Population Sizes

31 WATER SANITATION CAPACITIES WATER SANITATION CAPACITIES AC5 Solar - 6 sun/hrs - 30,000 lit at 1ppm AC25 Solar - 6 sun/hrs - 105,000 lit at 1ppm AC50 - 20 hrs - 1 million lit at 1 ppm AC100 - 20 hrs - 2 million lit at 1 ppm AC200 - 20 hrs - 4 million lit at 1 ppm

32 Solar Systems

33

34 (A/C) Systems

35 Dosing to disinfect water For 1 ppm: 1 to 6000 or 4 drops per lit For 2 ppm: 1 to 3000 or 7 drops per liter Best to measure residual at different times of year Methods: Gravity, Pumps (AC or DC)

36 Dosing to Disinfecting Water For 1 ppm: 1 to 6000 or 4 drops per lit For 2 ppm: 1 to 3000 or 7 drops per liter

37 Installation Room Place P/S higher than reactor tank on a shelve Place a division between P/S and reactor tank Cross Ventilation to evacuate gases Air direction from P/S  Tank Good Illumination Protect salt from humidity Avoid metals in room – they will rust

38 Electrical Installation Use a voltage stabilizer if necessary Tighten the electrode terminals to P.S. with wrench (not by hand) Never open the P/S “high voltage” Do not overload circuit with other loads Always use 3-wire plugs for grounding

39 Brine Preparation Chose your formula and stick with it Pre-mark salt volume in recipient Pre-mark water level in reactor tank Pre-dissolve salt ahead of time Make satured brine (30%) and mix 1 to 10 Better to have 2 reactors –One in use other in process

40 Brine Preparation Strain water in a cloth if too dirty with debris or insects. Wait until salt is totally dissolved If salt is from seawater evaporation use 10% more than the indicated in formula to compensate for minerals other than ClNa Use a lid with hole in the center for electrode alignment

41 Proper Brine Level

42 Process Introduce electrode with Power Supply off Turn on P/S using timer switch Do not remove electrode with P/S on Do not use electrode as agitating paddle

43 End of Process When Power Supply stops – The solution is ready to use as SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE at a concentration 0.6 % to 0.7 % (6000 to 7000 ppm)

44 Maintenance Pour white vinegar into recipient Rinse electrode with water Every 1-2 weeks place electrode into vinegar for 30 minutes Rinse electrode with water Electrode ready for another reaction Can use hydrochloric acid at 5% Never stronger Keep electrode in vinegar while not in use Clean P/S with a dry cloth

45 Maintenance Precautions  Power to the generating electrode must be off while the electrode is in the cleaning solution. Rinse the generating electrode thoroughly with water after removal from the storage container and prior to immersion in the electrolysis tank. - Never combine the cleaning solution with the sodium hypochlorite solution.

46 Proper Acid Level

47

48 Operating Precautions Do not smoke or have open flames close to the equipment. Avoid contact of the solution with eyes or skin. Avoid the solution contacting clothes. Do not activate the transformer until the electrode is properly immersed in the brine solution. Do not remove the electrode from the brine tank until the transformer has been deactivated.

49 Installation Precautions Place the power supply away from the vapors that escape from the process container (opposite direction of the predominant wind.) Observe the necessary precautions with the electrical equipment. This system operates on 220 v and 50 Hz. Make sure the available electrical supply conforms to the requirements of the transformer

50 - Make sure the generating cell is properly connected. Reversing the polarity of the cell will permanently damage the electrode. - Locate the power supply away from the possibility of liquid spills. - Hydrogen and chlorine gas are byproducts of hypochlorite generation. Install the system in a well-ventilated area, preferably with crossed ventilation for proper evacuation of hydrogen. - Tighten the nuts/screws that connect the electrode to the power supply snugly with the proper tool. Installation Precautions

51 Tighten Nuts Do not Reverse the polarity

52 Operating Precautions Do not operate the electrode longer than recommended. Doing so is wasteful and will eventually decrease the concentration of chlorine in the solution. The water used for the brine solution should be free of visible particles and solids. If necessary, this water should be strained with a coarse-cloth filter.

53 Maintenance ONLY THE INMERSION OF ELECTRODE IN WHITE VINEGAR FOR 30 MINUTES ONCE A WEEK

54 Family Non-Contamination Water Storage/Supply Container

55 APPLICATIONS OF GENERATED CHLORINE Water Sanitation In Remote Areas Disinfecting Vegetables And Fruits Disinfecting Latrines General House Cleaning Laundry In Health Centers Water Treatment In Disasters

56 AQUACHLOR It is SIMPLE It is EASY TO USE It is EASY TO MAINTAIN It is PROVEN in 47 countries by prime org’s. It is INEXPENSIVE It is DURABLE

57 Users Health Ministries of: Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Jamaica Ecuador Costa Rica Panama Peru Bolivia Haiti 10 Caribbean Islands

58 More than 2000 units installed in: 47 countries providing more than 500 million lit. of Safe Drinking Water every day Mexico - Guatemala - Honduras - El Salvador - Nicaragua - Costa Rica - Panama – Belize – St. Thomas - Mexico - Colombia - Ecuador- Peru - Bolivia - Venezuela - Antigua –Jamaica – Dom. Republic - Martinique – Dominique – Barbados - Haiti - St. Kitts - Angola - Madagascar - Zambia - Laos – Afghanistan – Viet Nam – Guinea – Nigeria – Antigua - Burkina Faso – St. Vincent...

59 Economic Analysis CaOCl vs on-site NaOCl AQUACHLOR Aqueduct Q = 2,000,000 lit/day; 2 ppm CL 2 dose DATA: - Q = 2,000,000 lit/day - Chlorine dose = 2 ppm - Daily use of Cl 2 = 4 kg - Annual use of CaOCl at 100% = 1,460 kg - Cost of 145 kg-drum of CaOCl at 67% = US$150.00 - Cost per kg = US$ 3.33 at 67% - Cost per kg at 100% = $3.33÷ 0.67 = $4.98 - Cost of salt = $0.10/kg - Cost of electricity = $0.21/kwh - Cost CIF = $4,500 - Depreciation = 10 years - In order to generate 1 kg of equivalent chlorine at 100% it is required: 5.5 kwh Electricity 6.2 kg Salt Annual cost of CaOCl = 1,460 kg x 4.98 ……. $ 7,270.80 Costs for on-site chlorine generation: 1,460 x 5.5 x 0.21 (electricity)……………...……. $1,686.30 1,460 x 6.2 x 0.10 (salt)………………….….…….$ 905.20 Total materials …………………………….......… $2,591.50 Depreciation 10 years: 4,500 ÷ 10 …………….....$ 450.00 Total Annual Cost On-site Generation.…,,.…. $ 3,041.50 Annual Savings: $7,270.80 – $3,041.50 = $4,229.30 Payback: 4,500 ÷ 4,229.30 = 1.1 years

60 Manufactured by Equipment & Systems Eng., Inc. 14260 S.W. 136 St. No. 4 Miami, FL – U.S.A. 33186 E-mail: jotoma1@earthlink.net jotoma1@earthlink.net Web page: WWW.EQUIPMENTANDSYSTEMS.COM Tel (305) 378-4101 Fax (305) 378-4121


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