Presentation on theme: "FARM MECHANICS BY Engr. I.A. Ola. Course outline : (2 Units) Selection,Operation, sharpening, care and uses of shop tools and equipment. Wood working,"— Presentation transcript:
FARM MECHANICS BY Engr. I.A. Ola
Course outline : (2 Units) Selection,Operation, sharpening, care and uses of shop tools and equipment. Wood working, Concrete and masonry, Iron working, Blacksmithing, Welding, Cutting and brazing. Glazing and sheet metal work. Repair and maintenance of tractors and machinery. Building of equipment of equipment adaptable to form shop construction. Fabrication, maintenance, repair of farm field processing machines.
SELECTION OF TOOLS CRITERIA FOR SELECTING SHOP TOOLS To select tools (hand tools or powered tools) the following points must be considered: Job or the task to be performed Tools and machine required Strength of materials Size of job Shape and specification (tolerance) Capacity of machine and tools Quality (Surface finishing and ecstatic value)
OPERATION OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT HAMMER 1). HARD SURFACE HAMMER i) Cross and straight hammer : To beat sheet metals into shapes. ii) Claw hammer: to remove or drive in nails into objects. iii) Small ball peen hammer used for light jobs: for shaping thinner section of sheets metals.
iv) Sledge hammer : For heavy duty job requiring more striking force. v) Mallet soft surface hammer: for striking objects with delicates surface or parts must not be destroyed. The appropriate size and type must be used for the right job. Since: F = ma ……………………………………(1) where F = the striking force applied to the hammer edge via the handle
F = mg Fig. 1.1 Mallet HANDLE SURFACE MADE OF RUBBER
SPANNER Spanners are used to tighten or loosening of bolts and nuts are made of cast steels (vanadium or chromium steels). Are in different categories and make. Box spanners Rings Suckets Wrenches
A bench vice is secured on the work bench to grip work piece while it is worked on. BENCH VICE
Center punch: to mark out center point on metals where holes will be drilled. Types ; Prick punch Center punch Hollow punch Care; keep in appropriate storage place after use, blunt edge must be sharpened using the grinder avoid throwing tool on the floor of the workshop etc. Chisel: for cutting sheet metals up to 3mm in thickness. Thicker section requires the use of guillotine machine. Cutting edge is sharpened with the use of hand grinder. Types; Round nose Cape Diamond Flat Side
PLIERS To grip objects and in various types such as: Combination slip joint Side cutting pliers (cable cutting) Round nose pliers Curve needle nose pliers (to pick pins) Gripping pliers ( for holding objects together during welding operation etc)
FILES Files used for removing small amount of material from metals and are in various categories (shapes or grades of the cutting edge) in terms of shape we have: Round file Semicircle Square Rectangle (flat) Warding Pillar Needle
Grades of files (single or Double-cut) Rough Bastard Second cut Smooth Dead smooth Hack saw ; for cutting of metals Power hack saw: for cutting thicker sections of metal. Plane saw: for cutting of woods SAWS :
DRILL BITS Made of high carbon steels for drilling holes in object can be straight shank or tapered shank drills. Dull cutting edge can be sharpened using the grinder. Function of drift and drilling sleeve for tapered drill bits. Use of coolant in drilling operation
Tapered shank drill shank Cutting edge
Other tools and power tools Tap and die Counter sunk Reamers Scrapers Snips anvil Grinder Hand drill Lathe tools;(turning tools, chamfering tools, boring tools,parting tools, facing tools and thread cutting tools
Wood working, Concrete and masonry, Iron working, Blacksmithing, Welding, Cutting and brazing. Wood working Soft Hardwood Economic value of timber (i) Cheap (ii) Availability (iii) Easy to work on (iv) Light to transport (v) High salvage value (vi) Non conductor of heat and electicity
Wood classification: Exogenous trees Endogenous trees Seasoning of Timber This is the process of drying timber or removing moisture or sap present in freshly felled trees under controlled conditions. (i) Artificial seasoning or kiln seasoning (ii) Natural seasoning or air seasoning Defects of Timber Defects occurring during growth of a tree. Defects occurring after felling of a tree.
Preservation of Timber; Chemical preservatives are used Tar oils Water soluble chemical salts Organic solvent chemicals Method of application of preservatives; Brush and spraying method Dipping or soaking method for 7days(steeping process) to attain chemical penetration of 3mm to 6mm. Pressure treatment( preservatives is injected to the timber by pressure in a airtight steel containers called autoclave Adhesives used in Carpentry Animal glue Resin glue
Vegetable glue Casein glue Blood albumen glue Gum arabic Contact cement Additional materials used in carpentry and joinery Nails Screws Bolt and nuts Dowels Carpentry tools Marking out and measuring tools: pencils, pencil compass, trammel points, marking gauge, mortise gauge, cutting gauge, four fold rule, steel tape, straight edge, try-square bevel square, combination set, calipers, dividers, wing compass, spirit level, plumb bob. Cutting tools
Saw( rip, cross cut, panel,bow, jack, tenon and dowel tail) Chisels axe Plaining tools Boring tools Striking tools Holding tools Other tools screw driver pincers rasp and file scraper glass paper Oil stone
Carpentry joints Lap joints T-lap joints Dovetail lap joint Corner- lap joint Cross-lap joint Mitre joint Butt joint Mortise joint
Repair and maintenance of tractors and machinery Identification of component of farm tractor Tractor Engine (Engine block) fuel tank -fuel pump -fuel filters –primary and secondary once in fortnight -fuel pipes Injector pump Nozzles Fan belt -fan blade –sucks in air to cool the radiator -pulley
Water pump (passage for water) Radiator and cap –temporal storage Hose Air cleaner -wet type -filament or filter Lubrication Dip stick Oil (SEA 40) Engine oil sump Passage for oil Engine oil sump pump
clutch -accelerator -left hand lever -clutch plate -clutch disk -gear train Final drive PTO shaft Rear wheels Hydraulic ram Top links and two lower links Draw bar (trailer) Hydraulic output Check chain Universal shaft
DAILY CARE OF TRACTOR Check the Cooling System. Remove the radiator cap and check the level of the coolant If the level is below 5cm firm the neck of the radiator refill the radiators to about 5cm of the radiator neck. Check for leaks about radiator, radiator hoses and hose clamps Remove trash collected on front of radiator screen Check the crankcase oil level Check oil level position- don’t’ check the oil level while the tractors is running. Add oil it needed: it is extremely important that you use a clean container and clean oil if you want the tractors to continue to give good service. Check the Battery Check to see the cables use firmly connected to the terminate Check the electrolyte level of each cell-add distilled water if necessary. Check for corrosion on the battery terminals: clean if necessary. Check the hold down clap, clamp firm it lose.
1. Check the Tyres: Check the tyres for the right pressure recommended by the manufacturers. Check side walls for cuts or breaks Check treads for nails, stones etc. 2. Check fuel level: Add if necessary 3. Check the fuel system Check hose for leaks For diesel fuel system, check for drain cock on: 4. Bottom of fuel tank 5. Bottom of first fitter 6. Top of sediment bowl. Open and drain about 1 pint of fuel to make certain that water and sediment are removed. 7. Lubricant with grease is not daily job but carry it out as regularly as recommended by the manufacturer. 8. Make sure your cloths are free from tears bulging pockets, flayed edges and heavy cutts. Also wear shoes with heels and tight soles. 9. Check miscellaneous items: water for loose nuts bents brachets that need straightening worm parts that need replacing, loose or worn fan belts loose wheel etc. starting a Diesel type engine:
IMPLEMENT MAINTANANCE The tractor driver is responsible for opening implements or machine which he used with or tractor. All implements or machines titled with grease implies regaire grease twice daily or every 5hrs. The oil level in gear boxes of P.T.O or pulley drives replacement or machine should be checked twice daily. All nuts and bolts should be checks for tightens twice daily. All tyre pressure should be checked daily Adjustment of rubber belts or P.T.O drivers implements should be checked daily. The hoses and nozzles of sprayer must be checked frequently when in use for leaks or blockages. The coupling and adjustment of 3 pt linkages 1. Leveling aim 2. Lift aim 3. Check chain 4. Draft control level: soil engaging implement 5. Position control level: for min engagement implement.
Materials used in manufacturing products METALS Ferrous metals Non-ferrous metal WOOD (TIMBER) Soft woods Hard woods PLASTICS Thermosetting plastics Thermo Metals Ferrous metals contain iron as the main constituent. Such metals are pig iron, cast iron, wrought iron, steel e.t.c. -Pig iron (crude form of iron) is used as a raw material for the production of various other ferrous metals (such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel). It is obtained by melting iron ores in a blast furnace at a temperature of 1500C. Non ferrous metals contain metal other than iron as the main constituent e. g aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, brass, tin